THE BLIND AMERICAN

APRIL 1964

VOLUME IV, NO. 2

INKPRINT EDITION

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN BROTHERHOOD FOR THE BLIND
A CHARITABLE AND EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION

2652 SHASTA ROAD BERKELEY 8, CALIF.

Published monthly in Braille and inkprint and distributed free to the blind by the American Brotherhood for the Blind, Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, President. National headquarters and editorial offices at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley 8, California.

Editor: Floyd W. Matson
Executive Secretary: Anthony Mannino, 205 South Western Avenue, Room 206, Los Angeles 4, California.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from National Federation of the Blind (NFB) http://www.archive.org/details/blindamericanapr42amer

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RELATIVES' RESPONSIBILITY: A LANDMARK DECISION

MY SECOND YEAR WITH THE PEACE CORPS
By Marilyn Brandt

CONGRESS HEARS SHELTERED SHOP WAGE BILLS

N.F.B. WORLD FUND: REPORT FROM PAKISTAN
By Dr. Isabelle Grant

CALIFORNIA'S BLIND WORKERS SHOW VISION
By Bud Aronson

ARTISTIC ARIZONA: N.F.B. CONVENTIONLAND '64
By James and Maurine Fall

FOREIGN BLIND LEADERS AT PHOENIX CONVENTION
By Russell Kletzing

AN AFFIRMATIVE REPORT ON BLIND TEACHERS

FOUNDER OF BRAILLE INSTITUTE DIES

TRIBUTE TO BLIND FREEDOM AWARD WINNER

THE BENEFITS OF ICE SKATING
By Marjorie Swanson

BROTHERS ... & OTHERS

 

RELATIVES' RESPONSIBILITY: A LANDMARK DECISION

An historic decision which casts Constitutional doubt upon responsible-relative provisions in all public welfare programs has been handed down by the California Supreme Court.

By unanimous opinion in the case of Department of Mental Hygiene v. Kirchner, decided in January, the State Supreme Court held that to impose financial responsibility upon the relative of a person receiving care in a state mental institution violates the Constitutional guarantee of equal protection of the laws. That finding rested upon a determination by the judges that such care and treatment is a publicly assumed responsibility. If public responsibilities are to be transferred to private individuals, this can only be done by taxation uniformly distributing the burden to all taxpayers.

The Court held that "A statute obviously violates the equal protection clause if it selects one particular class of persons for a species of taxation and no rational basis supports such classification. Such a concept for the state's taking of a free man's property manifestly denies him equal protection of the law."

The Court's opinion, delivered by Justice J. Schauer, denied that it was necessary to overrule previous decisions in order to reach its conclusion: "Although numerous cases can be cited wherein so-called support statutes have been sustained against various attacks, research has disclosed no case which squarely faced, considered, discussed and sustained such statutes in the light of the basic question as to equal protection of the law in a case wherein it was sought to impose liability upon one person for the support of another in a state institution."

The California court itself opened the door to the extension of its decision to other categories of publicly aided groups in these words:

"Lastly, in resolving the issue now before us, we need not blind ourselves to the social evolution which has been developing during the past half century; it has brought expanded recognition of the parens patriae principle and other social responsibilities, including the California Rehabilitation Center Act and divers other public welfare programs to which all citizens are contributing through presumptively duly apportioned taxes.

"From all of this," the opinion continued, "it appears that former concepts which have been suggested to uphold the imposition of support liability upon a person selected by an administrative agent from classes of relatives designated by the Legislature may well be re-examined."

Pointing out that the state's Welfare and Institutions Code itself accepts this principle by declining to exact payment from a patient for his care and support in a state hospital "if there is likelihood of the patient's recovery or release from the hospital and payment will reduce his estate to such an extent that he is likely to become a burden on the community," the seven Supreme Court justices commended this evident concern for the patient on the part of the state but went on to comment: "... at the same time its advocacy of the case at bench would seem to indicate that it cares not at all that relatives of the patient, selected by a department head, be denuded of their assets in order to reimburse the state for its maintenance of the patient in a tax-supported institution."

If public responsibility is assumed when mentally ill or defective persons are provided care in state institutions, it is no less true that public responsibility is assumed when needly persons are provided care and maintenance out of the public treasury in their own homes. In this situation, no less than the other, it also follows that to transfer the public burden to private shoulders other than by taxation would violate the equal protection of the laws.

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MY SECOND YEAR WITH THE PEACE CORPS

By Marilyn Brandt

(Editor's note: Miss Brandt, a graduate of the Texas School for the Blind and Texas State Teachers College, reported in THE BLIND AMERICAN last September on her first year as a Peace Corps volunteer serving in the Dominican Republic. In the present report, written expressly for our readers, Miss Brandt relates more details of her pioneering work as a teacher of blind youth in the Latin American republic.)

I am now in my second year at the National School for the Blind in the Dominican Republic. Sandra Ford and I have been joined by another Peace Corps volunteer, Geer Wilcox. The late arrival of several of our students followed by the military coup d’état in this country delayed the beginning of classes until the last week of September.

We feel that our most important contribution to the social and personal lives of our students this year has been the election of a social committee in September, and another election in January. The third and final committee for the year will be chosen after Easter vacation. This was the students' first actual experience with the democratic process and with the methods of parliamentary procedure. We have left problems concerning time, place, and programing for recreational activities completely up to the committee. This acceptance of responsibility is something complete new for them.

All the boys, and over half of the girls, now are able to travel independently with their canes. Sandra has trained the secretary of the school to succeed her as typing teacher, while she herself has taught at least half the students to sign their names. I have taken half the students through a course in math probably equal to the ninth-grade level; have taught these same students world geography with the aid of Spanish texts and relief maps from the American Foundation, and I now have them in a course in world history. A three-week course in world history may sound strange to most teachers and students who study it for a year or more, but when time and materials are limited, one has to cover as many areas as possible in whatever time is available.

Next I plan a course for these students on the use of recorders, record players, and such simple tools as can openers and staplers. We plan to make a Spanish tape of the American Foundation catalog, and a list of addresses for purchasing materials in Latin America, Spain and the U.S.A.

Geer is currently working on job placement, and is teaching a carpentry class every night. The students hope to make crutches for the rehabilitation center for paralytic children as one of their projects in carpentry.

This year about half our students will graduate. It is the first graduation in the history of the school, and some of the students have been here seven years. Two students have received government scholarships to study in Argentina for two years, and will probably leave this month. I am training one girl to succeed me as teacher of math, geography and history, as well as teaching Spanish grammar. Our braille teacher is in New York learning to teach braille more effectively and attending a rehabilitation program for her personal benefit.

Sandra and I will leave when school closes in June. Geer will remain through next year, and possibly will be joined by another volunteer. There are many projects such as a swimming class, a new building, a vending stand project, etc., which aren't off the ground yet, but we believe that with time and work and a little luck they soon will be. We have three new students, eight and ten years old, since Christmas. Next year more young students will be brought in and given an education which hopefully will compare with the education in any public or private school in this country. We are acquiring printed texts of the braille books we now have so that sighted teachers can work here. We are also printing pamphlets on the necessities and problems of persons blinded when they have reached adulthood. There is a pamphlet under translation with information for parents of blind children. We hope to have these available to the department of health and public welfare and to any other interested persons soon.

With the end of our Peace Corps work rapidly approaching, Sandra and I can see in retrospect what we have failed to do that we should have done earlier and what we have accomplished. We do feel that we have awakened the school personnel, the Dominican government, and the people who are blind, to the basic necessities of a good program for the blind--education, rehabilitation, job placement, and social workers and counselors. That was one of the most important jobs we had to do.

So life at the Escuela Nacional de Ciegos goes on just as it might at any school or rehabilitation center in the states. Before we leave for the movies tonight (a four-year old Elvis Presley movie), I have to translate the song "True Love" into Spanish, so Sandra and I can sing it next Friday at the Valentine's Day program and dance; Sandra has to cut one of the older girls' hair and take our little eight-year-old for a walk by the seaside; and Geer still has to get the measurements from me for a loom he is going to make for my art class scheduled to start after Easter. Three girls just came in asked us to please play my "Peter, Paul and Mary" album for them. Sometimes we complain because we have no privacy whatsoever, but we know that we are going to miss them so much next year, and so we try to enjoy every minute of our life and work in the Dominican Republic. It is an opportunity for experience and personal growth which too few young Americans are privileged to enjoy.

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CONGRESS HEARS SHELTERED SHOP WAGE BILLS

Bills which would extend the minimum wage provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act to cover disabled workers in sheltered workshops--many of whom are blind persons--were given a significant public hearing on April 6 by a subcommittee of the House of Representatives.

Testifying in favor of the minimum- wage proposals was John F. Nagle, chief of the Washington Office of the National Federation of the Blind, who presented an oral statement and participated in subsequent discussion. A joint written statement favoring the legislation was submitted by Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, president of the American Brotherhood for the Blind, and James McGinnis, president of the California Council of the Blind.

Appearing in opposition to the wage bills were Peter J. Salmon, head of Brooklyn's Industrial Home for the Blind, and Tony Suazo, executive director of the National Association of Sheltered Workshops and Homebound Industries.

The two identical measures under consideration are H.R. 9904 and H.R. 9928, introduced by Congressmen John Dent and Dominick Daniels, both of whom are members of the General Subcommittee on Labor of the House Education and Labor Committee, which conducted the hearings. In addition to Congressman Dent two members of the subcommittee were present: Roman Pucinski, Illinois and Alonzo Bell, California. (Other members are listed below.)

The measures call for a series of progressive wage increases for sheltered shop workers, requiring that they be paid not less than 50 percent of the prevailing national minimum (now $1.25 per hour) by January, 1965, not less than 75 percent by the following year, and that by January, 1967, the sheltered workers must receive not less than the prevailing hourly minimum wage.

Salmon and Suazo, speaking against the bills on behalf of sheltered shop management, were subjected to sharp questioning and comments by Congressmen Dent and Pucinski. For example, when Salmon presented figures on costs and income for his Brooklyn workshop, Congressman Dent noted that the labor costs represented only about 16 percent of gross sales revenue and asserted that he had never before heard of any business with such low labor costs in ration to income.

Again, when the Brooklyn workshop executive sought to justify his low wage rates by lamenting the allegedly poor productive capacities of blind shop workers, the N.F.B.'s John Nagle intervened to point out that the great majority of blind and handicapped workers in sheltered workshops have sufficient capacity to compete on an equal basis in competitive employment if they are provided with proper training and adjustment services along with skilled help in securing employment.

In his oral testimony before the House subcommittee, Nagle urged the legislators "to recognize that disabled workers have the same problems as other workers, and share in common the same needs. We ask you to recognize and remedy the sorry plight of these workers--for their plight is a sorry one," he said.

The National Federation of the Blind official pointed out that "not only are these men and women in sheltered workshops not protected by the minimum wage provisions...but they are specifically denied this protection by the very provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act."

Nagle noted that in 1963 "nearly half of the sheltered workshops investigated were paying some of their disabled workers less than the very low wage rates presently permitted by law--and the number of such violations discovered shows a threefold increase over the previous year."

tenBroek-McGinnis Statement

California Council President McGinnis joined Dr. tenBroek, head of the American Brotherhood, in a detailed statement documenting the grievances of blind sheltered shop workers throughout the country with respect to wages and general working conditions.

The two blind leaders asserted that "the tragic fact is that no consistent and generally agreed-upon" definition has yet been achieved as to the character and function of sheltered workshops and the status of the handicapped workers.

"Until a clear, acceptable and just definition can be devised, the identiy of these disabled workers must remain in jeopardy and at issue--with resultant waste, confusion, conflict and failure on all sides," they said.

The joint Brotherhood-Council statement noted that in most of the public and official discussion on workshops, "one voice is rarely heard. That is the voice of the disabled worker himself, characteristically a blind person, whose concern in the matter is at once the most direct and vital of all."

Pointing out that "no outside groups or interests can in truth speak for the disabled worker in the sheltered shop," their statement continued: "Only the worker himself can do that--both directly, on the rare occasions when his individual voice may be heard, and indirectly through his own democratic voluntary organizations.

"During the past few years the voice of the shop worker has in fact been heard with increasing force and clarity," tenBroek and McGinnis said. "Blind workers in particular have made use of their own voluntary state associations, united in the National Federation of the Blind, to give organized expression to their demand for an adequate definition of their status and a reasonable reward for their labor.

"At the same time they have been systematically beginning to organize as an employee group, seeking union affiliation and recognition, and collective bargaining rights, through negotiation where possible and through strike action where necessary,” the statement observed.

Citing a long series of militant activities by sheltered shop workers in various parts of the country—notably in Cleveland, Dallas, St. Louis, San Diego and Berkeley--the tenBroek-McGinnis statement focused upon "three main points of grievance" commonly raised by the handicapped workers in their organized protests:

"First, low wages consistently below the national minimum, coupled with discrimination and inequities in job classifications which have the effect of barring blind workers from normal advancement opportunities open to all others;

"Second, poor management, in terms both of simple ineptness and of irrational prejudice against the workers--the former expressed in terms of unnecessary delays, layoffs, low-quality production and excessive operating costs--the latter in terms of contemptuous attitudes and outright bullying directed against the blind workers; and

"Third, inadequate training methods, carried out by unqualified instructors, performed on obsolete and poorly maintained equipment, and reflecting stereotyped convictions of the inability of blind persons to master any trades other than the most elementary and menial.

"The protest which is embodied in this wave of militant activity on the part of blind and disabled sheltered workers is unmistakable. It is a protest against an employment situation intolerable in its inequities and injustice; and it is a demand for recognition of the minimum rights of shop workers both as free citizens and as employees," the blind leaders said.

Letters supporting the two progressive wage bills for sheltered shop workers--H.R. 9904 and H.R. 9928--should be sent to the Hon. James Roosevelt, Chairman, General Subcommittee on Labor, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington 25, D.C. Letters should also be sent to any subcommittee members who are from your state. The other members are: John Dent, Pa.; Roman Pucinski, Ill.; Dominick Daniels, N.J.; Thomas Gill, Hawaii; Augustus Hawkins, Calif. These are the Democratic members of the Subcommittee. The Republicans are: William H. Ayres, Ohio; Charles E. Goddell, N.Y.; Dave Martin, Neb.; Alonzo Bell, Calif.

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N.F.B. WORLD FUND: REPORT FROM PAKISTAN

By Dr. Isabelle Grant

Do you realize how far-reaching are the activities of the National Federation of the Blind? Do we of the N.F.B. realize that our hands are reaching out to the far corners of the world, greeting our fellow blind, and lending a generous helping hand wherever and whenever we find a need? For, this is the way it is.

The first step in this campaign of friendship and aid was taken last July at the N.F.B. convention in Philadelphia when, through the on-the-barrel-head forthrightness of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, substantial backing was given to our warm expressions of desire to help those blind persons less fortunate than we are, economically, educationally and socially. The response was unanimous, for we all wanted to share in this worth-while gesture of humanitarianism, of respect, and of love.

Armed with one hundred slates and styluses, thirty pounds of braille paper (the gift of the Wheeling, West Virginia paper works) and cartons of other braille equipment, I set out to "conquer" the apathy towards the education of blind children in Pakistan and a like apathy towards rehabilitation of blind persons. I shall be happy if only a dent is made in this enormous problem. May I now share with you my innermost secret and joy that a small dent has indeed been made, measured by government interest and participation, by newspaper commentaries, by the voice of educators, principals and teachers at numerous meetings, and by the actual opening of the school doors to blind children.

That is a tremendous step forward in this struggling but challenging country. I rarely now hear the question so often thrown at me my first year: why educate our blind children at all until we first educate our sighted children? Or this other one: suppose you do educate them, then what will they do? Still beg? My throat tightened and I failed to suppress the tears when I heard a principal say at a meeting last week, in which we were discussing plans for educating our blind children here, "Why didn't we start this long ago?" Thus is the attitude changing.

In these newly emergent lands, education has to take its place among the other urgencies in a developing country, so that progress in the field of educating all children will be slow--maybe as much as ten to fifteen years before the enactment and execution of free compulsory education, even for the first three years of primary school. But the seeds of education for both sighted and blind children have been planted and they will grow, given time.

My main field of activity here has been training teachers for the instruction of blind children, for my knowledge of the vernacular is still inadequate--so that with my academic Urdu and my ignorance of the dialect Punjabi, my best work is that of helping teachers. I have conducted two seminars, and already some of the teachers are teaching blind children in the regular schools and in residential schools. With the resource teachers in my groups, I am now making plans to set up a transcribing unit in Urdu braille. That is our next step.

At a joint meeting of the headmasters and resource teachers held in the office of the Inspector of Schools, I offered as a gift from the National Federation of the Blind--Russell Kletzing, president--a gift kit of braille equipment to each school having an integrated class and a resource teacher. The gift was unanimously accepted. The recipient schools are: (1) Islamia School, Bhatti Gate; (2) Muslim Model High School (primary, middle and high) near Urdu Bazar; (3) Muslim Model School, Lahore Cantonment; (4) Government Pilot School, Wahdat Colony; (5) Government School, Lahore Cantonment; (6) City Muslim League, Primary School; (7) Junior Central Model School, near District Court; (8) Rang Mahal Mission School; and (9) Joan MacDonald School.

These are all government or semi-government regular schools. You may be interested in the contents of each kit of materials. The items are: eight pounds of braille paper; five slates and styluses; one cubarithm with fifty cubes; one Taylor slate with fifty pegs; one Sewell Board with 100 plastic sheets; one tracing wheel for map-making; one braille ruler with inches and centimeters; one braille tape measure; five small packages of self-threading needles; three decks braille playing cards (request from blind boys); one braille manual of Standard English braille, braille edition; same, inkprint edition; one music notation, braille edition. The order for the nine kits has been sent to the American Printing House and to our treasurer, Franklin Van Vliet.

Of course, you will see that I have been concentrating on Pakistan; but other countries have also been included in the N.F.B. gift; among them, India, Afghanistan, Taiwan, and Ceylon.

Readers of THE BLIND AMERICAN will be interested to know that our blind friends in Australia have indicated they too wish to be of help to their fellow blind in Pakistan. The Queensland Association for the Blind, through Mr. W. Mills, Manager of the Queensland Industrial Workshop in Brisbane, and my very good friend (and your friend) Tim Fuery, also of Brisbane, have during this past winter sent upwards of fifty pounds of braille paper for the use of blind persons here. The Pakistan Association of the Blind has received parcels of this paper, as has the government Institute for the Blind, Lahore, along with the schools, both residential and integrated. Tim is an ardent reader of THE BLIND AMERICAN and sometimes tells me the news before my copy arrives in Pakistan.

Perhaps some of our readers would like to have more information about life in these parts, or perhaps just some foreign stamps. Please write to me at the Y.W.C.A., 14 Queens Road, Lahore, West Pakistan. Please use Airegrams; they are cheaper and more apt to get to their destination than is regular mail.

Running hot water, a shower, friend bacon, two lamb chops with potatoes and gravy, a typewriter that writes, and a good pow-wow with all the folks of the N.F.B.--that would be heaven for me at the moment. Arizona, here I come!

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CALIFORNIA'S BLIND WORKERS SHOW VISION

By Bud Aronson

(Editor's note: Mr. Aronson is secretary-treasurer of the Union of State Employees, Local 411, AFL-CIO, the union responsible for the successful organization of blind workers in California Industries for the Blind workshops. A former interne with the Coro Foundation, Mr. Aronson prepared his article for publication in the March 1964 issue of the Foundation's BULLETIN.)

The wondrous joy flowing from the visual perception of a multitude of daily sights is not the only benefit denied blind workers in the State of California. Hundreds of sightless men and women employed in the State's sheltered workshops, known as California Industries for the Blind, are also deprived of many basic forms of protection accorded to their sighted counterparts in both private and public employment. Most important of the missing benefits is protection under the State's minimum wage law. Also noticeably lacking is a guaranteed work week. Consequently, it is perfectly legal to pay these workers as little as 50, 60 or 70 cents per hour, and it is equally legal to send them home after they report to work or to instruct them not to come to work for one or a number of days.

Of course, abundant explanations are readily available as to why blind workers are not treated just like any other workers. The usual argument advanced by government sources is that the blind in the sheltered workshops are primarily trainees rather than employees, that the chief objective of the workshop is to provide them with the vocational and personal rehabilitation necessary to equip them for a successful, gainful life on the outside. According to this theory, their stay in the workshop should be as brief as is possible, and as soon as the rehabilitation process has been completed, they should be placed on remunerative, outside jobs.

The only trouble with this argument is that few workers ever graduate from workshops to outside employment. The great majority are destined to remain at their same old stand making brooms and mattresses, or sewing and folding linen for the remainder of their productive lives. Perhaps someday when society is more understanding and cooperative, or when the workshops teach more meaningful and adaptable skills, workshops may indeed become the mere stopping-off places they are intended to be, but, in the meantime, there is not the slightest indication that their present role is about to change.

In this context, it was not particularly surprising that in early 1963 the overwhelming majority of the 80 workers at the Berkeley GIB plant should see fit to become members of Union of State Employees, Local 411, AFL-CIO. After all, their grievances were numerous and important, and years of dissatisfaction gave no rise to hope of their solution. What was surprising, at least to many observers, was the tenacious militancy they would exhibit, a militancy which was to prove once and for always that sightlessness had not deprived them of the ability to recognize their own self-interest.

Early in May a number of broom makers engaged in a brief work-stoppage when their demands for improvements were not met. Acquiescence by management resulted in a speedy resumption of production. However, workshop officials then retaliated by laying off 40 workers--one half of the entire work force. Management's contention that the layoff was forced by a surplus of unsold brooms piled up in the workshop was belied by Local 411's discovery that a large order for 800 dozen brooms had been placed by the State with a Texas organization.

It was at this point that the workers had to choose between insuring their jobs and returning to the old frustrating existence, or to take a calculated risk by remaining with the Union and "voting with their feet.” Their decision was virtually unanimous: to go out on strike. Fully sanctioned by the Alameda Central Labor Council and supported by all organized labor, the entire work force--with four lone exceptions--left their jobs and set up a picketline around the plant. Another delegation of strikers was sent to Sacramento, where picketlines were established outside the State Capitol, while the Legislature was in session, and the building of the Department of Education, which at that time administered the blind workshops. Legislators and State officials were equally surprised and apparently disturbed to see blind pickets, some of them accompanied by seeing-eye dogs, marching in orderly fashion around their buildings.

Two days of strike action, aided by generous publicity in all the communications media, led to a successful conclusion of the first authentic strike of blind workers in California history. Terms of the settlement included immediate rehiring of all workers--including the 40 whose layoff precipitated the work stoppage--and management's agreement to negotiate on all outstanding issues.

Although the story is far from finished, this new chapter augurs well for the future of blind workers in the State. That they will no longer stand for the exploitive practices of the past has been demonstrated in unmistakable terms. Better wages, improved working conditions and, above all else, attainment of the same dignity and recognition sought by all mankind since the beginning of time--these are the goals of California's blind workers.

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ARTISTIC ARIZONA: N.F.B. CONVENTIONLAND '64

By James and Maurine Fall

(Editor's note: Mr. Fall is president of the Arizona Federation of the Blind, host affiliate for the 1964 Phoenix convention of the National Federation of the Blind. His article was prepared for circulation by the N.F.B. to its members as a preconvention bulletin.)

Suspended animation--this perhaps best describes the feeling of the average Arizona Federationist as he awaits the '64 N.F.B. Convention. Although this meeting will not be in the more densely populated Eastern area, this could be in favor of a large turnout. The lure of the desert southwest brings multiplied thousands of visitors to our state each year and many Federationists will be delighted to combine business and pleasure by attending the convention in Phoenix.

The convention agenda is not yet final, but it promises to be exceptionally exciting--with a distinct international flavor. One of its features will be discussions on problems of the blind throughout the world led by international blind leaders. So far countries to be represented are South Korea, Australia, Ceylon and others. Other convention features that are planned include discussions of progress and set-backs in the state affiliates' struggles against tremendous odds to improve programs for the blind; also, panels featuring key personnel and agencies for the blind in the South Western United States and Federation leaders.

The name "Arizona" is derived from an Indian word meaning "little spring" or "little water." Signs of earlier civilizations mark the valley where Phoenix now stands. Arizona is the sixth largest state in area in the union and has more National Monuments and Forests (about 20 in all) than any other state. The history of Arizona is replete with Indian lore, Spanish explorations for riches and legendary tales of gold deposits such as is told of Superstition Mountain just east of Phoenix. Over 75,000 Indians representing 14 different tribes live in Arizona. There are several Indian reservations in the state--Navajo, Apache and Papago, to mention a few. Many kinds of weather prevail in different parts. In the north there is a high broad mesa with mountain peaks soaring to over 12,000 feet altitude, where skiing is a favorite winter sport. The southern half is made up of a huge desert plain with valleys fertile enough to raise any crop where water is available.

The points of interest are so numerous and sights to see are so varied that the most versatile desires can be satisfied. Grand Canyon, the wonder of wonders, stuns the imagination and overwhelms the senses when one views it. No artist's brush could reproduce on canvas God's handiwork in the Painted Desert. The Petrified Forest (now a National Park) is utterly fantastic. Its logs and stumps of some prehistoric age have been transformed into onyx and jasper colored stone. The Meteor Crater, the Mogollon Rim country, the home where Zane Grey wrote many of his famous novels, Oak Creek Canyon, Salt River Canyon, Montezuma Castle ruins, the pueblos, the ghost towns, the Apache trail, the old Spanish missions--all these intrigue the tourists. Then in and around Phoenix are the Heard Museum, the Arizona Art Museum, Desert Botannical Garden, the American Heritage Wax Museum, the Melvin Jones-Lions Center for the Blind and in Mesa the Morman Temple. In the hotel lobby one can arrange for tours to any of these points of interest.

Phoenix is known as the air conditioning capital of the nation. Every store both large and small, and each home, whether a mere cabin or an imposing mansion, has its cooling system.

Phoenix is served by both the Greyhound and the Continental Bus Lines, whose stations are only 2 or 3 blocks from the Westward Ho, by train service over the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe, and by several airlines--TWA, American, Western, Continental, Bonanza and others. Limousine service from the airport to the Westward Ho Hotel costs $1.25 and runs every 45 or 50 minutes.

Note to Easterners

A reduced fare group flight from New York to Phoenix is being arranged. The round trip fare from New York is $216.83. The plane will leave New York at 3:00 p.m. on Sunday, June 28, and the return flight will leave Phoenix at 8:30 p.m. on Saturday, July 4. If you wish to take advantage of this reduced fare, your check for $216.83 must be sent to Manuel J. Rubin, 24 Pearl Street, East Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 02333, not later than May 15, 1964. We are now investigating the possibility of similar reductions from other parts of the country from which 25 or more people are coming to the convention.

The Arizona Federation has an arrangement with the Valley Transit Bus Company whereby any blind person attending the convention wearing a convention badge and using a red-tipped white cane or being led by a Seeing Eye Dog may have free transportation on city busses without having to produce a pass card as the local blind riders are expected to do. This is a courtesy all Federationists should prize.

The Westward Ho Hotel is located at 618 N. Central and also has an entrance on Fillmore Street across from the Main Post Office. Besides the Dining Room and the Coffee Shop in the hotel there is a fountain service which serves sandwiches and coffee. There is also a bar, tour service, a real estate office and a swimming pool free to all hotel guests. Hotel rates are as follows: Single rooms, $6.50; doubles, $8.00; twin beds, $10.00; rollaways (for third person in room) $3.00. There is free auto parking for all registered guests. A large group of boy and girl scouts will be on hand as guides. The San Carlos Hotel, which gives the same rates as Westward Ho, is two long blocks straight south. Numerous other hotels, cafes and the YMCA and Central cafeterias are within a radius of three or more blocks, if one is inclined to browse about for different menus and prices. Make your reservations early as overflow guests will be channelled to the San Carlos Hotel.

The convention meetings will be in the Thunderbird Room on the main floor of the Hotel Westward Ho. The registration, information desk and exhibits will be in the Kachina Lounge, which is a foyer just off the Thunderbird Room. Registration fee will be $2.00. Among the many exhibits will be a newly invented electronic device for reading ink print. The opening session will start at 10 a.m. Tuesday, June 30, and the gavel will fall Friday, July 3, promptly at 5 p.m.

On Wednesday afternoon and evening July l, there will be a tour to Legend City. Legend City is Arizona's version of Disneyland, depicting the wild west in its heyday. It combines the colorful past with the modern day carnival, interspersed with many free entertainment features. Tickets to Legend City (including transportation to and from) will be $2.00. This includes one dollar's worth of rides. Tickets for more rides can be purchased on the grounds. There one can obtain either Mexican or American dinners for a dollar or slightly more. Busses will leave the hotel for Legend City at 4, 5, and 6 p.m. Beginning at 7 p.m. busses will return to the hotel on the hour until midnight.

The banquet will be on Thursday evening, July 2, at 7 p.m. Swiss steak with all the trimmings is the promised menu with only a $3.75 price tag.

With these economy rates on hotel accommodations, tour, and banquet, surely a record attendance can be expected.

See you in Phoenix June 30. It's a date!

Attention Musicians

If you play a musical instrument and wish to contribute your services to the Entertainment Room and dance programs of the N.F.B. Convention in Phoenix, we would like to hear from you. Bring your instruments with you. We would expect drums will be provided. If interested, please write to Manuel J. Rubin, 24 Pearl Street, East Bridgewater, Massachusetts 02333, or contact him at the Westward Ho when you arrive.

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FOREIGN BLIND LEADERS AT PHOENIX CONVENTION

By Russell Kletzing

(Editor's note: The following article by the president of the National Federation of the Blind is drawn from an N.F.B. letter circulated in March to the state and chapter presidents of affiliated organizations.)

Plans have been progressing for the N.F.B.'s Phoenix Convention, which promises to be exceptionally interesting both from the point of view of the program and the many natural attractions of Arizona. In planning the convention, which occurs only a month before the meeting in New York of the General Assembly of the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind, we are very anxious to utilize the unique opportunity to learn the problems and progress of blind people throughout the world.

In her travels and work with the blind in other countries, Dr. Isabelle Grant has met many of the most important and progressive blind leaders in the world today. We have invited a number of these to speak at the Phoenix Convention. This will present us not only with an excellent opportunity to learn of the great problems facing the blind of most countries and of their efforts to improve their own lot, but also would offer a chance to meet and talk with these people, to exchange ideas, and to encourage mutual assistance and collective action.

In order to fulfill this priceless opportunity, we need your help. We need your generous financial assistance and your warm-heartedness in opening your homes during July to the blind leaders of the world.

Some of the intriguing areas from which representatives may be coming to our convention include Australia, Japan, India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Hong Kong, and Sierra Leone in Africa. Round-trip airfare from these countries is $1,000 and $1,500, and maintenance in hotels during the two meetings and the four-week period in between would be in the vicinity of $700. Add to this domestic transportation costs, and the total expense is truly imposing. In a recent letter Dr. Grant has said of blind leaders in India and Pakistan:

"When I think that these people receive on an average two hundred rupees per month of a salary, that is but forty dollars in our money, I can only admire their pluck in trying to make this effort to attend the conferences. That is what THE BLIND AMERICAN has done."


I would be glad to open my home to ( ) one ( ) two foreign visitors to the Phoenix Convention for ________________ days. Anytime during the period July 5 to July 29 except___________.

My organization will contribute $_________.

I, personally, am herewith sending $______.

I, personally, pledge to send $___________.

Name _____________________________________
Address ____________________________________________________________________
Remarks ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Mail to: Mr. Perry Sundquist
4651 Mead Avenue
Sacramento, California 95822

Although we can only hope to raise funds for a portion of the costs for the people we would like to have at our convention, I urge you to be generous on an individual basis, and that chapters and state affiliates consider making a grant for this purpose. Equally important, please volunteer in the American spirit of hospitality to make your home available for up to a week or two for one of these blind leaders or for a couple. Many Americans have already enjoyed rich rewards from the people-to-people experience of sharing their homes with those from other cultures.

Dr. Grant again has shown us the way. In her last letter to me she said:

"The difficulty is, of course, one of finances. But should Ceylon, Australia, and Pakistan be represented at our Arizona conference, real progress in our goal will have been made. In order to assist these three representatives of the blind, I have offered to assist them during their stay in the U.S.A. by offering accommodations in L.A., bus fare to Arizona, bus fare to New York, and hotel expenses in Arizona and in New York. That will be my share of our efforts to have overseas blind for the first time in history attend a conference of blind persons. Anything else I see I can do I shall do it. I realize what a terrific sacrifice it is on the part of these three people to come on their own, for living standards, finances and so on are so very difficult in comparison with ours. I sincerely hope that we shall have these people come."

All of this Dr. Grant has offered out of a schoolteacher's retirement pay. Surely this is a challenge to all of us to do every bit we can. If there are any organizations, schools, or other places in your area which might be able to house our foreign convention visitors, please contact them and let us know whether they would be willing. Also, please let us know concerning courses, workshops, or opportunities to observe work for the blind in your area.

Checks should be made payable to the World Fund for the Blind and sent to Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue, Sacramento, California 95822, who will be coordinator for this program. A form is also enclosed to indicate particulars for your offer to be a host to one of the world's blind leaders. I know that the membership of the Federation will come through as it always has when the chips are down.

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AN AFFIRMATIVE REPORT ON BLIND TEACHERS

Blindness does not constitute a bar to the ability of qualified and well-trained persons to perform satisfactorily as teachers in the public schools.

This is the conclusion reached by a committee on the employment of blind persons in the teaching profession appointed by the New York State Federation of Workers for the Blind. The report, issued last year and summarized in a recent issue of PERFORMANCE, calls for breaking down stereotypes of resistance and erroneous attitudes toward the employment of blind teachers, particularly in view of the acute shortage of teachers in all grades throughout the nation.

In a statement of basic principles, the committee stated that the proven ability of many qualified blind teachers indicates the feasibility of expanding those employment opportunities which already exist at the college levels, where many blind persons are now teaching, to the elementary and secondary school programs.

What does it take for a blind person to be a good teacher? The report stresses the same prerequisites for any person who aspires to enter the teaching profession: the fullest possible academic background, a well adjusted and integrated personality, social and personal adjustment. In the case of blind teachers, social adjustment is directly related to skill in travel and communication. In addition, there must be a sense of dedication to the chosen profession, a true sense of humor, an ability to act responsibly in trying situations, courage, persistency, and good health.

Just as for sighted teachers, a quick imagination, a sense of personal responsibility, and an awareness of the sensitivities and problems of others are required.

Assuming that the potential blind teacher has these personal qualities and attitudes, barring him from the teaching profession solely because of his blindness represents a most serious and unjustified discrimination, the committee charged. Such persons are deprived of the opportunity to demonstrate their individual abilities and to make valuable contributions to the strengthening of the educational programs of our Nation.

The report goes on to meet every objection that might be raised: How does the blind teacher cope with discipline? Discipline follows the same route with the blind teacher that it does with the sighted teacher: from the authority of the teacher, to group control which will, with maturity, develop into self-discipline for the class. Group control through group pressure from the students' own peer group when one is "out of line" is most effective. Group standards are to a large degree dependent on the attitudes and standards cultivated by the teacher, and in a well-conducted class where significant, meaningful teaching takes place in relation to the needs of the students, the discipline problem itself is no different for a blind teacher than for any other teacher.

How does the blind teacher handle testing? By use of braille, a blind teacher can read general test instructions and clarify any points in administering a test. Cheating on a blind teacher would obviously have great psychological exposure to censure by fellow students, but the temptation may be dampened by using sighted assistants in proctoring and grading examinations. The sighted assistants may be personally employed readers or students from a higher class. The sighted reader may read the answers with no interpretations as part of the scoring process with the blind teacher.

How does the teacher handle blackboard work? A blackboard monitor can be appointed on a weekly basis from among the most promising students, to act as the teacher's representative at the blackboard. Many blind teachers make use of previously prepared charts or diagrams to supplement their lectures. Still others have mastered writing skill on the blackboard by using fingers and hand to space their script or print on the blackboard.

Other teaching techniques are not a great deal different from those of his sighted colleagues. He will use lectures, discussion, drill, flashcards, charts, sound recordings, students' reports, films and filmstrips, except that a sighted assistant or student will probably be necessary to conduct the latter activity. Lecturing from notes is a simple technique for a blind teacher.

In keeping records and doing all the necessary clerical work expected of a teacher, the blind person may use a personally employed reader, an older student or, a wife or husband. Attendance can be kept with accuracy in braille and transferred to the register by the teacher's reader.

Should the teacher discuss his own blindness? The report answers yes. Frank and open discussion of the visual impairment should be encouraged, so that questions in the minds of the children will be satisfied. As the blind teacher gains the confidence and respect of his pupils, he will automatically gain the confidence and respect of the parents.

How about mobility? Only those persons who have acquired a high level of personal adjustment, who are able to get around the school grounds and buildings, should be considered for teaching assignments. The blind teacher should orient himself to classroom, offices, the gym, cafeteria, restrooms, etc., prior to assuming his classroom responsibilities.

How would hiring a blind teacher affect insurance costs? The employment of a blind teacher would in no way affect the rate for liability insurance to any school district. Insurance rates apply equally to all persons teaching in school districts and are not affected because of blindness.

Finally the committee replies to the question of whether it is necessary to give specific privileges to blind teachers that may not be enjoyed by other teachers. A blind teacher will not expect any special consideration from his administrators. A blind teacher, like his sighted colleagues, is expected to contribute, produce, and compete. He is aware that he cannot expect to succeed in this profession unless he enters the job sufficiently equipped and motivated to do so.

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FOUNDER OF BRAILLE INSTITUTE DIES

J. Robert Atkinson, founder of the Braille Institute of America, died February 1 in Los Angeles at the age of 76. Known to thousands of blind persons throughout the country for his inventions and educational achievements, Atkinson was a onetime Montana cowboy who lost his sight at 25 as the result of a gun explosion. He founded the Braille Institute in 1919, five years after moving to Los Angeles, and was its managing director until his retirement in 1957.

During his lifetime of service to the blind, he invented the Atkinson-Braille typewriter and the process of printing braille on both sides of the page. He also translated the Bible and the English dictionary into braille.

A member of the Los Angeles Breakfast Club and the Wilshire Rotary Club, he was honored by the former organization three years ago at a special birthday ceremony. At the time of his death he was awaiting publication of a book based on his experiences, entitled Beacon in the Night. He is survived by his widow, Alberta Atkinson.

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TRIBUTE TO BLIND FREEDOM AWARD WINNER

In a ceremony at noon on December 6, President Johnson presented the Presidential Merit of Freedom to a remarkable group of 31 men and women gathered in the black-draped State Dining Room of the White House. This highest civilian honor conferred by the President for service in peacetime was in recognition of their extraordinary achievements spanning a wide spectrum of human endeavor in public affairs, education, science, health, letters, and the creative and performing arts.

"No words could add to the distinction of the men and women who are being honored today,” President Johnson told the bright constellation of talent assembled for the occasion. "In joining with my fellow countrymen to express the Nation's gratitude to each of you, I want particularly to thank you for reminding us that whatever evil moments may pass by, we are and we shall continue to be a people touched with greatness called by high destiny to serve great purposes."

When Miss Genevieve Caulfield stepped forward to receive her medal, the President read her citation for her unseeing eyes: "Teacher and humanitarian, she has been for four decades a one-woman Peace Corps in Southeast Asia, winning victories over darkness by helping the blind to become full members of society."

1 of 3 Women Selected

Genevieve Caulfield, one of three women selected to receive the Medal of Freedom, was born in Suffolk, Va. 75 years ago. She lost her sight in infancy through an accident, but was sustained by a philosophy that goes like this: "Being blind merely means that you cannot see. It doesn't mean you can't live a full life if you're willing to fight for it and rely with utter faith on the help of the Almighty every step of the way."

Miss Caulfield attended the Overbrook School for the Blind in Philadelphia, then went on to Trinity College in Washington and Columbia University's Teachers College. She spent 7 years in New York teaching English to Japanese businessmen and others, and by 1923 earned sufficient money to launch her vocation--teaching the blind.

Opens School in Tokyo

She opened her first school for the blind in Tokyo, then went on to establish other schools in Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other places in the Far East.

She raised funds to open Thailand's first school for the blind through a lecture tour in the United States. A religious community took over the operation of the school in 1947, leaving Miss Caulfield free to return to Tokyo where she taught for 5 years in the College of Social Work there.

As she hopscotched through the Far East, she was able to leave her other schools in charge of specially trained former pupils. For instance, a school she founded in Chiang Mai, Thailand, was placed in charge of Aurora Lee, a blind Chinese whom Miss Caulfield reared and educated after taking her off the streets of Bangkok in 1940.

In 1952 she returned to Thailand to work among the blind and to persuade Thailand to discard a law of long standing which forbids the employment of the physically handicapped. In 1956 she heeded the request of the Government of Vietnam to develop a program there for the vocational training of the blind.

She was the first American woman to receive, in 1961, the Ramon Magsaysay Award for international understanding--Asia's "Nobel Prize." Little wonder that Miss Caulfield, who now divides her time between Bangkok and Saigon, is revered and loved throughout the Far East as the "Helen Keller of Asia."

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THE BENEFITS OF ICE SKATING

By Marjorie Swanson

(Editor's note: The following is excerpted from an article by Miss Swanson, a teacher of the blind in the John Hay Public School of Seattle, first published in the March 1964 issue of THE WHITE CANE, official journal of the Washington State Association of the Blind.)

The benefits from this type of activity are physical, social, and mental.

In the education of the blind we are continually working to broaden the conceptual base for these students. One of the best methods to develop a true concept is through experience. You can talk about the "exhileration of the cold wind blowing into your face as you skim over the ice," but there is little credence to the words as compared with the actual fact. You can give a blind student an ice skate to explore in order that he or she may feel the blade itself, the high top, the serrated front of the blade. However, the actual lacing of the high top shoe, the learning to stand erect on this thin blade, and the use of the serrated front portion of the blade in figure skating are concepts which will give permanent understanding through experience.

The physical skills we hope to develop through this activity are balance, direction (orientation), relaxation of extreme rigidity, leg muscle development, and posture. The blind student in the regular school day has a great deal more mental exercise than physical. The recesses and lunch hour are not as active as for the sighted students who run and jump, play ball, etc. Day's end finds a mentally-fatigued child who has difficulty getting to sleep at night because he is not physically fatigued.

The social gains are mostly in the future. When this skill is learned, the blind student will be able to participate with sighted neighborhood friends on ice-skating parties. The blind student will be able to talk intelligently and enthusiastically on skating with sighted people. There is bound to be a better understanding of ice-hockey telecasts. The blind skater will be able, as a parent someday, to share this sport with his family.

From our experience I would recommend this adventure. As one skater says: "We have met a great many wonderful people. They, in turn, have met us. We hope and believe these people know we are as normal as sighted skaters in our problems and gains."

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BROTHERS ... & OTHERS

Massachusetts Hails New Chapter. "A new addition to a family is generally referred to as a 'blessed event' and is cause for general rejoicing--and that's what the Associated Blind of Massachusetts are doing right now," according to Rosamond Critchley, our diligent correspondent from the New England state. The Associated Blind of Watertown, having applied for membership at the ABM executive committee meeting January 25, was unanimously admitted and welcomed. Organized in mid-November, the Watertown chapter had 15 members at the time of its affiliation under the presidential leadership of Edward Connelly, The Watertown association is the second to be admitted in recent months; at the 1963 convention of the statewide group last October, the Greenfield-Athol Association of the Blind joined the ranks as a new member.

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Nebraskans Re-elect Swager. Jack Swager was elected to his seventh two-year term as president of the Omaha Association of the Blind at its January 15 meeting, along with the following officers: Henry Vetter, first vice president; Mrs. Frances Rezek, second vice president; Mrs. Betty Grunow, recording secretary; Mrs. Ana McGrew, treasurer, and Marilyn Walter, corresponding secretary.

Maxine Pugh writes from Omaha that the state's white cane law has been inserted into the Driver's Manual and printed in the telephone directory. Nebraska's Governor Morrison was among those state executives who had the good sense last year to declare October 16 as official White Cane Safety Day.

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"Come Into the Kitchen.” During the summer months of 1963, writes our Colorado correspondent Ethel Mahaney, an unusual project was undertaken in Denver. It began when Thais Lampe, state supervisor of home teachers, attended a meeting of the Parents of Blind Children. At that meeting it was disclosed that six teen-age blind girls, all attending public schools, had not been admitted to the cooking classes in their schools.

When Thais became aware of their problem, and of the distress of the girls' mothers, she decided to do something about.it. Soliciting the help of Dianne McGeorge, a totally blind housewife who is an expert in the cuisine department, she worked out a plan for private instructions--to be held in the kitchens of two of the mothers.

The six girls, ranging in age from 14 to 17, were eager students. They were taught to fry meat, to measure flour, to break eggs and to assemble salads. Both Thais and Dianne report that their six-week course was most successful as a first step--and all now hope that a more advanced course in the culinary arts can be arranged for next summer.

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Jernigan to Address Employment Conference. Kenneth Jernigan, director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind and first vice president of the National Federation of the Blind, will be a major speaker at the Regional Conference of the President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped to be held May 22 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Other speakers on the program will be Harold Russell, former National Commander of the Disabled Veterans, and Louis Levine, director of the U.S. Employment Service.

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Schedule of Coming Conventions. Here is a partial list of noteworthy conventions slated for the coming months:

The Virginia Federation of the Blind meets April 24 through 26 at the George Mason Hotel in Alexandria, under auspices of the host Potomac Federation.

The Iowa Association of the Blind will gather in Vinton June 5 through June 7.

The American Association of Instructors of the Blind stages its biennial convention at the Perkins School, Watertown, Massachusetts, June 21 to 25.

The American Association of Workers for the Blind plans its convention for New York's Statler-Hilton Hotel, July 27 to 31.

The National Church Conference of the Blind will meet at the Severin Hotel in Indianapolis, Indiana, July 27 to 30.

The World Council for the Welfare of the Blind announces its third quinquennial convention for the Hotel Statler-Hilton and the U.S. Building, New York City, July 31 to August 12.

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Iowa Officials Found Fired Up. "Sirens whined, fire trucks roared, and smoke poured up from the roof of the Iowa Commission for the Blind Friday night," reported the Waterloo COURIER in a recent article. "There was a sound of breaking glass as firemen burst through a door to gain entry to the building, and the pounding of boots on stairs as they raced up seven flights.

"The fire fighters broke down a fire door to reach the roof and found three officials of the Commission barbecuing steaks in a fireproof area on the sundeck. The smoke came from the damp hickory chips they were using.

"Kenneth Jernigan, Commission director, said the firemen asked if there were enough steaks for them, too. Jernigan's guests were his administrative assistant, James Valliant, and Manuel Urena, program supervisor of the Orientation Center."

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Invention Aids Blind in Writing. The "Scott Writing Guide," an invention of George Scott of Trenton, New Jersey, was recently tested with favorable results by members of the Trenton Association of the Blind, according to a news report in the TRENTON EVENING TIMES. Designed to meet the needs of blind persons who enjoy writing their own letters, the guide reportedly has two distinctive features. It automatically spaces lines on standard stationery and there is a special provision for below-the-line letters. The writer executes each line in a framed space, shaped like the opening of a small mail box. When a "g" or similar letter is needed, slight pressure on a lever lowers the guide, which then springs back to its regular position. The device was introduced to the Trenton group by Association President Robert Owens.

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Hadley Offers Rehab Course. The Hadley School for the Blind announces that enrollments are being accepted for a new course, "Introduction to Rehabilitation," to be taught by Robert McQuie, holder of a master's degree in guidance. The text is Dr. Herbert Rusalem's Rehabilitation of the Blind. The course is of an introductory nature and will be followed by others more specialized. It is said to be designed to acquaint the blind person with every service and resource available to him and to encourage the grasping of opportunities open to him despite his handicap by acquiring new skills, information and training. Braille, the guide dog, and the use of the cane are among the topics to be explored. The Hadley School is located at 700 Elm Street, Winnetka, Illinois.

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Library of Congress Expands. The Division for the Blind of the Library of Congress is "steadily increasing the number and quality of its services," according to an announcement by Robert S. Bray, Division chief. He notes that a substantial collection of braille musical scores and texts has recently been acquired through the cooperation of various institutions including London's Royal National Institute for the Blind. JACK AND JILL, the popular magazine for youngsters, is now available on talking book records beginning with the January 1964 issue, in addition to the continuing braille edition. A journal called TAPE RECORDING, the only American magazine on the subject, has been available in tape-recorded form for some months and may be borrowed by any blind person either directly from the Division for the Blind or from any of the Regional Libraries for the Blind which circulate magnetic tape.

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Welfare Project Reduces Snooping. A promising new way to reduce investigations and invasions of client privacy by social workers is suggested by a public welfare demonstration project currently underway in West Virginia. Sponsored jointly by the State Department of Welfare and the Federal Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the project involves the use of a self-administered questionnaire to verify continuing eligibility for old-age assistance--an approach which might result, says an official HEW release, "in a savings of staff time." The potential savings to the client in dignity and privacy may be surmised from the Department's explanation that "under present procedures, a public welfare worker must periodically talk with the old-age assistance recipient, either in the office or at the recipient's home, to determine whether there has been any change in the recipient's financial status since the last interview."

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ID Cards for Illinois Clients. Director Harold O. Swank of the Illinois Public Aid Department has announced that identification cards will be issued to recipients of public aid to the blind, aged, dependent children and disabled in the state. He said the ID cards are the first in a series of revisions of public aid procedures relating to medical services. Under the system, aid recipients are required to present the card to a pharmacist or physician when requesting drugs or treatment. Swank expressed belief that the cards will expedite processing and payment of bills and, to a large extent, eliminate the possibility of fraud.

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Summer School and Camp for Blind Youth. A special summer school and camping program for intellectually gifted blind youth between the ages of 14 and 20 will be offered by the New York Institute for the Education of the Blind for the summer session of July and August this year. Forty blind youths will be chosen from the U.S. and Canada to participate in the unique program. Information and applications may be obtained from the Principal of the New York Institute for the Education of the Blind, 999 Pelham Parkway, Bronx, New York 10469.

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Tells Colors by Touch. We are indebted to THE LEADER, the outstanding journal of the Associated Blind of New Jersey, for the strange account of a Flint, Michigan woman who is not blind but spends a lot of time blindfolded for doctors. Mrs. Patricia Stanley is somehow able to tell colors by touch. Her amazing faculty reportedly has doctors speculating about the possibility of blind persons learning to read large print by touch.

If her secret can be learned, the doctors believe there is a chance that blind persons could be taught to read large, color-printed letters by touch, as braille is now read. Mrs. Stanley has been subjected to close observation and those who have watched her are convinced she is not tricking them. The odds against her guessing the colors correctly as often as she has identified the colors are quoted at one in 10,000.

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Capps Joins Governor's Committee. Donald C. Capps, second vice president of the National Federation of the Blind and president of South Carolina's Aurora Club for the Blind, has been appointed by Governor Donald Russell to serve as a member of the S.C. Governor's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped. Among his many other activities on behalf of the blind Capps is editor of the PALMETTO AURORAN, a quarterly publication of the Aurora Club.

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Denverites Buy Braille Writers. Funds for the purchase of four braille writers were authorized at a January meeting of the Denver Area Association of the Blind as a means of encouraging the work of community groups engaged in volunteer braille transcribing. Two of the writers will be loaned indefinitely to the Denver Red Cross and to the Sisterhood of Temple Emmanuel, two groups whose volunteer services have been especially outstanding. Of the remaining two machines one will be retained for the use of Association members, and one is to be sold to a blind member with active writing interests.

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Michigan Aid Increase Seen. A proposal to increase the maximum monthly benefit from $80 to $90 for recipients of aid to the blind, along with old-age and disabled aid recipients, was included by Governor George Romney of Michigan in a recent special message to the state legislature. The governor said the increase would cost the state $974,000 while saving local units of government $382,000.

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"Eyeball Network" Saves Sight. Cherryl Lynn Hammons of Antlers, Oklahoma, was only two years old when she accidentally burned the cornea of one eye on her daddy's cigarette, according to an item in THE LEADER (published by the Associated Blind of New Jersey). A new cornea was needed immediately; but when eye banks in the area were contacted, no corneas were available for use in the child's case.

Cherryl Lynn is three now, and she can see--thanks to the "Eyeball Network" and a 90-year-old man's eye. The Eyeball Network is an organization of "ham" radio operators covering 16 states. Their purpose is to locate corneas for surgical transplant. It was Travis Harris, a network member in Oklahoma City, who flashed the word of Cherryl Lynn's plight. And the word was picked up in Chicago, where a 90-year-old man who had pledged his eyes to the Illinois Society for the Prevention of Blindness had died.

The precious cargo was flown to Oklahoma City--and now a little girl looks at the world through a 90-year-old "window."

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Workshop for Arts Teacher. A workshop program for industrial arts teachers of the blind will be held from June 29 to August 7 this year at State University College, Oswego, New York. Jointly sponsored by the Vocational Rehabilitation Association, the American Foundation for the Blind and the American Association of Workers for the Blind, the workshop program is designed to provide the industrial arts teacher who is working with blind students an opportunity to increase his technical competence and understanding and to gain a better insight and appreciation of approved methods and techniques of providing industrial arts activities for blind students. Information may be obtained from Dr. James R. Hastings, State University College, Oswego, New York.

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