Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

Published monthly in Braille and inkprint and distributed free to the blind by the American Brotherhood for the Blind, Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, President. National headquarters and editorial offices at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley 8, Calif.
Editor: Floyd W. Matson

Executive Secretary: Anthony Mannino, 205 South Western Avenue, Room 206, Los Angeles 4, Calif.






By Louis J. Cantoni and Lucile Cantoni


By J. Herman Moore

By David Brinkley




(Editor's note: The following is a special bulletin released on August 20 by the National Federation of the Blind under the signature of its President, Russell Kletzing.)

Blind Americans, and indeed the blind of the world, were dealt a severe blow--and taught a familiar custodial lesson--by the agencies for the blind comprising the Executive Committee of the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind.

At its August 2-4 meeting in Hanover, Germany, the Executive Committee ratified the earlier unconstitutional and improper action of the WCWB president, the American Foundation for the Blind, and other American agencies in ousting the NFB from its elected on the Executive Committee.

The contested seat had been held by the NFB since 1959 when its delegate was elected to a five year term by the World Assembly in his representative capacity. On a pretext that the seat had been vacated. President Baker, acting in collaboration with the American agencies for the blind, used the device of a postal ballot to assign the seat to an agency representative. (For details of the running controversy, see issues of THE BLIND AMERICAN for May, June, and July, 1962.)

Although the Executive Committee at its Hanover meeting denied official hearing to the NFB delegate, it proceeded to put the issue of the Federation's seat on its regular agenda and to force through without debate a resolution supporting the disputed action of its president.

The pertinent events of the three-day Hanover conference are as follows:

Dr. tenBroek, as the NFB's delegate to the World Council, and hence the occupant of its contested committee seat, journeyed to Hanover July 31 for the express purpose of representing the Federation before the Executive Committee with respect both to its stolen seat and to the existing policy of closed and secret committee meetings. In earlier correspondence (July 8), Dr. tenBroek had formally requested Council President E. A. Baker to place these issues on the Executive Committee's agenda and to grant the NFB the usual right of appearing in its own behalf. Having received no reply from the president. Dr. tenBroek personally sought him out on arrival in Hanover and reiterated the NFB's request. No answer was ever received to this request. In fact, the Executive Committee never did officially hear Dr. tenBroek's presentation.

On the evening of August 2, he was privately informed by others that the Executive Committee would listen to him the next day. However, it was not until mid-morning of August 3 that the World Council's president saw fit to communicate to Dr. tenBroek the fact that he should appear at the meeting place at noon that day. Nor did President Baker even then divulge the precise issue which was to be considered.

Upon arriving at the appointed meeting place, Dr. tenBroek was told that it was not a session of the Executive Committee before which he was appearing but only a group of private individuals who happened to be in the same room at the same time. Dr. tenBroek thereupon protested this irregular procedure and insisted that it in no way complied with the Federation's request to have the issue of its committee seat decided by the Executive Committee. The only response was a statement by the president that all the members were present.

For the next 40 minutes, Dr. tenBroek addressed this "group of private individuals" on the NFB's position regarding the theft of its seat by the unconstitutional and improper action of President Baker in declaring that seat vacant and holding a spurious election in order to transfer it to another delegate representative of agencies for the blind. He spelled out the legal and democratic arguments supporting the claim of our organization to the seat which it has held since 1959. Dr. tenBroek also gave vigorous emphasis to the importance of assuring genuine representation in the world agency's governing body to independent associations of the blind themselves. He concluded with an argument concerning the urgent need on the part of such an ostensibly international group for keeping its meetings open and above-board rather than barred, as at present, against the public and even against other members of the World Council itself.

Following his presentation, although Dr. tenBroek specifically asked for discussion, there was neither rebuttal nor comment on any of the points raised. Dr. tenBroek was thereupon summarily dismissed. To his query whether he might expect a communication indicating the Executive Committee's action or decision on the matter. President Baker replied that such a communication would be forthcoming before the end of the conference.

However, to this day. Dr. tenBroek has received no official notification, although he has been privately informed by other sources that the Executive Committee had indeed taken up the issue of the NFB's seat and had ratified the exclusionary action reported above.

Also present during the conference of the WCWB Executive Committee, in addition to Dr. and Mrs. tenBroek, was the NFB's informal "ambassador at large". Dr. Isabelle L. D. Grant, who was in Hanover to attend the International Conference on the Education of Blind Children.

Three principal impressions emerged from personal contacts and associations at the Hanover meeting, according to Dr. tenBroek's report:

First, the World Council is tightly and perhaps hopelessly under the control of a small self-perpetuating group of American and British agencies for the blind.

Second, there is substantial and growing discontent among many of the delegations arising from this discriminatory and authoritarian situation, as well as from the general impotency of the World Council.

Third, there is more understanding of, and sympathy for, the Federation's position and its cause within the international membership of the World Council than its leadership will permit to be recognized or to find expression.

It now remains to be determined whether the delegates themselves meeting in the World Council Assembly in 1964 and possessing a constitutionally endowed power superior to that of the Executive Committee will right the wrong perpetrated by the officers and the Executive Committee or will tolerate the Executive Committee policy of private and secret meetings in conducting the public business of the organization.

The Detroit convention of the NFB has already provided its answer to the question now widely posed by blind men and women in many nations; Should a world organization of the blind themselves now be created to meet the needs not being met by the WCWB? That answer was embodied in the following resolution:

WHEREAS the Blind people of the world at present have no effective world agency or instrumentality through which they may represent themselves or take effective collective action for the improvement of their lot, the discussion of their experiences and the formulation of solutions to their problems,

WHEREAS the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind is dominated by agencies for the blind rather than representatives of organizations of the blind and is in any event largely ineffective and inactive,

WHEREAS even that minimal and inequitable representation possessed by the blind of the United States in the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind and upon its Executive Committee seems about to be further curtailed by improper and unconstitutional actions of the officials of the WCWB^

NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED by the National Federation of the Blind in convention assembled at the Statler Hotel in Detroit, Michigan, this 7th day of July, 1962, that we herewith declare the urgent desirability and imperative necessity of a world organization of the blind people themselves for purposes of self-expression and self-improvement. We declare it as our policy henceforth to encourage and stimulate the development of such an organization. We instruct our President, our delegate to the WCWB, and our Executive Committee to take all such actions in such manner and in such times as seems to them most meet and feasible and supported by such resources as are available to bring about the
establishment of such an organization.



Dr. Kingsley Price, nationally known scholar and leader in organizations of the blind, is the author of a new book. Education and Philosophical Thought, published by Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 150 Tremont Street, Boston 11, Massachusetts.

A member of the boards of directors of both the American Brotherhood for the Blind and the National Federation of the Blind, Dr. Price is presently Professor of Philosophy and Education at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. He has also held professorships in philosophy at the University of Nevada, Sarah Lawrence College and the University of Washington.

(Readers of THE BLIND AMERICAN will remember Professor Price's article, "Self-Realization and the Right to Read," which appeared in our June, 1961, issue.)

His new work, planned primarily as a textbook in the philosophy of education, has already received high praise in pre-publication reviews by academic authorities, according to information from the publishers. A representative comment is that of Professor Everett J. Kircher of Ohio State University:

"I feel personally that it is the first book that can be said adequately to define the field of educational philosophy. It may well become a classic work in the field .... I am convinced that it is the single most comprehensive and most adequately conceived work I have read."

Dr. Price, who received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of California, has published numerous articles and has lectured widely on educational and social problems affecting the blind.



Several hundred members of the organized blind movement representing all parts of the country-from Alaska to Alabama, Maine to Hawaii--joined hands and forces in Detroit on Independence Day for the 22nd Anniversary convention of the National Federation of the Blind.

The four-day meeting, which was climaxed by the election of several new officers and board members (see THE BLIND AMERICAN, July 1962), included a packed agenda of program activities and social events.

"Most significantly," as NFB President Russell Kletzing reported to the membership in a subsequent bulletin, "the convention was characterized by a spirit of harmony and fellowship recalling the early days of federationism and presaging an era of renewed dedication and solidarity within our nationwide movement."

An extraordinarily varied diet of addresses, discussions and reports bearing on areas of concern to the blind was served to the delegates by the host Michigan Council of the Blind under the leadership of its president, Sandford Allerton, and its talented convention chairman, Stanley Oliver,

Among speakers addressing the convention were: Edward L, Binder, chief of the evaluation policy section, Federal Bureau of OASDI: Carl Murr, rehabilitation officer with the U.S. Civil Service Commission; Miss Sadie Harris, regional specialist with the Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Division of the Department of Labor; Donald Blasch, director of Western Michigan University's Center of Orientation and Mobility; Mrs. Jean Norris of Twin- Vision Books, Van Nuys, California ; Dr. Louis J. Cantoni, associate professor of education and coordinator of the rehabilitation counselor training program at Wayne State University, Detroit (see "The Case for Counseling by Friends," in this issue); Dr. Romaine Mackie, chief of services for exceptional children in the Federal Offices of Education; Joseph Hunt, assistant director of the Federal Office of Vocational Rehabilitation; James K. Sullivan, special assistant for employee relations of the Post Office Department's Bureau of Personnel.

Others who spoke before the group included J. Herman Moore, representing the public buildings service of the General Services Administration (see "Vending Stand Program Defended," in this issue); Dr. Jacob Fried, executive director of the Jewish Braille Institute of America; Gene Yontz, of the Pontiac Chapter of the Michigan Council of the Blind; William Countryman, field secretary of Leader Dogs for the Blind; Richard Collins of the Hadley Correspondence School for the Blind; Mrs. Catherine Van Zorn, of the Detroit County Department of Welfare; John Taylor, past president of the NFB and director of vocational rehabilitation services for the Iowa Commission for the Blind; and retiring NFB president Perry Sundquist, who is chief of services for the blind in California.

The convention banquet address, always a highlight of the gathering, more than lived up to past precedent. Delivered by Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, the founder and for 21 years president of the National Federation, the speech was entitled "Welfare of the Blind: Perils and Prospects. " (For the full text, see THE BLIND AMERICAN, July 1962.)

A panel discussion on an issue of urgent importance to the blind -- "Should There be One or Many Categories of Aid?" -- brought together Mrs. Van Zorn, Taylor, Sundquist, and John Nagle of the NFB's Washington office. Nagle also delivered a detailed report to the convention on the status of the Federation's national legislative program.

The Newel Perry Award, presented annually by the NFB in recognition of outstanding service in the cause of the blind, was aw3.rded this year to Don Overbeay, superintendent of the Ohio School for the Blind. The presentation was made by NFB First Vice President Kenneth Jernigan, who is director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind.

New charters betokening affiliation with the National Federation were presented during the banquet to the Federated Blind of Missouri, the Blind Brotherhood of Maryland, and the North Dakota State Federation of the Blind.

After a spirited balloting contest, the convention chose Phoenix, Arizona, to be the site of its convention in 1964. Philadelphia, selected previously, will host the group next year.

State Leaders Praise Convention

Early reports from delegates to the national convention, as published in bulletins and newsletters of affiliated state organizations of the blind, indicate that the July conclave at Detroit may rank among the most productive and generally successful in the 22-year history of the NFB.

"Conventions may come and go, but no more meaningful convention has been held by the National Federation of the Blind since San Francisco in 1956, " according to Marshall Tucker, president of South Carolina's Aurora Club of the Blind, writing in the PALMETTO AURORAN. His report continues:

"I was impressed first of all with the determined spirit of almost all of the delegates to rebuild the National Federation to its former position, and even to go beyond if at all possible. This determination permeated the air throughout the entire proceedings of the convention. This This was amply demonstrated during the elections. Every one of the candidates nominated by the nomination committee was elected by acclamation with the exception of one member of the board of directors, and even he received an overwhelming majority.

"The NFB is blessed in many ways, but perhaps our organization's greatest blessing is its capable personnel. The presiding of our newly elected President, young, talented Russell Kletzing, was simply superb. ... It is impossible to enumerate all of my impressions. However, if Federationists continue to exemplify their willingness to aid their fellow blind, as was evidenced in Detroit, the future will indeed be a bright one for the National Federation of the Blind."

The editors of the VFB NEWSLETTER, published by the Virginia Federation of the Blind, reported in their August issue that" an atmosphere of peace and harmony pervaded" the NFB convention and that Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, former president of the National Federation and now president of the American Brotherhood for the Blind, "received a standing ovation" at the conclusion of his convention banquet address.

"It was truly a wonderful convention," wrote William Klontz, president of the Iowa Association of the Blind and editor of the I. A. B. BULLETIN. He added that the July gathering was "the best convention for several years, as there was much good program material and social activities, and none of the bickering and political maneuvering which characterized the conventions since Boston."

A similar conclusion was expressed by another South Carolinian, Donald C. Capps, editor of the PALMETTO AURORAN and an officer of the NFB. Portions of his report on the national convention follow:

"The 1962 convention of the National Federation of the Blind is now history, but we feel this particular convention will have a profound impact upon the future of our national organization. This convention did what conventions are intended to accomplish. It featured constructive program items, with several prominent speakers. There was good participation by the delegates in attendance. The indispensable ingredient of unity of purpose, mind and heart was paramount. In every respect the convention was uplifting and informative ....

"In many respects the 1962 convention was similar to the first convention we attended in San Francisco in 1956, which was the period when the NFB was enjoying its greatest prominence and influence. Dissension and strife had not beset the organization in 1956. It was in San Francisco that we acquired considerable knowledge of our welfare, social security, and rehabilitation programs. The reason that Lois Boltin is now in her fourth year as a Braille P. B. X. switchboard operator is due to her having attended the 1956 convention of the NFB where, for the first time, she heard of and examined the Braille Switchboard.

"In San Francisco, for the first time, we saw the leaders of the NFB in action. It took no genius to readily realize that the Aurora Club had just affiliated with a national organization blessed with unusual leaders with tremendous talent and devotion toward the cause of the blind throughout the nation. The San Francisco convention provided us with the inspiration and impetus needed to initiate the collective efforts of the blind of S. C. toward helping themselves ....

"It was entirely evident to those attending the Detroit convention that the NFB is definitely back on the road to regaining its former stature."



By Louis J. Cantoni and Lucile Cantoni

(Editor's note: The following article was delivered as a paper before the annual convention of the National Federation of the Blind in Detroit, July 6, 1962, by Dr. Cantoni, who is an associate professor of education and coordinator of the rehabilitation counselor training program at Wayne State University, Detroit. Together with Mrs. Cantoni, herself a former supervisor of social casework in Michigan, Professor Cantoni has written a notable book. Counseling Your Friends , published in I961 by the William-Frederick Press of New York City.)

The literature of the day is replete with explanations of neurotic traits and psychological defense mechanisms as well as directives and cautions regarding new discoveries in developmental psychology. Most popular books and articles on psychology are intended to help people understand themselves, not others. Nevertheless, an alarming national pastime has grown out of the promiscuous application of principles of abnormal psychology to the behavior of others. This state of affairs has caused many altruistic, perceptive persons to withhold their natural healing concern when friends and relatives come to them with problems.

It is our conviction that the situation can be remedied only if professional counselors and psychotherapists will help interested lay persons to recognize when and how laymen can be of service to troubled friends.

In what areas of life does a friend or relative function as a counselor? We contend that all human encounters are potentially therapeutic. A pleasant bus driver, interested in each of his passengers as individuals, may-effect a bit of therapy each morning. However, many opportunities to help others are missed because those in a position to be of service know little or nothing about psychotherapeutic principles and techniques. For example, a mother is worried about her child. Yet, in talking with a neighbor, she asks not about her own child but someone else's. What prompte her to ask is not what happened to someone else's Willie but what is happening to her Margaret. She may be bursting to talk about Margaret and thus get some perspectives on Margaret's difficulties. This mother would be defeated by an irrelevant discourse on Willie.

The importance of sensitivity, of friendly receptiveness in daily encounters cannot be overlooked nor denied. The encounters themselves may be light and casual or they may be all-encompassing and endure forever. Often quiet concern, quietly expressed, is sufficient therapy. Then too, genuine concern gives a friend courage to reveal his problems. So encouraged, he may, with the help of his friend, go on to explore and to resolve those problems. Up to this time, however, professional counselors have given little, if any, attention to counseling by friends. Yet the availability, the concern of a good friend are equivalent to emotional first aid. Professionals should begin to make systematic efforts to train interested, perceptive laymen to assume responsibility for this kind of first aid.

In every community there are people confronted with a troubled friend or relative. Often, these people are unusually perceptive and genuinely concerned about others and are sought out by the troubled. They are everywhere, these perceptive, concerned people, doing an important job. They are people who know how to listen -- not only for thoughts but also for attitudes and emotions. They are people who convey their sincerity, their belief in human dignity, not only in what they say but in what they do. They have a sense of when it is appropriate to sympathize, to reassure, to share emotional wounds. They know how to help others explore alternative courses of action. They know, too, that humans have to live their own lives. They accept their troubled friends not merely as persons who need help, but also as persons who, in any final reckoning, are responsible for their own acts, their own futures. If professionals can help genuinely concerned friends to do a more effective job with the troubled, professionals will bolster the best possible front line of defense in the fight for better mental health.

Many human problems of considerable magnitude can be handled adequately by a perceptive friend. He can do this because he possesses certain important aspects inherent in his friendship. A helping friend is physically near. He is near with a proved relationship--a person who cares. A friend knows, too--he has no need for explanations covering familiar ground. Given an acute situation, he is ready to help with the problem-solving process. And a friend has flexibility. He can reach out quickly toward interested members of the community, making an interpretation here, easing a path there.

Although a friend does not have a professional counselor's objectivity, he frequently is far enough removed from the immediate problem to see things with useful clarity. Reasonably healthy individuals can and do resolve personal difficulties within the framework of there present life situation. Often what proves most difficult is defining the problem, and this need not be done in terms of childhood predispositions. For example, a couple who apparently have been happily married for ten or fifteen years are now moody and quarrelsome. At inopportune times, such as parties or family gatherings, they argue over intimate family matters. They try to draw relatives and close friends into their conflicts. They appear to be fighting about trivialities, although many accusations revolve around the possibility of moving to another neighborhood. In this situation, it would be entirely appropriate for a friend of long standing to try to help this couple. The friend would probably see either the husband or the wife. Let us say that a man begins to see the husband. He would give him an opportunity to discuss problems in a private, relaxed setting. In the course of talking things over, the troubled one might be brought to a realization that his real concern is the possible delinquency of his son. Having faced up to his problem, this parent may be able to deal with it alone, or he may need referral to a professional counselor.

Problem-solving, whether stimulated by friend or professional counselor, is of course different from simple advice-giving. But often advice, if needed, is profitably given by a friend who has lived through a similar problem. Here the troubled one is actually gathering data on how other people have solved a certain kind of problem. By so doing, he reassures himself that he too can solve this kind of problem. The acknowledged effectiveness of Alcoholics Anonymous, Recovery, Inc., parent groups concerned about their retarded youngsters, associations comprised of the physically handicapped, and other such problem-oriented groups, is ample proof of the importance of informal encounters among lay persons concerned about similar problems.

Even the person with a basically sound personality may need help from time to time. When the sharp edges of reality impinge too hard, he searches for a receptive person. Having found such a person, he can pour out his troubles and receive reassurance and support during his trial. It is natural and appropriate that he should turn toward a friend or loved one at such a time.

There are people, however, who have difficulty managing from day to day. Such a person gets along well enough within a prescribed frame-work. But when there is a change in his immediate environment, he tends to experience acute distress. He must have help to make even minor changes in his mode of life adjustment. Despite a tenuous grasp on reality, this kind of person can stay out of an institution and lead a useful life if, at critical times, he has the support of a stable, interested friend.

And there are individuals who display aggression in many circumstances, They may invade clubs, lodges, churches, civic associations. The prevailing attitude among laymen is that an aggressive person has a more-than-adequate personality structure, and if his defenses can be broken down, he will become less troublesome. Professionals must convey to laymen that when a person is unduly aggressive, he is showing weakness, not strength. Concerned friends could learn to work constructively with such persons.

Perhaps those who most need concerned friends are people whose energies are drained by depression. The depressed range from the young mother in the doldrums from six years of sitting home with pre-school children, to the chronic schizophrenic patient who sits all day staring at a wall. Of course the schizophrenic patient must have a doctor's care. But no matter how severe his difficulties, a depressed individual needs friends, for he can come out of his depression only as he enters into meaningful relationships with other persons in his community.

We would like to say a word about the abundance of popular literature on how laymen should deal with those who have certain disabilities. The layman has been told how he can aid the deaf, the blind, the orthopedically disabled, etc. It is important for relatives and friends of those who have various forms of disablement to appreciate the difficulties that accompany specific disablements. This public education has helped to launch some worthwhile programs in behalf of the disabled. But there are dangers in treating individuals categorically. If a person is dealt with as deaf, or blind, or crippled, he loses his identity and becomes merely a symptom. If professionals confine their public education efforts to this kind of categorizing, they are in danger of denying a basic mental hygiene principle: that each individual must be respected as a whole, unique human being.

We want to make it clear that the friend as counselor does not replace the professional, whether marriage counselor, clinical or counseling psychologist, social caseworker, rehabilitation counselor, or psychiatrist. Some problems manifested by a distrubed person are best handled by a friend, others by a professional. If concerned friends knew better the scope as well as the limits of their role, and if both helping friends and professionals realized that there is an appropriate and natural continuity in their functions, the efforts of both would be enhanced and great numbers of disturbed people would be better served. In this connection, we believe it is important to point out a basic difference between the role of a friend as counselor and that of a professional. Whereas friendship is a reciprocal relationship, the professional relationship is not, for here interest and energy is directed almost entirely toward the client and his problems. Recognition of this basic difference is useful in timing referrals of troubled people to professional counselors.

In our book, Counseling Your Friends , we caution those who wish to help troubled friends that they should keep their efforts on an ego level. Pre-conscious and unconscious material belongs in the domain of the professional. Reviving old emotions as a therapeutic measure by friends may be dangerous. If the troubled one begins to react to his helping friend in a bizarre manner, a referral is in order. If the helping friend becomes so entangled in the troubled one's problems that the helper is distraught or cannot maintain a degree of objectivity, a referral is in order. Or if the helper's relationship to other key individuals is such that the troubled one cannot accept or believe the helper's objectivity, a referral is in order.

Then again, if material is too intimate for revelation, a friend should avoid hearing it. In general, we think that sexual problems should receive the attention of a professional. Frequently, however, a troubled friend's questions regarding sex may represent a search for simple, factual answers; here referral to a professional counselor may magnify problems and increase anxieties. In such instances a frank discussion with a friend may provide the troubled one with enough information to solve his own problems. On the other hand, a grown daughter may find that she cannot tell a friend how she hates her own invalid mother. Or a prosperous businessman may find it impossible to talk with a friend about early family relationships because of a childhood characterized by poverty and deprivation. These examples can go on and on--material loaded with guilt and shame is too intimate for revelation to a friend.

A friend, entrusted with another's personal problems, sometimes behaves like a new student of professional counseling whose pride in his own budding skills is proportionate to the number of intimate details he can elicity from his client. Such a student delights in bringing to his supervisor choice bits of emotionally charged data gleaned from his client. The supervisor warns this student that it is damaging for a client to reveal too much too soon. The student is encouraged to help his client shore up lagging defenses. And the student learns that, next time, he should not hear so much so soon. But professional people have not told laymen what to do when someone is in a melancholy mood and begins to drag family skeletons out of his closet. It is difficult for anyone to know when and how to not listen. Professionals, however, know a great deal about this subject. They should communicate it to interested members of the general public.

Lay persons should know that referral to a professional is in order when they try to work with a troubled friend but nothing happens--the old problems persist. Referral is needed when there is progress in the area of first concern, but at a high cost in other spheres of personal adjustment. For example, a friend may attempt to lead a withdrawn or depressed person into group activities. If, after such an attempt, improved social adjustment is accompanied by hallucinations, night terrors, or phobias, a referral should be made. Professional help is appropriate when a friend's difficulties are such that a good knowledge of community resources is required. A professional has better access to necessary information in problems of delinquency, poverty, unmarried parenthood, physical or mental disability, etc.

Much public education is needed regarding the making of referrals to professional counselors by concerned laymen. Good referrals are difficult. Before seeing a professional counselor, the troubled one must gain from his helper at least a beginning recognition that his problem lies in the emotional realm. Also, he must be ready to assume responsibility for his own predicament. And, if he is to be helped, he must enter into the professional relationship with realistic expectations.

Let us say that, upon the encouragement of his friend, a troubled person goes to a professional counselor. The troubled one still sees his friend. As soon as professional therapy begins to work, the troubled one, now a client, finds it painful. He discovers that, if he is to be healthier emotionally, he must make all manner of uncomfortable changes. He may very well go back to his friend, the referral source, and try to find a way out of professional treatment. Unless the professional provides the helper with some understanding of the psychotherapeutic process, the helper is in no position to support the efforts of the professional by encouraging his friend to trust the therapist and continue treatment.

When professional treatment is concluded, it would be wise for the therapist to offer some understanding of the client's situation to the client's loved ones. For some time after treatment, it may be important for them, to protect him from certain social and emotional hazards of everyday living. Friends and relatives need to know, too, that they should diminish their supporting roles as time goes by. Thus, as he gains strength, the former client is encouraged to establish satisfying relationships with many individuals in his community. Finally, the one who has resolved a severe personal problem should enjoy anew every aspect of friendship--the hopes, the plans, the joys, the intimacy, the growing satisfaction that comes of mutual respect and mutual confidence.

In our book, Counseling Your Friends, we try to give an overview of basic ideas and attitudes generally accepted by various counseling professions. We think it captures the spirit of the mental hygiene movement. Our book is brief. A reader can grasp it in its entirety. We do not consider it the last word. On the other hand, we believe that it does a fresh job of clarifying psychotherapeutic understandings and techniques for laymen. The book shows how the task of the helping lay person is different from but complements that of the professional counselor in today's culture.

It is not enough for professional counselors to see clients as persons in a family constellation. Professionals should be concerned about educating interested laymen in psychotherapeutic techniques, pointing out how friends and relatives can help each other, and clarifying the professional's role in relationship to efforts by lay persons. Professional counselors must begin thinking more, talking more, and writing more about therapeutic techniques for laymen.

Receptive friends should be encouraged to help the troubled to define their problems so that, when these troubled people seek professional counseling, they will be ready to use it. When friends do front-line duty, discussing, clarifying, and identifying problems, more of them will recognize that they have solvable problems if their problems receive proper attention. A community better educated in counseling techniques will not use less professional counseling but more professional counseling and will use it more effectively.



Tape recordings of the recent Detroit convention of the National Federation of the Blind are now available for purchase, in whole or in part, according to information from Roy Zuvers, 1118 Frederick, Independence, Missouri. The annual meeting was recorded by Mr. Zuvers on six reels of dual-track tape--each one a seven-inch reel containing 1800 feet of tape--at a speed of 3 and 3/4 inches per second. The purchase price of the full set of tapes is $18, and individual program items may be purchased separately for two dollars each. The latter are recorded on five-inch reels, with 900 feet of tape each (dual track, e and 3/4 speed). All requests and inquiries should be addressed to Mr. Zuvers.

Contents of the convention tapes follow:


Greetings, roll call


Concluding part of roll call. Adjournment of Wednesday morning session, opening of afternoon session with the report of the administration by Perry Sundquist, followed by the panel discussion on "Shall There be One or Many Kinds of Aid," John Taylor, Chairman.


Panel discussion continued. "One Approach to Fund Raising," by Gene Yontz. "Leaderdogs for the Blind" by William Countryman. A short talk by a representative of the Hadley School for the Blind. Adjournment of Wednesday session. Opening of Thursday morning session with invocation, report of the nominating committee, and election.


Election continued. A short talk by Dr. Isabelle Grant. Announcements and adjournment of Thursday morning session. Banquet program.


Banquet program continued. Opening of the Friday morning session with invocation, "Modern Trends in Mobility and Orientation" by Mr. Donald Blasch, Director, Center of Orientation and Mobility, Western Michigan University.


Mr. Blasch's talk continued. "The New Sheltered Workshop Regulations," by Sarah Harris, Cleveland Office of Wage Determination, Wage and Hour Division, U.S. Department of Labor. "Employment Opportunities for the Disabled in Federal Government Service", by Mr. Arthur C. Murr, Rehabilitation Officer, U.S. Civil Service Commission."The Disability Insurance Program with 1961 Amendments," by Mr. Edward L. Binder, Chief, Evaluation Policy Section, Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance, Department of Health, Education and Welfare.


Mr. Binder's talk continued. Adjournment of Friday morning session. Opening of afternoon session with a talk by Mr. James Sullivan, Assistant for Employee Relations to Assistant Postmaster General Murphy. Mr. Sullivan's talk concerned the post office's point of view on the operation of vending stands by blind persons in the post offices.


Mr. Sullivan's talk continued. "California Industries for the Blind and the Blind Worker," by Russell Kletzing, General Council and Executive Secretary, California Council of the Blind. A talk by Mr. J. Moore of the General Services Administration, from the office of Building Management, the Operations Division. Mr. Moore discussed the operation of vending stands by blind persons in other government buildings. A talk by Dr. Jacob Fried.


Dr. Fried's talk continued. A talk by Dr. Louis J. Cantoni of Wayne State University who discussed the case for counseling by friends. Adjournment of Friday afternoon session. Opening of the Saturday morning session with invocation; legislative report by John Nagle.


Legislative report continued. "The Independent Living Concept and its Effect Upon Existing Programs of Vocational Rehabilitation," by Mr. Joseph Hunt, Assistant Director, Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare. "The Role of the Federal Government in the Education of Blind Children," by Dr. Romaine Mackie, Chief of Services for Exceptional Children, Office of Education, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.


Dr. Mackie's talk continued. Adjournment of Saturday morning session. Opening of Saturday Afternoon Session with "White Cane Week" report by John Taylor. Report of the resolutions committee by Jim McGinnis. Report of the sub-committee on budget and finance.


Report of the sub-committee on budget and finance continued. Selection of the 1964 convention site. Final Adjournment.



By J. Herman Moore

(Editor's note: Following is an abridged version of a talk presented by J. Herman Moore, of the Federal Government's General Services Administration, at the annual convention of the National Federation of the Blind, July 6, 1962. Needless to say, Mr. Moore's views are not necessarily those of the American Brotherhood for the Blind or of THE BLIND AMERICAN.)

My assignment with the Office of Buildings Management in the Public Buildings Service of General Services Administration includes the overall direction of the vending stand program, as it relates to application in public buildings operated under the authority of GSA. As many of you are aware. General Services Administration is one of the Government's major property management agencies. One of our chief duties is to provide space for the office and storage requirements of all Federal agencies. In all, we provide space for 325, 535 Federal employees in 589 Government-owned office buildings, by GSA's latest count.

The number of new buildings is continually growing as we advance our construction program to overcome serious space deficiencies accumulated during World War II and the Korean War. During this same span the Nation's population has shown a swift surge in size which only adds to the need for additional Federal buildings. These range upward in size from small Federal buildings with 20,000 square feet or even less in small cities, like San Marcos, Texas, to the mammoth Federal office buildings which we have underway in New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. While the smaller buildings, often with less than 100 Federal personnel, cannot provide the income necessary to support a vending stand, the larger buildings are continually offering new opportunities for blind stands to serve Federal employees. This will extend and broaden our relationship with the blind which has steadily grown since the early 1930's when GSA pioneered the development of the blind stand in Government buildings.

General Services Administration is proud of its record of cooperation and participation in the vending stand program. Our 10 regional offices are charged with the responsibility of carrying out the day-by-day administration of the program throughout the United States, and the reports coming to Washington indicate that GSA enjoys excellent relations with the various State licensing agencies. In 1935, there were only 14 vending stands operated by the blind in GSA buildings. This figure was increased to 170 stand by 1953, and today we have almost 300 stands operating in our buildings. During the last three years, GSA has issued nearly 100 permits for operation of vending stands in our buildings.

GSA regulationa and procedures implementing the Randolph-Sheppard Act require us to give preference to blind persons licensed by State licensing agencies in authorizing the operation of vending stands. We also work continually with the State licensing agencies in making surveys of vending stand opportunities in our buildings. Our regulations and procedures provide that vending machines located in reasonable proximity to a blind vending stand are assigned to the vending stand operator. This is especially desirable if the machine would compete directly with the vending stand. Other equitable arrangements are developed in appropriate circumstances within the framework of our regulations and procedures to assure preference to blind persons in the distribution of vending machine income.

Blind persons, licensed as operators of vending stands, are permitted to use guide dogs to assist them in traveling to and from the stands and to keep the dogs at the stands while on duty.

Ordinarily the merchandise blind operators are authorized to sell includes newspapers, periodicals, confections, tobacco products, and food and beverages dispensed automatically or in containers or wrappings in which they were placed before delivery to the vending stand operator. Upon approval by GSA, other articles are permitted if they can be vended satisfactorily by a blind person and may be considered necessary for the health, comfort, and efficiency of Federal employees. Certain items which a blind person cannot satisfactorily vend may be sold if a sighted assistant is employed to prepare and serve such items and to clean and sterilize the utensils and equipment used in connection therewith.

Food and beverages vended at blind-operated stands in large public buildings are well-recognized supplements to the basic cafeteria food service required for the welfare of the Federal employees. Usually both types of service flourish without interfering with each other. Often they complement each other. However, we may find an occasional cafeteria operation of marginal financial character. In these infrequent circumstances it has been necessary to limit the food and beverage items dispensed at the vending stand. The justification for this action is, of course, the necessity for maintaining a level of cafeteria income which will assure the basic food service for the Federal personnel.

Let us consider some of the more practical aspects of our administration of the Randolph-Sheppard Act as it relates to vending stands in GSA buildings.

The chief purposes of the act are to (1) provide blind persons with remunerative employment; (2) enlarge the economic opportunities of the blind; and (3) stimulate the blind to greater efforts in striving to make themselves self-supporting. GSA has consistently held that the goal is the employment of the maximum number of blind persons. This is in contrast with the philosophy of setting up a limited number of blind persons in large businesses with substantial incomes--perhaps employing numerous sighted persons. As a result of this position, it is not at all unusual, in several of our buildings, to find two or more stands, each separately operated. GSA feels that it is necessary for the agency having jurisdiction over a public building to be responsible for the manner in which food services are conducted to insure that adequate sanitation safeguards are employed. For example, we originally permitted the blind to sell only what they could handle in a sanitary manner without a sighted assistant. Sighted assistants came into the picture during World War II, when existing stands were required to dispense coffee. While sighted assistants are still quite prevalent, it is our view that the blind should and can handle most stands. In this connection, we contend that the success of any stand depends on the quality of its service and not on the fact that its operator is blind. The vast majority of our sightless operators have demonstrated that they are personally capable of excellent vending service.

Under our interpretation of the act the responsibility for its administration must obviously go hand in hand with authority to manage Federal buildings. The act requires preference for the blind when this is "feasible" and that preference is to be accorded the blind "without unduly inconveniencing" the agencies responsible for the Federal buildings.

However, there are occasions when State licensing agencies consider it necessary to question GSA's administration of the act. As I have already expressed our conviction that our relations with the State licensing agencies are excellent, I should like to review our past five years' experience with these questions.

Our analysis shows that there were 12 instances where a permit was not granted. Eight denials were based on the judgment of GSA officials that adequate or suitable space was not available. One was due to uncertainty of the extend of occupancy of the building, one because of interference with a basic food service required by occupants of the building, one because of sanitation problems, and one because of utility problems.

On three occasions permits were granted in areas which State agencies deemed undesirable. Two involved a preference by the State agency to have the stand located in the lobby of the building. GSA denial in two cases was based upon the fact that the proposed location of a vending stand in a public building lobby detracted from interior architectural features and created hazards, traffic obstructions, and undue congestion in public areas. In the other case, the only available space was in the basement where the stand is now located.

Within the area of limitations on types and prices of merchandise, some State agencies are inclined in the direction of expanding and including food service. With respect to the sale of unwrapped food items and beverages in open containers, GSA feels that its position is reasonable although at times the licensing agencies in some states do not agree. Six cases which have arisen during the last three years in connection with this problem have been resolved. In one other case, the State agency requested authority for the sale of sandwiches prepared at the stand. In lieu thereof authority was granted for the sale of prewrapped sandwiches which are clearly authorized. There were no cases reported in which GSA officials have required that vending machines be installed in lieu of stands.

We think this is a pretty good batting average when you consider the large number of vending stands involved along with the licensing agencies of nearly all the States and the District of Columbia.

Let me offer a few suggestions that might lead to a better understanding and consequently an improvement in the vending stand program.

First, the State licensing agency personnel should utilize every opportunity to get better acquainted with the building operating people in GSA, This will afford an opportunity to learn more about the problems that are involved in building operations.

Second, the State licensing agencies should temper their disappointment at adverse rulings with the knowledge that GSA genuinely desires to achieve the goals of the Randolph-Sheppard Act. Such decisions are based on sound considerations arising out of the requirements of building operations and space management. Our representatives are always glad to have the opportunity to explain the basis for such decisions, and the ensuing exchange of view will prove mutually beneficial.

Third, the State licensing agencies should continue to give first consideration to the importance of a good sound program with as many stands as possible doing a better job.

You are assured that you will have our cooperation in striving to reach your objectives.



By David Brinkley

(Editor's note: Following is the abridged text of an address delivered by Mr. Brinkley, famed newscaster and commentator of the National Broadcasting Company, last May 10 at a meeting of the President's Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped, which presented its annual Handicapped American award to Emik A. Avakian.)

People often say that a sound body builds a sound mind. But does a brilliant, inquiring, inventive mind necessarily require a sound body for its housing?

You and I know that it does not. We have a case in point. Twenty-seven years ago a helpless 11-year-old Armenian boy was carried off a ship in New York harbor. He came to seek medical aid in the United States. Born in Iran, he had traveled with his desperate parents to Russia and then to Germany in a futile search for aid for his frail, uncontrolled, and virtually useless body.

But the United States--this country with the big heart--could offer no encouragement to the pleading eyes of this palsied boy. Medical science has no answer.

The boy was condemned to life in a wheelchair; the useless life of a total invalid ....

The Lord had given this boy a helpless body. But, as if to compensate, He had endowed him with a rare combination of iron will and insatiable curiosity, a mind that raced along at lightning speed, a memory capable of retaining millions of bits of information in fantastically precise order. The boy recognized these gifts at an early age ....

Denied virtually every physical facility, the simplest act became for him a monumental task. But, using his amazing intellect, he learned how to circumvent the roadblocks, how to get what he wanted through ingenuity.

Without ever touching pencil to paper, for his helpless fingers were unable to grasp a pencil, this boy from Iran whizzed through 7 years of grade school in one, learning the English language as he raced along . . .

[After high school in Chicago] it was time for college, though guidance counselors advised against it. Despite this boy's genius, they were convinced that a higher education and a career in the field of science were impossible.

Once more, the advisers had underestimated this boy's will and his courage. Perhaps another youth would have accepted his disability docilely. But to this young man, the physical disability was a challenge, a challenge to the ingenuity of his gifted mind.

And so, in spite of the experts, he went to college--to Eureka College in Illinois. And then he went on to take his master's degree from Columbia University.

Somewhere along the way, this young man who had entered a race to beat the world, decided that voice communication, in his painful, halting tones was too slow and inaccurate for his needs. So what did he do? He invented a typewriter, one which he could operate with his breath.

For him, it's alljust part of the pattern--you meet a physical obstacle; you use your intellectual powers to overcome it. You can't use your fingers, so you make a typewriter run on air. You can't throw a switch, so you design a knee-operated panel to control your electrical equipment. You can't lift your telephone, so you invent an arm which will bring it to you. You can't climb over the side of a boat, so you design a crane and lower yourself into the water by block and tackle.

And while you're at it, you consider the problems of the other fellow. A little time, a little thought, and an obsolete Army switchboard becomes a standard office-type board for training amputees ....

So you plunge into work with the United Cerebral Palsy Association of Weschester County, with the Stamford, Connecticut chapter of Resources Unlimited. You plead the cause of the handicapped before industrial groups and on television programs. And you go to Washington to fight for tax abatement for all the handicapped, not just for the blind . .

But still you haven't finished. Perhaps, you think, we haven't yet realized the full potential of an electronic computer. Perhaps it could somehow be put to work to repair a defective human nervous system controlling the radiation beams which would perform bloodless surgery on the afflicted brain areas that cause palsy.

If this most remarkable idea of our wizard in a wheelchair is ever realized, he may one day be know as the Jonas Salk of cerebral palsy . . .

But today he bears his own name proudly -- Emik Alexander Avakian, handicapped American of 1961.



North Dakota Federation Convenes. The 1962 convention of the North Dakota State Federation of the Blind was held at Fargo June 23-24. Featured speaker at the meeting was Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, president of the American Brotherhood for the Blind. New Officers elected were: Milfred T. Bakke, president, 308 Tenth St. N., Fargo ; Edward Loberg, vice-president, Fargo ; Vernon Sowde, second vice-president, Valley City. The convention received good publicity through the interview of Dr. tenBroek by press and TV, and a great deal of enthusiasm was generated at the meetings by his familiarity with organizational matters and his personal zeal, according to a report received from Melvin Ekberg, secretary of the State Federation.


Colonel Baker Retires from CNIB . Colonel E. A. Baker, managing director of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, has announced his retirement from the leadership post after 42 years as director. Col. Baker, who is also president of the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind, founded the Eye Bank of Canada in 1956 and was honored by the establishment in that country of the E. A. Baker Foundation for the Prevention of Blindness.


Showman Wins Blind Father Award. Don Mahoney of Texas, blind entertainer and showman of screen, radio and television, has been selected as Blind Father of the Year by the National Father's Day Committee, according to an item in LISTEN. Mahoney, an American cowboy star who lost his sight a year ago after 15 years of failing vision, received the committee's George Washington medal at ceremonies held in New York City.


Perkins School Reports . The following excerpt is from the recently released Annual Report of the Perkins School for the Blind, Watertow, Massachusetts:

"Challenges placed upon handicapped persons in the 1960's are greater in America than ever before. This is, of course, the result of the fine way in which handicapped persons have responded to all the services offered them since Dr. Howe and his contemporaries founded schools for them in the 1830's. They have shown themselves capable not only of making a contribution to society, but of becoming fully independent members of society. This makes challenges upon them as individuals such as they have never had to face before. We believe that only in preparing them for this greater role by all available means can we serve them as we should. We attempt to give them a more clear image of themselves as individuals and as handicapped members of a vigorous society which frequently acts out of ignorance in its dealings with them. Much use in recent years has been made of the phrase 'well-adjusted personality' and the very fact that this phrase is used implies new challenges which have only recently been recognized. There may be much difference of opinion as to what a well-adjusted personality includes, but there are many ways in which modern psychological techniques can be used to help young people, either handicapped or unhandicapped, adjust to the keen competition and lively tempo of mid-twentiety-century America."


Illinois Cutback Opposed. A storm of controversy has been stirred up in Illinois by a recent proposal by Governor Kerner that public assistance checks be cut back to help balance the state budget, according to a report in FROM THE STATE CAPITALS.

Governor Kerner's proposal was assertedly announced as part of a three-point program aimed at averting a special state legislative session to deal with the state's financial needs. Those criticizing the proposals included Cook County Welfare Director Raymond M. Hilliard, who maintained that they would not mean savings. He said he feared that if administrative personnel were reduced, as Kerner advocated, "relief rolls would run away from us."

Hilliard was said to have declared that more caseworkers should be added in a "crash program" if the governor "really wants to cut relief."


New Rehab. Service for Deaf-Blind. A regional rehabilitation service especially designed for deaf-blind persons is in the planning stage at the Industrial Home for the Blind, Brooklyn, New York, according to a recent announcement in LISTEN. Promising "unprecedented opportunities" for those lacking both sight and hearing, the project has been initiated under a grant from the Federal Department of HEW's Office of Vocational Rehabilitation. It will be known as the Anne Sullivan Macy Service for Deaf-Blind Persons, in honor of Helen Keller's famous teacher, and is expected to expand the IHB's existing services for this group of doubly handicapped to cover all eastern seaboard states from Maine to North Carolina.


Montanans Hold Convention. The I7th annual convention of the Montana Association for the Blind was held at Hamilton Hall, Montana State College, Bozeman, from June 29 to July 1, 1962. The following were elected in convention balloting; Irving Jacobs, of Butte, Second Vice-President; Tena Youngberg, Livingston, Representative Dist. 2 (Southern) and Estella Holland, Lewistown, Representative Dist. 3 (Northern). A highlight of the meeting, according to THE OBSERVER, was an address by Smith Shumway of the Wyoming Department of Education in which he described the operation of Wyoming's two-week summer camp conducted annually for the blind under sponsorship of the Lions Club at Casper, Wyoming.


Re-New Virginia Newsletter. The VFB NEWSLETTER, former monthly periodical of the Virginia Federation of the Blind, resumed publication in July with Mrs. Arrietta Hudson and Mrs. Marion McDonald as co-editors. The two editors are currently seeking a new title for their journal, which is intended to acquaint the blind people of Virginia with activities of their state organization (an affiliate of the National Federation of the Blind.)


APWA Regional Conference. The Mountain States Regional Conference of the American Public Welfare Association met in Omaha, Nebraska, June 25-28. Among the speakers was James W. Doarn, regional director of the Department of HEW, who emphasized that the task of public welfare in 1962 is to "wage war on dependency which is costing the nation billions of dollars a year, largely to support those who are dependent in idleness." Following his address, Loula Dunn, Director of APWA, spoke on her organization's role in current public welfare developments, with stress on the importance of increasing public understanding of the problems of welfare.


Dabelstein Memorial Lecture Set. The first lecture in an annual series honoring the late Donald A. Dabelstein, well-known figure in the field of rehabilitation of the handicapped, is slated to be given in October at the 1962 Conference in Detroit of the National Rehabilitation Association. The Dabelstein Memorial Lecture will be delivered by Dr. Howard A. Rusk, director of the Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New York University-Bellevue Medical Center.


Seattle Plans Blind Rehab Center. A new Regional Rehabilitation Center for the Blind to be built in Seattle will "open the eyes of all citizens as it shows the way toward new independence, happiness and vocations for the sightless," according to Senator Warren Magnuson of Washington.

In a signed article written specially for WHITE CANE MAGAZINE, regular publication of the Washington State Association of the Blind, Senator Magnuson pointed out that the projected center will be financed partly by a grant of more than $200, 000 from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. "Actually the 196l Washington Legislature wisely paved the way for this forward step when the Department of Public Assistance laws were amended to permit acceptance of patients from other agencies in and out of Washington on a fee basis," he wrote.

The Washington solon noted that when the new blind center is placed in operation, "up to 20 persons daily can be accommodated on an out-patient basis." In addition the building will house training programs in such fields as food and home management, shop training, textiles, and general maintenance.


Seeing Eye Spikes "Rumor." The following item is reprinted from the June, 1962, issue of THE SEEING EYE GUIDE, published quarterly by The Seeing Eye, Inc., of Morristown, New Jersey:

"For more than twenty years The Seeing Eye has been plagued with the false rumor that collections of cellophane tabs from cigarette pack-ill buy Seeing Eye dogs. During these years The Seeing Eye, together with the various tobacco companies, has tried in a myriad of ways to stop this rumor and to convince the public that Seeing Eye dogs cannot be obtained through collections of any type. The rumor still persists in cropping up in different parts of the country.

"To add to the confusion, during the past year a new rumor has been added to the other--the new one is that collections of tags from tea bags will buy a Seeing Eye dog! This, too, we are trying to quell in various ways. Only recently, a plate carrying the message, 'Don't save paper tags or cellophane strips to get Seeing Eye dogs!' has been added to the Seeing Eye postage meter.

"Now we are appealing to the 22,000 readers of the Guide to help us stop these rumors which are a cruel hoax on blind people and their friends who wish to help them. Won't you please, when you hear of someone collecting items to buy a Seeing Eye dog, explain that these collections are useless -- that no blind person is ever refused the Seeing Eye service because of lack of funds? Perhaps, if we all work together, we can stop these rumors once and for all'."


But on the Other Hand . . . Maybe those rumors that labels and tags will help obtain guide dogs for the blind (see item above) are not altogether "false." A product called Vets' Dog Food, sold in markets from coast to coast, carries the following legend on the label of each of its cans:


"Every time you buy VETS', you can help the blind own trained guide dogs.

"By contributing this coupon to the Pilot Guide Dog Foundation, you help the Foundation raise funds to give guide dogs to the blind ABSOLUTELY FREE.

"The Foundation presents these VETS' coupons to the Perk Foods Company, for redemption and is paid fifty cents for every 100 coupons it has received from pet owners.

"In addition to the guide dog, the blind person receives free transportation to and from the training center, plus four weeks board and lodging while being trained to use the dog.

"Your help will light the way for those who walk in darkness."

From this it would appear that the "Seeing Eye" is a little near-sighted. There are, as few of our readers need to be informed, more than one guide-dog foundation in the field. Quite possibly others, in addition to the Pilot Guide Dog group, have made use of such fund-raising methods as that of the dog-food label.

Whatever may be the worth or effectiveness of this particular foundation and its appeal, it would seem to be going a bit too far to assert categorically that "these collections are useless" and that they constitute "a cruel hoax on blind people and their friends who wish to help them."


New Catholic Periodical. A new publication for the blind, the CATHOLIC GUILD BEACON, to be published quarterly by the Catholic Guild of the Blind of Los Angeles, made its inaugural appearance in May. The journal will be available to Guild members and others truly interested in the activities and progress of the Guild, according to the editor, Miss Angeline Bouchard, 157 South Berendo Avenue, Los Angeles 4, California.


Dr. Robert T. Fletcher of Kalamazoo, Michigan, a former president of the Michigan Federation of the Blind, died recently at the age of 50 from the effects of smoke inhalation during a fire which damaged his home.


Blind Peer Leads Fight. An attempted ban on a blind magistrate in England is to be fought in the House of Lords by a blind peer, according to a news item appearing in the Sacramento (California) BEE. The move to exclude the sightless magistrate, Leslie Kershaw, is reportedly based on the mere fact of his blindness.

The blind member of Britain's House of Lords, Lord Fraser of Lonsdale, who lost his own sight in the 1914 war, has declared that another blind man also faces a similar ban -- Alderman Harry White, newly elected mayor of Stalybridge, Cheshire.

Kershaw, the new chairman of Bingley Urban Council, Yorkshire, who was blinded by a quarry blast 29 years ago, has decided not to take the oath as a magistrate, the newspaper reported. But Alderman White, 48-year-old telephone operator intends to take his elective seat as mayor of the Cheshire city.