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Guide to the Jacobus tenBroek Personal Papers, 1924-1997 (bulk 1938-1978)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Descriptive Summary

Administrative Information

Restrictions

Related Material

Biographical Sketch

Scope and Content Note

Arrangement Statement

Selected Search Terms

Series Description

Subcollection 1: University of California, Berkeley Files 1941-1975, undated, bulk 1941-1975

Subcollection 2: Records of the National Federation of the Blind 1924-1996, undated, bulk 1939-1977

Subcollection 3: Writings 1931-1967, undated, bulk 1944-1967

Subcollection 4: Case Files 1947-1976, undated, bulk 1955-1973

Subcollection 5: Records of the International Federation of the Blind 1954-1984, undated, bulk 1954-1974

Subcollection 6: Personal Files 1936-1970, undated, bulk 1938-1968

Subcollection 7: Hazel tenBroek Personal 1957-1997, undated, bulk 1968-1983

Subcollection 8: Braille Documents undated


Descriptive Summary

Repository: National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute, The Jacobus tenBroek Library: 200 East Wells Street at Jernigan Place, Baltimore, MD, 21230 jtblibrary@nfb.org
Collection No.: C2005.1
Creator: tenBroek, Jacobus, 1911-1968; tenBroek, Hazel, 1911-2005
Title: The Jacobus tenBroek Personal Papers
Inclusive Dates: 1924-1997, undated
Bulk Dates: 1938-1978
Quantity: Approximately 326 linear feet (109 file cabinet drawers, 39 boxes, and 13 Hollinger boxes)
Language and Scripts: Primarily in English, with some correspondence and printed matter in German, French, Spanish, and Arabic, indicated at the folder level. A significant portion of the collection is in Braille based on a system of contractions created by Jacobus tenBroek.
Abstract: Correspondence, manuscripts, publications, teaching materials, research materials, and case files pertaining to the writings, advocacy work, and academic career of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, founder and president of the National Federation of the Blind (NFB), president of the International Federation of the Blind (IFB) and the American Brotherhood for the Blind, member and chairman of the California State Social Welfare Board, legal scholar, university professor, and civil and constitutional rights activist. Also includes correspondence, research materials, and administrative files of Hazel tenBroek, wife and assistant to Jacobus tenBroek, and associate editor of the Braille Monitor.

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Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Researchers wishing to cite this collection should use the following citation:

[Series Title]: The Jacobus tenBroek Personal Papers. Jacobus tenBroek Library, National Federation of the Blind, Jernigan Institute, Baltimore, MD.

Acquisition Information

The majority of the collection was gifted to the National Federation of the Blind by tenBroek’s widow, Mrs. Hazel tenBroek, in April 1998. Oversight of the collection was transferred to the Jacobus tenBroek Library after its establishment in 2004. An additional installment was donated in 2008 by tenBroek’s son, Jacobus (Dutch) tenBroek.

Processing Information

Finding aid prepared by Lou Ann Blake, September 2005-February 2010, and Anna Kresmer, September 2009-February 2010.

Finding aid encoded by Anna Kresmer, March 2010.

With support from The National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), as part of the project Bringing Blind History to Light.

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Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Access to these papers is governed by the rules and regulations of the Jacobus tenBroek Library. Materials containing student coursework and grades are subject to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) restrictions of seventy-five years from the date of creation of the record. Some legal files protected by attorney-client privilege are restricted. Please consult the Archives staff for further information.

User Restrictions

The Jacobus tenBroek Library holds copyright on some, but not all, of the material in our collections. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be directed to the Archives staff. Researchers who obtain permission to publish from the Jacobus tenBroek Library are also responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations who hold copyright.

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Related Material

Related materials providing further information on the National Federation of the Blind and the California Council of the Blind can be found in the following collections at the University of California at Berkeley, Bancroft Library: Aid to the blind in California, 1918-1955: an interview: oral history transcript / 1955 and The California Council for the Blind and other activities of the blind, 1881-1956: oral history transcript / and related material, 1955-1956. Both are additionally available as full text documents at the Internet Archive.

For related materials on tenBroek’s book, Prejudice, War, and the Constitution, consult the following collection at the Hoover Institution Archives at Stanford University: The Preliminary Inventory to the Edward Norton Barnhart Papers, 1942-1959.

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Biographical Sketch

Jacobus tenBroek was born on July 6, 1911, in Alberta, Canada. He was blinded as the result of a childhood accident in the summer of 1918. After the tenBroek family moved from Canada to California in June 1919, Jacobus tenBroek attended the California School for the Blind, where he met teacher and lifelong mentor Dr. Newel Perry, a blind mathematician. Dr. tenBroek received his undergraduate degree in history and master's degree in political science from the University of California at Berkeley in 1934 and 1935, respectively. He earned a law degree in 1938 and the Doctor of Juridical Science Degree in 1940 from Berkeley's law school at Bolt Hall. He attended Harvard Law School as a Brandeis Research Fellow from 1939 to 1940.

After founding the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) in 1940, tenBroek served as its president from 1940 to 1961 and from 1966 until his death on March 27, 1968. He also served as president of the American Brotherhood for the Blind and the International Federation of the Blind. He was a member of the California State Social Welfare Board from 1950 to 1963, and served as its chairman from 1960 to 1963.

In 1942, after working as a tutor and lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School for two years, tenBroek became an instructor in the Speech Department at the University of California, Berkeley. By 1953 tenBroek had been promoted to the position of professor in the Speech Department, and he served as chairman of that department from 1955 to 1961. He transferred to Berkeley's Political Science Department in 1963, where he remained until his death.

During the period 1937 through 1966, tenBroek authored over thirty scholarly articles and books on constitutional law, civil rights issues, and social welfare. His Fourteenth Amendment scholarship in "The Equal Protection of the Laws," coauthored with Joseph Tussman and published in 1949 in the California Law Review, and "The Antislavery Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment," published in 1951, played a role in the Supreme Court's decision to invalidate the separate but equal doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education. His 1966 California Law Review article "The Right to Live in the World: The Disabled in the Law of Torts" stands as a seminal article in the field of American disability law.

Hazel Feldheym tenBroek was born on December 19, 1911, and she married Jacobus tenBroek on April 10, 1937. The tenBroeks had three children. Throughout their married life, Hazel tenBroek assisted her husband as a reader, secretary, and research assistant. Upon Jacobus tenBroek's death, Hazel tenBroek was employed by the NFB as associate editor of the Braille Monitor from 1969 through 1976. Hazel tenBroek died on October 7, 2005.

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Scope and Content Note

The Jacobus tenBroek papers span from 1924 to 1997 and consist primarily of the personal and professional papers of Jacobus tenBroek. Upon tenBroek's death in 1968, his wife, Hazel tenBroek, continued to add materials to the collection The collection includes correspondence, memoranda, meeting minutes, reports, lists, drafts, notes, legislative documents, legal documents, newspaper clippings, telegrams, financial documents, photographs and photographic negatives, pamphlets, manuscripts of published and unpublished writings and speeches, books and journals, diplomas, awards, and miscellaneous Braille documents. A few sound recordings on talking book records and audio tape are also included in the collection.

The major portion of the collection relates to Jacobus tenBroek's work as the founder and president of the National Federation of the Blind (NFB); as a professor and legal scholar at the University of California, Berkeley; as a recognized expert on California's social welfare system; and as president of the International Federation of the Blind (IFB). A smaller portion of the collection consists of tenBroek's personal correspondence with family members, friends, and colleagues (1938-1968). Access to some documents, such as student records and legal case files, may be restricted for privacy and attorney-client privilege reasons.

Materials pertaining to the founding and early history of the National Federation of the Blind span the years 1924 to1996 (bulk 1939-1977) and document the people, issues, and events that marked the beginning and initial period of a national civil rights movement among blind Americans. Included in this subcollection are NFB constitutions, incorporation papers, meeting minutes, convention minutes and resolutions (1940-1982), correspondence (1940-1996), legislative documents (1935-1974), financial documents, fundraising materials, and NFB publications (1942-1993). Also included are documents related to the right to organize movement (1953-1965), the NFB "civil war" (1958-1962), the rehabilitation and employment of the blind, the fight to receive social security benefits, and the affiliation of state and local organizations of blind consumers into the NFB. This subcollection also includes NFB staff correspondence files (1924-1977) for Jacobus tenBroek, Kenneth Jernigan, Russell Kletzing, Perry Sundquist, Raymond Henderson, John Nagle, George Card, and others.

The University of California at Berkeley subcollection (1941-1975, bulk 1941-1975) documents Jacobus tenBroek's tenure as a professor and administrator in the Speech and Political Science Departments through class files (1941-1968), correspondence (1950-1968), and department and committee correspondence and meeting minutes (1945-1969). Dr. tenBroek's role at Berkeley as an advocate for academic freedom and free speech are documented by correspondence, speeches, newspaper clippings, and legal documents related to the Free Speech Movement (1964-1966) and the loyalty oath controversy of the 1950's.

Documents relevant to tenBroek's work as a legal scholar are included in the Writings subcollection (1931-1967, bulk 1944-1967) in the form of correspondence with collaborators, including Howard Jay Graham (1946-1968); draft manuscripts; conference papers; reprints of law review articles; and published articles and books. The text of speeches (1940-1967) given by tenBroek in his capacity as president of the NFB and IFB, member of the California State Social Welfare Board, and university professor are also included in the Writings subcollection.

Dr. tenBroek's interest in the California social welfare system, both as a legal scholar and as a member of the California State Social Welfare Board (SSWB), is reflected by the documents in the California Social Welfare series (1942-1972) of the Personal Files subcollection (1936-1970, bulk 1938-1968). Documents included in this series include state and county agency procedure manuals, opinions issued by the California attorney general, SSWB case files, hearing and court documents, correspondence, newspaper clippings, and state and county agency statistical data and reports. Other materials included in the Personal Files subcollection include tenBroek's research materials (1937-1968), as well as newspaper clippings, telegrams, cards, and letters that the tenBroek family received upon the death of Jacobus tenBroek. Also included is tenBroek's personal correspondence (1938-1968) with family members, including sister Lillian Preston (1942-1964) and son Dutch (1965-1967), friends, and colleagues, including Berkeley professor Charles Aiken (1939-1960) and Harvard Law professor Thomas Reed Powell (1939-1947).

Materials pertaining to the founding and administration of the International Federation of the Blind span 1954 to 1984 (bulk 1954-1974) and consist of the IFB constitution, IFB publications (1964-1974), correspondence (1964-1984), convention materials (1969-1974), mailing lists, executive committee correspondence and meeting minutes, fundraising letters, financial documents, and publications of blind consumer groups from throughout the world. Also included in this subcollection is correspondence with leaders of blind consumer groups affiliated with the IFB, including Dr. Fatima Shah of Pakistan (1967-1968), Horst Geisler of Germany (1967-1968), Rajendra Vyas of India (1967-1968), and Tom Parker of Great Britain (1967-1968).

Upon the death of Jacobus tenBroek in 1968, his wife, Hazel tenBroek, continued to add to the collection until 1997. Materials related to entitlement programs, and the education and rehabilitation of the blind that were similar in nature to those collected by her husband, continued to be made a part of the collection by Mrs. tenBroek. In addition, the Hazel tenBroek subcollection (bulk 1968-1987) includes correspondence (1965-1993), documents related to the activities of the California affiliate of the NFB (1957-1996), and materials regarding access technology (1969-1977). The correspondence series includes Mrs. tenBroek's personal correspondence, NFB correspondence, drafts, notes, and newspaper clippings. Documents included in the California affiliate series include correspondence, convention minutes and resolutions, affiliate constitution and bylaws, materials related to the Blind Californian, meeting minutes of committees and divisions, and legislative documents. The access technology series includes sales promotional materials on access technology such as closed circuit television, a Braille calculator, and the Opticom. Many of the documents included in the Hazel tenBroek subcollection were acquired by Mrs. tenBroek in her role as associate editor of the Braille Monitor.

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Arrangement Statement

The collection is currently housed and arranged in its original forty filing cabinets; however, much of the original order does not appear to be intact. It has been indexed electronically and assigned to series at the folder level. The intellectual arrangement is divided into eight subcollections composed of fifty-four series:
Subcollection 1: University of California, Berkeley Files, 1941-1975, undated, bulk 1941-1968
Series 1: Class Files, 1941-1968, undated
Series 2: Correspondence, 1950-1968, undated
Series 3: Conference on Law of the Poor File, 1965-1967, undated
Series 4: Department and Committee Files, 1945-1969, undated
Series 5: Free Speech Movement File, 1964-1966, undated
Series 6: Japanese Evacuation File, 1953-1962, undated
Series 7: Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1953-1975, undated
Subcollection 2: Records of the National Federation of the Blind, 1924-1996, undated, bulk 1939-1977
Series 1: NFB Core Committees File, 1942-1980, undated
Series 2: NFB Core Documents, 1940-1971, undated
Series 3: Correspondence, 1940-1996, undated
Series 4: NFB Affiliate File, 1945-1988, undated
Series 5: NFB Convention File, 1940-1982, undated
Series 6: NFB Divisions File, 1959-1979, undated
Series 7: Legislation Files, 1935-1974, undated
Series 8: NFB Legal Files, 1938-1981, undated
Series 9: NFB Publications, 1942-1993, undated
Series 10: Other Publications, 1941-1982, undated
Series 11: NFB Staff Files, 1924-1977, undated
Series 12: General Office Files, 1952-1975, undated
Series 13: American Association of Workers for the Blind, 1948-1980, undated
Series 14: American Brotherhood for the Blind, 1939-1974, undated
Series 15: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare File, 1942-1976, undated
Series 16: Education File, 1957-1974, undated
Series 17: Elderly Blind Files, 1950-1977, undated
Series 18: Employment File, 1942-1979, undated
Series 19: Entitlement Programs File, 1941-1968, undated
Series 20: Other Nonprofit Organizations File, 1939-1981, undated
Series 21: World Council for the Welfare of the Blind, 1952-1974, undated
Series 22: Rehabilitation File, 1942-1976, undated
Subcollection 3: Writings, 1939-1968, undated, bulk 1944-1967
Series 1: Law Review Articles, 1939-1968, undated
Series 2: Books, 1941-1964, undated
Series 3: Speeches, 1940-1968, undated
Series 4: Conference Papers, 1964-1967, undated
Subcollection 4: Case Files, 1947-1976, undated, bulk 1955-1973
Subcollection 5: Records of the International Federation of the Blind, 1954-1984, undated, bulk 1954-1974
Series 1: IFB Correspondence, 1964-1984, undated
Series 2: IFB Convention File, 1969-1974, undated
Series 3: IFB Core Documents, 1969-1974, undated
Series 4: IFB Miscellaneous File, 1954-1970, undated
Series 5: IFB Officers and Committees File, 1966-1973, undated
Series 6: IFB Publications, 1964-1974, undated
Subcollection 6: Personal Files, 1936-1970, undated, bulk 1938-1968
Series 1: Correspondence, 1938-1968, undated
Series 2: California Legislation, 1936-1968, undated
Series 3: California Social Welfare Files, 1942-1972, undated
Series 4: Documents Related to Death, 1968-1969, undated
Series 5: Activities Files, 1939-1968, undated
Series 6: Research Materials, 1937-1970, undated
Subcollection 7: Hazel tenBroek Personal, 1957-1997, undated, bulk 1968-1983
Series 1: Access Technology File, 1969-1977, undated
Series 2: Correspondence, 1957, 1965-1993, undated
Series 3: Education of the Blind File, 1955-1981, undated
Series 4: Entitlement Programs File, 1969-1882, undated
Series 5: General Office Files, 1969-1979, undated
Series 6: Legislation File, 1969-1980, undated
Series 7: Miscellaneous Publications, 1969-1997, undated
Series 8: NFB California Affiliate File, 1957-1996, undated
Series 9: Rehabilitation File, 1969-1990, undated
Subcollection 8: Braille Documents, undated
The majority of the collection is physically arranged as received with the following exceptions arranged by series:
Subcollection 1: University of California, Berkeley Files, 1941-1975, undated
Subcollection 5: Records of the International Federation of the Blind, 1954-1984, undated
Subcollection 6: Personal Files, 1936-1970, undated (excluding Series 6: Research Materials, 1937-1970, undated)
Loose correspondence from File Cabinet 31, Drawer 3, have been divided by series and put in temporary housing (9 Hollinger boxes).

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Selected Search Terms

The following catalog entries represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Those seeking related materials should search under these terms.

Archibald, A.A.
Barnhart, Edward Norton
Card, George
Graham, Howard Jay
Grant, Isabelle
Henderson, Raymond
Jernigan, Kenneth
Kletzing, Russell
Nagle, John
Perry, Newel
Sundquist, Perry
Taylor, John
tenBroek, Hazel
tenBroek, Jacobus

American Association of Workers for the Blind
American Brotherhood for the Blind
American Foundation for the Blind
California Council of the Blind
California State Social Welfare Board
International Federation of the Blind
National Federation of the Blind
University of California at Berkeley
World Council for the Welfare of the Blind

Aid to Needy Children
California Social Welfare
Education of the Blind
Elderly Blind
Employment of the Blind
Fourteenth Amendment
Free Speech Movement
Loyalty Oath
Rehabilitation
Right to Organize
Sheltered Workshops
Social Security
Vending Stands

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Series Description

Subcollection 1: University of California, Berkeley Files 1941-1975, undated, bulk 1941-1975 12 boxes, 4 Hollinger boxes

Materials related to tenBroek’s employment as a university professor in the Speech and Political Science Departments. Includes correspondence, printed matter, course materials, drafts, miscellaneous administrative files and materials pertaining to major projects and movements that tenBroek took part in during his professional academic career.
Series 1: Class Files 1941-1968, undated 4 boxes
Course materials, syllabi, exams, student work and grades for speech and political science courses taught by tenBroek. Also includes course materials from tenBroek’s stint as a lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School, 1941-1942.
Materials including student work, exams and grades are restricted by FERPA for seventy-five years after their creation.
Series 2: Correspondence 1950-1968, undated 3 boxes, 1 Hollinger box
Memoranda, departmental releases, printed matter, and general correspondence sent and received by tenBroek in his capacity as a university professor. Also includes correspondence with students concerning their work and with colleagues on university funded or related projects.
Series 3: Conference on Law of the Poor File 1965-1967, undated 1 box, 1 Hollinger box
Correspondence, conference agenda, and drafts of talks given by speakers at the Conference on the Law of the Poor, February, 1966. Correspondence with conference speakers is organized alphabetically by last name. Also contains correspondence concerning publication of the special edition of the California Law Review, May, 1966, as well as a copy of the publication.
Series 4: Department and Committee Files 1945-1969, undated 2 boxes
Correspondence, memoranda and releases issued by or related to departments and committees that tenBroek interacted with, including the Academic Freedom Committee, the Academic Senate and the Privilege and Tenure Committee. Also includes the speech and political science departments which tenBroek was a part of from 1942-1963 and 1963-1968 respectively.
Series 5: Free Speech Movement File 1964-1966, undated 1 box, 1 Hollinger box
Correspondence, memoranda, newsletters, newspaper clippings, court documents and a speech given by tenBroek regarding the Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley and other institutions.
Series 6: Japanese Evacuation File 1953-1962, undated 1 Hollinger box
Correspondence and research materials associated with the proposed continuation of a research project carried out by the university. Some correspondence materials may be associated with tenBroek’s book co-authored with Edward Norton Barnhart and Floyd Matson (also see Subcollection 3, Series 2, Subseries B).
Series 7: Miscellaneous Administrative Files 1953-1975, undated 1 box
Correspondence, memoranda, personnel files, mailing lists, directories and university rules and regulations.

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Subcollection 2: Records of the National Federation of the Blind 1924-1996, undated, bulk 1939-1977

Materials recording the establishment and organization of the National Federation of the Blind from its inception until the mid 20th century. Includes correspondence, memoranda, publications, inaugural and organizational documents, printed matter, photographs, speeches, and staff and administrative records, as well as information on committees, divisions, state affiliates, and major areas of interest to the NFB. Some series encompass materials collected throughout the active use period of the subcollection, while others end with tenBroek’s death. Some of these series were continued by Hazel tenBroek during her ongoing activities as an employee and active member of the NFB (see Subcollection 7: Hazel tenBroek Personal).
Series 1: NFB Core Committees File 1942-1980, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and meeting minutes associated with fundamental administrative committees of the NFB, including the executive committee, the correspondence committee, the budget and finance committee, and the affiliate standards committee.
Series 2: NFB Core Documents 1940-1971, undated
Inaugural and foundational documents of the NFB, including the constitution and various revisions, by-laws, incorporation documents, and non-profit status documents.
Series 3: Correspondence 1940-1996, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, form letters, photographs, sound recordings, brochures and printed matter received and sent by the NFB, arranged by sender, organization, or subject. Includes materials related to the “Right to Organize” legislative movement (1953-1965) and the period of unrest in the NFB administration referred to as the “Civil War” (1958-1961).
Subseries A: Jacobus tenBroek Correspondence 1941-1967, undated
Correspondence sent and received by tenBroek in his capacity as president of the NFB.
Series 4: NFB Affiliate File 1945-1988, undated
State convention resolutions, meeting minutes, publications, correspondence, constitutions and revisions, sound recordings, releases, and memoranda regarding the establishment and organization of NFB state affiliates and local chapters.
Series 5: NFB Convention File 1940-1982, undated
Convention resolutions, speeches, convention minutes, registration lists, President's reports, elections results, newsletters, photographs, and documents related to the location and organization of annual national conventions.
Series 6: NFB Divisions File 1959-1979, undated
Publications, inaugural documents, correspondence, convention materials, and memoranda from NFB divisions within the membership, including students, teachers, lawyers, transcriptionists and secretaries, merchants, vending stand operators, and sheltered shop workers. Also includes materials from the music and computer science divisions.
Series 7: Legislation Files 1935-1974, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, legislative bills, news clippings, testimony and printed materials relating to state and federal legislation affecting the rights of and programs and services for the blind.
Subseries A: State Legislation Files 1943-1970, undated
Correspondence, statutes, legislative bills, and printed matter associated with legislation at the state level.
Subseries B: Right to Organize 1953-1965, undated
Telegrams, memoranda, legislative bills, correspondence, news clippings, testimony and publications centered around the movement to pass the Right to Organize bills in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Includes some correspondence from then Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy, co-sponsor of the Senate bill.
Series 8: NFB Legal Files 1938-1981, undated
Correspondence and court documents relating to court cases concerning the discrimination of the blind, as well as cases in which the NFB was a party. Materials deal with court cases pursued, financed by, or associated with the NFB. Also includes materials on potential cases, which were not taken to court.
Series 9: NFB Publications 1942-1993, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, drafts, releases, newsletters, bulletins, brochures, articles, serials, and printed works.
Subseries A: Braille Monitor 1952-1983, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, notes, drafts, masters, articles, photographs and published volumes of the Braille Monitor, the leading publication of the NFB.
Subseries B: Releases 1942-1993, undated
Bulletins, presidential releases, and circular letters released by the NFB and distributed to the general membership or select portions of it. Generally these documents were related to matters affecting the blind and the NFB, including legislation, employment, and rehabilitation for the blind, as well as developments within the administration of the organization. Also includes a woodblock ink stamp of the capital building with a map of the United States, which was often stamped on this type of document.
Subseries C: Miscellaneous NFB Publications 1951-1983, undated
Drafts, annual reports, brochures, newsletters, and bulletins published by the NFB that were not part of the Braille Monitor. Also contains publications such as Who Are the Blind Who Lead the Blind?, What is the NFB?, and The First Quarter Century: A History of the National Federation of the Blind.
Series 10: Other Publications 1941-1982, undated
Newsletters, bulletins, and printed matter not published by the NFB. Includes materials from both non-profit organizations and government bodies. Some correspondence.
Series 11: NFB Staff Files 1924-1977, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, reports, addresses, speeches, testimony, articles, and creative works produced by NFB officers and staff members both outside and inside their NFB duties.
Series 12: General Office Files 1952-1975, undated
Invoices, time sheets, mail logs, maintenance records, correspondence, financial documents, personnel files, mailing lists, form letters, purchase order books, and payroll records associated with running the NFB headquarters mainly during the time it operated out of tenBroek’s personal residence.
Series 13: American Association of Workers for the Blind 1948-1980, undated
Correspondence, newsletters, and convention materials.
Series 14: American Brotherhood for the Blind 1939-1974, undated
Articles of incorporation, by-laws, minutes, articles, bulletins, annual reports, financial records, correspondence, releases, newsletters, committee reports and office maintenance files. Also contains correspondence and records related to Twin Vision© publishing.
Series 15: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare File 1942-1976, undated
Printed matter dealing with both general welfare and welfare related to blindness, published and released by the federal government.
Series 16: Education File 1957-1974, undated
Correspondence, reports, memoranda and printed matter concerning both schools for the blind and the blind in public schools and universities. Also contains materials related to the White House Conference on Children and Youth, 1960.
Series 17: Elderly Blind Files 1950-1977, undated
Correspondence, reports and printed matter. Also contains materials related to the White House Conference on Aging, 1960-61.
Series 18: Employment File 1942-1979, undated
Correspondence, newsletters, pamphlets, questionnaires, and miscellaneous printed matter concerning employment of the blind in a number of fields, including rehabilitation, teaching and the civil service. Also includes materials related to the President’s Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped, 1954-1961.
Series 19: Entitlement Programs File 1941-1968, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter concerning the use of and availability of federal entitlement programs to the blind, including social security, workers compensation, and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Materials were collected by tenBroek before his death.
Series 20: Other Nonprofit Organizations File 1939-1981, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter from organizations, mainly those of and for the blind, which were not directly associated with the NFB.
Series 21: World Council for the Welfare of the Blind 1952-1974, undated
Correspondence, the constitution, by-laws, resolutions, convention materials, photographs, and releases.
Series 22: Rehabilitation File 1942-1976, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter pertaining to the rehabilitation of the blind through orientation centers, training, sheltered shops, and vending stands. Includes materials from private organizations and government departments at both the federal and state levels. Documents mainly collected before tenBroek’s death.

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Subcollection 3: Writings 1931-1967, undated, bulk 1944-1967

Drafts, notes, correspondence, manuscripts, and published works of writing by Jacobus tenBroek. Also includes correspondence with collaborators and research materials directly associated with a specific work.
Series 1: Law Review Articles 1939-1968, undated
Drafts, notes, correspondence, manuscripts, and law review journals featuring tenBroek’s work.
Series 2: Books 1941-1964, undated
Drafts, notes, correspondence, and manuscripts associated with works authored and co-authored by tenBroek.
Subseries A: Antislavery Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment 1946-1964, undated
Includes correspondence with 14th Amendment scholar Howard Jay Graham.
Subseries B: Prejudice, War, and the Constitution 1931-1962, undated
Includes correspondence with co-authors Edward Norton Barnhart and Floyd Matson.
Series 3: Speeches 1940-1968, undated
Drafts, notes, manuscripts, and publications of addresses and banquet speeches given to the NFB and various state and local organizations of and for the blind. Also includes speeches given in his capacity as member of the SSWB and university professor to organizations of social workers, faculty meetings, etc., that were not related to blindness.
Series 4: Conference Papers 1964-1967, undated
Papers and drafts presented at conferences associated with the law and social welfare.

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Subcollection 4: Case Files 1947-1976, undated, bulk 1955-1973

Correspondence, memoranda, court documents, and transcripts pertaining to court cases related to social welfare, the NFB, the blind community, and discrimination. Some materials restricted by attorney-client privilege.

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Subcollection 5: Records of the International Federation of the Blind 1954-1984, undated, bulk 1954-1974 3 boxes

Materials related to the establishment and organization of the IFB, an international association of organizations of the blind established by the NFB in 1964. Dr. tenBroek co-founded the IFB and served as its first president, 1964-1968. Includes correspondence, inaugural documents, publications, and officer and committee records.
Series 1: IFB Correspondence 1964-1984, undated 1.16 boxes
Form letters, translations, and memoranda. General correspondence files, arranged alphabetically by country of origin, last name of author, and grouped by year in reverse chronological order (most recent first). Also includes materials arranged topically.
Series 2: IFB Convention File 1969-1974, undated 0.16 boxes
Correspondence, reports, agendas, convention resolutions, and articles associated with annual conventions.
Series 3: IFB Core Documents 1969-1974, undated 0.16 boxes
Inaugural documents including various versions of the constitution, preamble, and declaration of purposes.
Series 4: IFB Miscellaneous File 1954-1970, undated 0.16 boxes
Correspondence, annual reports and printed matter concerning IFB events and other national organizations for the blind in Europe, Pakistan, and India.
Series 5: IFB Officers and Committees File 1966-1973, undated 0.16 boxes
Correspondence, committee meeting minutes and officer records. Also includes convention addresses by IFB officers Isabelle Grant and Russell Kletzing.
Series 6: IFB Publications 1964-1974, undated 1.16 boxes
French
Spanish
Brochures, bulletins, newsletters, and publications. Also includes an article written by Isabelle Grant and published by the IFB. Some materials in French and Spanish.

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Subcollection 6: Personal Files 1936-1970, undated, bulk 1938-1968 24 boxes, 1 Hollinger box

Correspondence, printed matter, reports, and research materials related to tenBroek’s activities outside of his teaching duties and his work with the organized blind. Also contains documents related to his personal and family life, as well as materials related to his death.
Series 1: Correspondence 1938-1968, undated 4 boxes
Contains correspondence not specifically related to the other subcollections. Some material is organized alphabetically by author’s last name and/or chronological order. Other material is arranged topically. Includes correspondence with family members, colleagues, publishers, student research assistants, and organizations associated with his research projects. Dr. tenBroek's correspondence with California Governor and Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, California Governor Edmund G. Brown, and Nobel Prize laureate Pearl S. Buck is included in this series. Also contains a letter from future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, dated August 18, 1953, concerning the use of “Antislavery Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment” in Brown v. Board of Education.
Series 2: California Legislation 1936-1968, undated 3 boxes
Assembly bills, committee reports, hearing transcripts, printed matter, and memoranda pertaining to general legislation, social welfare, programs and services for the blind, and civil rights of the blind according to the state government.
Series 3: California Social Welfare Files 1942-1972, undated 12 boxes
Public hearing transcripts, printed matter, correspondence and reports from state and private social welfare organizations. Records deal mainly with the public assistance programs of the California State Department of Social Welfare (SDSW), and the activities of the California State Social Welfare Board (SSWB), on which tenBroek served as member (1950-1963) and chairman (1960-1963).
Subseries A: Aid to Needy Children File 1943-1966, undated
Meeting minutes, publications, reports, and bibliographies pertaining to this program overseen by the SDSW and used by tenBroek in his work on the SSWB.
Series 4: Documents Related to Death 1968-1969, undated 3 boxes
This series contains postcards, telegrams, and sympathy cards and letters received by the tenBroek family upon tenBroek's death. Also includes newspaper articles and newsletters from various organizations announcing tenBroek’s death, the funeral register, copies of speeches given at the memorial service and the California legislature senate resolution honoring tenBroek’s life. Donation letters, mailing lists, and materials relating to the establishment of the University of California tenBroek Memorial Fund are also contained in this series.
Series 5: Activities Files 1939-1968, undated 2 boxes, 1 Hollinger box
The Activities files document tenBroek’s involvement with organizations outside of his work for the blind and his teaching responsibilities. These include the International Congress of Americanists, the American Political Science Association, the American Public Welfare Association, the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, among others. Contains correspondence, memoranda, printed matter, photographs, bank statements, and dossiers. Also includes materials related to tenBroek’s work with the Associated Business Girls of California, the Skinner Foundation, and the Blind Students Fund, as well as course materials from his time as a lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School, 1941-1942.
Series 6: Research Materials 1937-1970, undated
Printed matter, photocopies, notes, drafts, microfilm, materials gathered by student research assistants, and court and legislative documents used as reference material for tenBroek’s projects and writings. Generally organized topically, with some groupings by project.
Subseries A: Aging and the Aged 1960-1967, undated
Printed matter, publications and correspondence concerning the elderly and public assistance. Includes information concerning the federal Old Age Security program.

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tenBroek, Hazel Subcollection 7: Hazel tenBroek Personal 1957-1997, undated, bulk 1968-1983

Materials gathered by Hazel tenBroek mainly after Jacobus tenBroek’s death (1968) on topics related to the blind community and the organized blind movement, especially in California. Also includes personal correspondence, miscellaneous publications, and information on California State legislation.
Series 1: Access Technology File 1969-1977, undated
Correspondence, printed matter, manuals, and administrative files concerning access technology available to the blind community.
Series 2: Correspondence 1965-1993, undated
Letters received and carbons of letters sent, often with attachments, which are both personal and professional in nature. Also includes photographs.
Series 3: Education of the Blind File 1955-1981, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter concerning both schools for the blind and the blind in public schools and universities. Mainly collected after Jacobus tenBroek’s death.
Series 4: Entitlement Programs File 1969-1982, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter concerning the use of and availability of federal entitlement programs for the blind, including social security, workers compensation, and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Collected by Hazel tenBroek after her husband’s death.
Series 5: General Office Files 1969-1979, undated
Receipts, orders, invoices, correspondence, and employee timesheets generated by Hazel tenBroek’s employment with the NFB and the performing functions related to NFB publications from her personal residence after her husband’s death.
Series 6: Legislation File 1969-1980, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, press releases, photographs, and publications concerning legislation at both the state and federal levels. Mainly concerning the legislative affairs of the blind and physically handicapped communities.
Subseries A: California Legislation 1963-1980, undated
Materials pertaining to both general legislation concerns and those affecting the blind community in the state government, collected after Jacobus tenBroek’s death.
Series 7: Miscellaneous Publications 1969-1997, undated
Publications, news clippings, reports, newsletters, and brochures both related and unrelated to the blind in the United States and abroad. Does not include materials published or distributed by the NFB or its state affiliates.
Series 8: NFB California Affiliate File 1957-1996, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, constitutions, organizational documents, convention materials, and publications released by and concerning the California affiliate, NFB of California (also known as the California Council for the Blind, California Council of the Blind, and the NFB Western Division).
Series 9: Rehabilitation File 1969-1990, undated
Correspondence, memoranda, and printed matter pertaining to the rehabilitation of the blind through orientation centers, training, sheltered shops, and vending stands. Includes materials from private organizations and government departments at both the federal and state levels. Materials collected by Hazel tenBroek after her husband’s death.
Subseries A: California Rehab. File 1968-1980, undated
Correspondence, memoranda and printed matter concerning rehabilitation of the blind in California. Includes materials released by the California State Department of Rehabilitation.

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Subcollection 8: Braille Documents undated

Bound and loose Braille documents, the majority of which are unmarked and unidentified.

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