THE BRAILLE MONITOR

JULY 1968

INKPRINT EDITION

VOICE OF THE NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

The National Federation of the Blind is not an organization speaking for the blind-it is the blind speaking for themselves

Printed at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708

Published monthly in braille and distributed free to the blind by the National Federation of the Blind. President: Kemeth Jernigan, 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, 50309.

Inkprint edition produced and distributed by the National Federation of the Blind.

EDITOR: Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue, Sacramento, California, 95822.

Associate Editor: Hazel tenBroek, 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708.

News items should be sent to the Editor.

Address changes should be sent to 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708.

PROFESSOR JACOBUS tenBROEK
1911-1968

TABLE OF CONTENTS

HE LIVED--HE LABORED--HE LOVED

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
by Kemeth Jernigan

JACOBUS tenBROEK--SYNOPSIS

MEMORIAL ASSEMBLY SPEECHES

Jacobus tenBroek and the Three R's: Relevance, Reason, and Resistance
by Richard B. Wilson
Professor of Political Science
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Jacobus tenBroek--Student
by Charles Aikin
Professor of Political Science
University of California, Berkeley

Jacobus tenBroek--Administrator
by Woodrow Borah
Professor of History
University of California, Berkeley

Jacobus tenBroek--Scholar
by Frank Newman
Professor of Law
University of California, Berkeley

Jacobus tenBroek--My Brother
by Mrs. Thomas K. Preston
Laton, California

Jacobus tenBroek--The Dreamer
by Russell Kletzing
Assistant Chief Counsel, California Water Resources Department

Jacobus tenBroek--Friend
by Perry Sundquist
Chief, Division for the Blind California Department of Social Welfare

Jacobus tenBroek--The Man and the Movement
by Kemeth Jernigan
Director, Iowa Commission for the Blind

LETTERS FROM STUDENTS

LETTERS FROM FRIENDS

INDIVIDUAL ENCOMIUMS Professor Jacobus tenBroek
by Mark Lipton

Jacobus tenBroek--Professor
by Manuel Urena

Profile of an Outstanding American
by Donald Capps

A Tribute to Jacobus tenBroek
by Tom Parker

As I Knew Dr. Jacobus tenBroek
by Sanford Allerton

Jacobus tenBroek Chief-of-Staff
by Dr. Jacob Freid

EDITORIALS AND OTHER TRIBUTES

MEMORIAL RESOLUTIONS

EULOGY

HE LIVED--HE LABORED--HE LOVED

I have lived; I have labored; I have loved. I have lived in them I loved; labored for them I loved; loved them for whom I labored; my labor has not been in vain. To love and to labor is the sum of living, and yet how many think they live who neither labor nor love! Again, how many labor and love, and yet are not loved; but I have been loved, and my labor has not been in vain. Now, the Day is far spent and the night is at hand, and the time draweth nigh when Man resteth from his labors, even from his labors of love; but still he shall love and he shall live where the Spirit sayeth he shall rest from his labors, and where his works do follow him, for he entereth into rest through and to Him who is life, and light, and love. [Anne Manning, The Household of Sir Thomas More, p. 173]

Mary and I extend our deepest sympathy to you and to your family. The loss California, the whole nation shares, the valor and the example! What our land would be, if all could love and labor and accomplish as he, and Sir Thomas More.

Back to Contents

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

As all Federationists know, our founder and leader, Dr. tenBroek, died on March 27, 1968. This entire MONITOR is being devoted to his memory. It is our attempt to put into tangible form a symbol of our love and respect, our gratitude for what he was and did and our sense of loss. It is a means of commemorating the past and rededicating ourselves to the work ahead.

On May 5, a memorial service was held in Berkeley at the Earl Warren Legal Center on the campus. The people who spoke on that occasion were Dr. tenBroek's academic colleagues, his co-workers in the organized blind movement and his sister. Our Memorial Issue sets forth the statements which were made at the May 5 ceremony. It would be impossible to reprint the hundreds of letters which Hazel has received from throughout this country and the world, but we have done the best we could with excerpts from some of them. We have also printed a few of the more notable editorial comments which have appeared in newspapers and periodicals and which have come from individuals. Along with these are excerpts of some statements from prominent public officials. Included also are a number of the many memorial resolutions, adopted in Professor tenBroek's honor. Finally, we have concluded the issue with the eulogy given at the funeral by Rabbi Norman Feldheym.

Those who were present at the 1967 Federation convention in Los Angeles will remember with what obvious pride and affection Dr. tenBroek presented Rabbi Feldheym at the first session to deliver the invocation. He said: "I am glad to present him, not just because he is my brother-in-law but also because he is a very nice guy. "

At the funeral the depth of emotion in Rabbi Feldheym's tones made it clear that the pride and affection were more than reciprocated. Even more than his words, his manner of delivery and his inflection conveyed the greatness of Chick's life and the sense of loss. To many of us Dr. tenBroek was far more than a mere leader--although he was certainly that. He was the very essence of stability and integrity. He was our model of life as it should be lived and of service to others. This issue of the MONITOR is our way of saying thanks, our means of expressing love.

Kenneth Jernigan
President, National Federation of the Blind

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--SYNOPSIS

Jacobus tenBroek died in Presbyterian Hospital, San Francisco, on March 27, 1968 of cancer. He is buried in the gently rolling hills not far from Berkeley, overlooking San Francisco Bay and with a lovely view of Mount Tamalpais, a prospect of which he was very fond.

Born in a log cabin in Alberta, Canada in 1911 to the wife of a prairie homesteader. Jacobus tenBroek was partially blinded by an accident when he was seven. Sympathetic ophthalmia, which set in immediately, eventually lost him the other eye. His mother made the decision which moved the family to California in 1918 so that Chick could be enrolled in the State School for the Blind.

At the School in Berkeley he came under the tutelage of the man who was to start him on his way to intellectual achievement and who instilled in him his strong sense of social responsibility--that great teacher, Dr. Newel Perry. Each was destined profoundly to affect the life of the other.

Chick graduated from the University of California with highest honors in History in 1934. Pursuing his profession as teacher and scholar, tenBroek earned two post-graduate degrees from Boalt Hall of Law--an LL. B in 1938, and a J. S. D. in 1940. He was on the staff of the California Law Review and was a member of the Order of the Coif. He was Brandeis Research Fellow at Harvard Law School and from that institution earned an S. J. D. He went from there to the faculty of Chicago Law School where he remained until World War II decimated the enrollment. In 1942 he happily returned to California to begin a teaching career at the University of California at Berkeley which lasted for a quarter-century. During this period Professor tenBroek published more than fifty articles and monographs--famous for their content, footnotes, and length. He authored or coauthored four books. His work dealt with the fields of welfare, government, and law and established his reputation as one of the nation's foremost scholars in these fields. These works are frequently cited as authority by lawyers, judges, and scholars alike.

In 1950 tenBroek was appointed by the then Governor Earl Warren to fill an unexpired term on the State Social Welfare Board. He was subsequently appointed to three additional four-year terms. Through his thirteen years of service on the Board, and his writing and addresses over more than a twenty-five year span, Dr. tenBroek became recognized nationally as one of the serious and original thinkers in the broad field of public welfare. His work will profoundly affect its course for many years to come.

In 1934, at the age of 23, young Chick tenBroek joined with his old teacher, Dr. Newel Perry, and others, to found the California Council of the Blind. In 1940 this young professor, encouraged and abetted by his old mentor, founded the National Federation of the Blind. Dr. tenBroek's own successful struggle for independence stood in stark contrast to the stifling atmosphere of overprotective shelter, enforced dependency, and foreclosed opportunity which everywhere prevailed among the agencies and institutions for the blind. The worst effect of this prejudice, in his view, was to isolate these sightless "wards" not only from normal society but even from significant association with one another--by depriving them of the means of responsibility for mutual effort and collective self-advancement. In founding the NFB, and serving as its dynamic leader for twenty-three of its twenty-eight years of existence, tenBroek envisioned a democratic people's movement in which blind men and women would no longer be led but would take the lead themselves in their own cause, and in so doing point the way to a new age of individual independence and social integration for all blind Americans.

The vision of world federation--of the blind of all nations, free and united, had long been with Jacobus tenBroek. When the International Federation of the Blind was formed at organizational meetings in Phoenix and New York in 1964, he was elected its first President.

In 1937 Jacobus tenBroek was married to Hazel Feldheym in Reno, Nevada. They had three children--Jacobus Zivnuska, whom many of you know as "Dutch", Anna Carlotta, now Mrs. Steven Hammond, and Nicolaas Perry. A son was born to Dutch and his wife, Kathy, on December 29, 1968. He bears the illustrious name of Jacobus Newel Perry tenBroek.

Back to Contents

MEMORIAL ASSEMBLY SPEECHES

Chairman--Mr. Kenneth Jernigan

JACOBUS tenBROEK AND THE THREE R'S: RELEVANCE, REASON, AND RESISTANCE

by Richard B. Wilson

That Jacobus tenBroek was one of the few truly great teachers of his generation would be universally affirmed, both by his students and by his colleagues. Not all would agree, however, concerning the characteristics which define a great teacher. And because the judgmental task here is difficult, there is too often a disgraceful retreat from reason to fantasy when practitioners of the art are challenged to specify the qualities of pedagogical excellence. For example, the mercurial but often insubstantial commentator, Jacques Barzun, would persuade us that the core of the educational enterprise - the transmission of knowledge and understanding-must remain ineffable. "The mystery here, " he concludes, "is that no one can tell when or how it happens. It is simply true of human beings that they can communicate."

Those who desire to communicate more effectively about the quality of great teaching than Mr. Barzun is apparently capable of doing, often sink clamorously from sight in a bog of passionate ambiguity. The preeminent educator, we are told, is warm, humane, and sympathetic to the individualized needs and aspirations of his students; yet he is firm and unyielding in subjecting them to academic discipline. He nurtures, encourages, and stimulates while simultaneously he directs, controls, and coerces. He is at once colleague and master, friend and parent, fellow-citizen and sovereign authority. He professes with great clarity and imagination the abiding truths of his domain, yet is sensitive to the unique character of their construction and application. He is, in short, a man for all intellectual seasons.

But to explore the dead ends of empty rhetoric is to risk becoming entrapped in them. So it is not without trepidation that I suggest a measure for excellence in teaching that sophisticates a prosaic and hoary metaphor: the three R's. For the purpose of these remarks they shall signify relevance, reason, and resistance. That these truly are the marks of scholastic preeminence is confirmed by the fact that Jacobus tenBroek embodied and projected them in transcendent degree.

To be intellectually, and hence educationally, relevant is to look in two directions at once, to the past and to the present. Within the bewildering legacy of human ideas, relevance is an historical guide for distinguishing the central from the peripheral, the enduring from the transient. Of greater moment, relevance signifies the imaginative capacity to identify and to capture the contemporary but often deceptive configuration of those concepts which possess historical vitality and persistence. Oliver Wendell Holmes' oft-quoted aphorism that the life of the law has been experience, not logic, makes the point with greater economy. For example, the relevant model of the ancient but enduring notion of equity is not that of an escape route from the restrictions of feudal tenure; rather, it is a shorthand formula for reasonable classifications within the bureaucratic restraints of the modern welfare state. Similarly, the relevant dimension of human freedom is no longer defined by the personal whim of a despotic sovereign, but by the impersonal efficiency of the organized establishment.

That the scholarship and the pedagogy of Professor tenBroek were focused upon the architectonic themes of Anglo-Saxon constitutional development is one measure of his relevance: that he preceded the vast majority of his colleagues in perceiving the emergent and contemporary contours of these themes is a greater measure. Early on he recognized that liberty and equality are but two sides of the same constitutional coin; that equality of opportunity is the common libertarian and hence constitutional demand of all disadvantaged groups in society, including the poor, the culturally deprived, the ethnic minorities, the physically handicapped, the student population, and others. Further, he clearly perceived that equal access to the resources of the community, and thereby to independence and to personal dignity, are most critically frustrated by the institutionalized inequities of the social service state and by a pervasive tendency of administrative bureaucracies to custodialize and to immobilize the very groups they are charged with emancipating. He saw, in short, what so many of us have missed: that the liberal ethic is always imperiled by its successes; that the cutting edge of tyramy is perpetually migratory; that the locus of constitutional struggle is forever shifting.

Upon these and other equally prescient insights was constructed the elaborate analytical structure which informed his scholarship and pervaded his teaching. The search for relevance inextricably tied the research to the pedagogy, producing an integrated whole which appealed powerfully to the sense of urgency so widely shared by our students today.

To say that Jacobus tenBroek's scholarly work was brilliantly reasoned, or that the ultimate object of his teaching was promotion of the capacity to reason, is to belabor the obvious. These characteristics, moreover, are the common currency of all academicians, and all who survive in the business possess them in greater or lesser degree. But reason is a slippery concept. It is conventionally used to designate such disparate phenomena as statistical correlations, taxonomic systems, scientific explanations, or argumentative justification. The critical issue here pertains to the goals and objectives toward which rational enquiry is to be directed. For Jacobus tenBroek the reasoning process was a purposive one and its end was not mere description of the human condition, however accurate, but, rather, the elevation of it. He believed profoundly that the true stature of reason is no longer visible in most technical, academic scholarship; that the prevailing sense of academic order is madequate because it lacks relation to the real chaos of existence. And so both in his research and in his teaching he exploited, wherever possible, the meagre results of behavioral "science"; he was never exploited by its methods. Nor was he seduced by an irrational belief that the regularities of social behavior and those of planetary mechanics are revealed by equivalent methodological operations. He knew that civilization is not "a system" and that insight cannot be captured in statistical correlations. It is in this sense that his teaching reflected a fusion of reason and relevance that for his students, at least, made of the university something more than "a knowledge factory". His conception of the role of reason in the educational enterprise identifies him with Nietzsche's insight that: "The advancement of learning at the expense of man is the most pernicious thing in the world. It debases conviction, which is the natural purpose of learning; learning itself is finally destroyed. It is advanced, true, but its effect on life is nil or immoral. "

In a recent essay on The Future of Teaching the classical scholar, William Arrowsmith, warns us that "we lack educators— by which I mean teachers in the Socratic sense, visible embodiments of the realized humanity of our aspirations, intelligence, . . . and concern. "In the Socratic tradition, I take it that a teacher's embodiment of the most basic aspirations and concerns of his students is more than merely rhetorical. It is, rather, a function of his total involvement and experience with the critical tensions of his time and his society. It emerges ultimately from his will, capacity, and determination to resist; to resist the conventional, the pretentions, and above all, the arrogant and illegitimate uses of power.

In all the dimensions of his life and work, Jacobus tenBroek was passionately and effectively engaged in resisting the myopia, callousness, and tyramy which are so prevalent in men and institutions of authority. Substantial evidence of his critical activism is, and will long be, apparent in the structure and operation of organizations of and for the physically handicapped; in the welfare bureaucracies of both state and nation; in the administrative machinery of this, and perhaps other, academic institutions. In this sense he was, indeed, a "visible embodiment" of his own premises and convictions, and his teaching was thereby infused with a drama, vitality, and meaning that is seldom equalled and never surpassed. The effect on his students was charismatic and, if I may again cite Professor Arrowsmith, "Charisma in a teacher is not a mystery or nimbus of personality, but a radiant exemplification to which the student contributes a correspondingly radiant hunger for becoming. "

These, then, are the substantive characteristics of the preeminent educator: an exquisite sense of relevance, a humanistic rationality, and a demonstrated capacity to resist the irrelevant and the pernicious. Procedurally, Jacobus tenBroek communicated these qualities to his students by means of a subtle but devastating mastery of the Socratic method. The technique was an intimate reciprocal of the content. Together, they constituted a unique product, only to be fully savored in the performance and certain to be distorted by eulogy. The most significant tributes which we can pay to Jacobus tenBroek as a teacher are these: American universities will find no better model toward which to direct their belated, frantic, but inevitable efforts to rehabilitate the teaching function; academicians will find no superior demonstration that teaching is^ a source of scholarly vigor and a proof of scholarly wisdom; younger teachers will find, as we older ones who were his students have already found, that to follow his example, however imperfectly, is to honor and to vindicate the only things that really matter in the life of the mind and in the spirit of the citizen.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--STUDENT

by Charles Aikin

I will speak of Jacobus tenBroek as he began his studies as a junior in the Department of History at Berkeley. I recall much of his hopes, his plans, and outstanding achievements as he moved toward the completion of his university training. In his graduate studies in the Department of Political Science he met the requirements for the Master's degree for which he completed a brilliant thesis on the National Commerce Court. During the following three years in the law school he continued a close association with the Department of Political Science. He astounded his friends during these six years by his understanding and intellectual vigor. Beyond all that, those who came to know Jacobus felt his great stimulation and warmth. At the close of those years his basic and advanced training was largely completed.

The first time Jacobus and I met was in my State Government course about thirty-five years ago, and teaching in my case was relatively new. During those years I was sensitive to the possibility of some sort of trick being played in class--actually nothing like that ever happened--but certainly that day something was happening. Shortly after the class started there was a clear, strange, clicking sound. I stopped talking and looked around only to find that the source of the sound was not visible. I continued with the class, and the sound started again. Once more I stopped talking; again the sound stopped. I spoke a third time, but by then the clicking had ended and it was largely forgotten.

When the class adjourned half-an-hour or more later, a husky towheaded lad stopped at the desk:

"I am afraid I bothered you."

"What do you mean?" I asked.

He replied, "1 am blind and I feel that I disturbed you while I was taking notes."

The lad, of course, was Jacobus. We chatted for a while; and that was the beginning of a warm friendship that continued until Jacobus' death. This junior student had the capacity to learn quickly, to retain what he learned, and to work effectively with all that he had studied. As he drove ahead it became clear that, although Jacobus' future might not be clear in detail, the future he sensed was bright and challenging.

Chick--we all came to call him Chick--had to face many problems. Of course he was blind, but Chick did not consider that a serious handicap. Rather he felt that the major problem was the lack of understanding of blindness by those who could see. However, the problems ahead were serious. During Chick's prime period of growth as a student the Nation was in trouble, for the great depression was on everyone. Most students sensed an uncertain future. Nevertheless through all this period Chick remained calm. Clearly he was a Knight--undaunted. In the long future he would not depend on his blindness for public support.

After long consideration, Chick had to select one of two options: either continue in student activities that would take him all over the state or end all such activities and turn toward a meaningful career. He settled for the latter.

Chick, still an undergraduate, made the decision to undertake a professional program and drive in the direction of teaching and research, law, or both. Although he had not tested his qualities as a teacher, he soon had an opportunity to show his abilities. One day I went to my Administrative Law class very hoarse. I met Chick in the hall and asked him to take over. With only limited preparation--his notes were at home--he performed almost flawlessly.

Not long afterward appendicitis took me to the hospital. Chick substituted for me for two weeks in the class on Constitutional Law. During my recuperation three students called to give the good wishes of the class. During the visit one of the students asked: "Just how blind is Mr. tenBroek? I explained that Mr. tenBroek was completely blind; but the students were most skeptical. They said that during one class meeting two students sitting in the back of the room began to play tic-tac-toe, and after each game they would hold up the paper to show who had won. They thought it was great sport. However, Chick broke away from a discussion with a student in the front of the room and turned in the direction of the two players: "How," he asked, "can you compare the issue under discussion with the rules of tic-tac-toe?" My visitors asked, "How could he do it if he is blind.?" I replied that I did not know. Days later I asked Chick if there was any trouble in the class while he was in command. No, he said, except for one slight disturbance, but it did not last long. Then I asked what he knew of tic-tac-toe. He laughed heartily, "I guess I was right."

Chick became an undergraduate member of a voluntary Sunday public law group of graduate and undergraduates. He remained a member of this organization for more than a quarter of a century. In this association Chick became my personal aid and, when I was away, the man in charge. The work of this group led to many publications ranging from term papers to books. Chick, one might guess, produced the first completed book. This organization grew and developed in part to Chick's thoughtfulness and stimulation--and kindness.

In the long period which Chick was here his influence on his colleagues has never been matched. At no time--in my presence--did he lose his temper, regardless of provocation. His standards were of the best, in the classroom and outside. We think of Chick today for so much that he accomplished. And he is deep in our hearts. Chick was a gentleman, a scholar, and a friend.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--ADMINISTRATOR

by Woodrow Borah

A personality as vivid, as cordial, stimulating, forceful, and as many-sided as Jacobus tenBroek (Chick to almost everyone) cannot easily be caught in words even in his relations with a small group or a single person. Let me try to describe him as the colleague and friend I knew in the Department of Speech and in our mutual interests in research for nearly twenty years. We met in the summer of 1948 in Washington, D. C. , when Chick was gathering material on anti-slavery agitation before the Civil War as a major inspiration for the Fourteenth Amendment. His study has since been published as the Anti-Slavery Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment , in hardcover and in paperback. It was through Chick that I entered the Department of Speech on this campus. It was then a varied, lively department, dedicated to liberal education. It had within it the beginnings of a faculty recruited from many fields, who by communication among themselves, a searching concern for evidence, rigor in thought, and dedication to discussion with students could hope to form a liberal arts college in themselves, recreating within one department the personal relations of intimacy, guidance, and stimulation among students and teachers that are too often lost on a large campus. Chick had a vision that across the country men of broad culture, genuinely interested in teaching, whose opposition to inflexible traditions or independence of spirit made it difficult for them to find haven in standard faculties, could be induced to form an even better faculty for the department. It would continue the brilliant tradition of teaching already established and bring a new dimension in breadth and excellence of research to give a solid foundation to that teaching both within the department and within the university. It was a vision, in short, of a Department of Speech that would have the brilliance and vitality of the famous Salon des Refuses set up by the French impressionist painters when they could not find acceptance within tradition-bound exhibitions.

In those first months of the academic year 1948-1949, as I worked to learn the techniques of teaching and the new field that transfer to Speech meant, I sat at the rear of one of Chick's freshman classes, his celebrated beginning Speech for prelegal students. One forgot that the man was blind as he memorized each voice and dealt with each student by name in a steady searching application of the Socratic method. By all normal rules the class of a hundred odd was far too large for the method, but with Chick there was a steady dialogue in which the class blundered and fought, but in the end learned to read with close attention to text and implication and came to express understanding in concise, rigorous prose. As I probed into this miracle which unfolded before my eyes, I learned that it was based upon painstaking preparation; behind the apparently artless questioning and discussion lay a sophisticated careful progression that led the students in the end to comprehension of the material and mastery of the techniques. Interviews and discussion brought a treasured dimension of personal acquaintance and dialogue for each student and a knowledge of the student that could be recalled years later upon hearing a voice. I recall one feat of memory in another class that perhaps put the capstone on Chick's reputation. When a student entered late on a day when three were absent, Chick welcomed the student by name from the sound of the footstep.

Some years later when Chick became chairman of the department, I saw another aspect of his talent: the administrator and academic planner. A rapidly growing department that until then could be run fairly casually with the help of one secretary had to be reorganized to handle far more teachers and an expanding curriculum. Here other facets of character came to light, perhaps chief among them, endless patience in exploration and discussion, ability to formulate a plan that brought to harmony the best of all ideas presented from widely varied points of view, and a painstaking care in presentation so that each document sent forward was tightly drawn, accurate, and complete with all necessary supporting data and explanation. It was because of these skills and the respect that they evoked in campus administrations that the Department of Speech, poorly provided with budget and facilities until then, achieved parity with other departments, and indeed secured assistance for its students and teachers that many other departments were too timid or negligent to ask for. Equally under Chick's leadership a thoroughly reorganized curriculum and a strengthened faculty made teaching an electrifying communication among older and younger minds. In the end, the Department of Speech, because of the very brilliance within it, proved an unstable venture, a vision of which we perhaps were not fully worthy, and some members dispersed to other departments. Chick to Political Science, I to History. But, for the exciting years of Chick's chairmanship, the Department of Speech provided the stimulating, general education that is now being urged as antidote to over-specialization and alienation.

Chick had always envisaged the faculty of the Department of Speech as a group of colleagues who would assist each other in teaching and in research, attending each other's classes if necessary, reading each other's writing and advising on revision. He read almost everything published by any member of the department, and gladly helped any member of the department who brought him a plan for research or the draft of a manuscript. By methods not unlike those used in his Speech 1 classes, but perhaps more gently administered over a drink and a cigar, colleagues were led to bring plans for research to far broader explorations or manuscripts with good ideas and material poorly presented were stripped to a precise, taut prose.

There is no need to name names here except my own, but his aid and our friendship went far beyond serving as friendly critic and a remarkably competent wall against which to bounce one's mind, for we discovered as we discussed the world in large and in small that we had two halves that might make a whole. Chick had a truly profound knowledge of vagabondage, the law and treatment of the poor, the role of crime in the life of the poor and the handling of them from above, whereas I had some knowledge of Latin America and the medieval European world in dimensions that went beyond normal legal training based on England and the United States. When we moved from the Department of Speech, we continued our exploration in a joint seminar on the development of social welfare in the Americas since the sixteenth century. As the seminar probed into welfare policies elaborated in England and on the Continent of Europe in the sixteenth century, the line of the Reformation began to disappear and instead there began to have meaning another line between the economically active heart of Europe in southeastern England, the Rhineland delta, and northern France, and the less quickened areas elsewhere, with Protestants and Catholics in steady communication and copying each other's measures.

Out of that seminar came a colloquium for the XXXVIth International Congress of Americanists held in Spain in 1964. There Chick read a paper on the transfer of the Elizabethan poor law to the Anglo-American seaboard. I remember the session, which took place in Barcelona on a blistering summer day. The Europeans present had never seen a blind scholar and were astounded as Chick read his paper with his normal brilliant command. They were moved to an enthusiasm not often seen in such gatherings as they realized that beneath the eloquence lay a closely reasoned, precisely presented analysis that laid bare the paradox of chaining the poor in the very decades in which the Thirteen Colonies proclaimed their political independence and the rights of man.

It was on that trip to Europe for the XXXVIth International Congress of Americanists that Chick revealed yet another facet, the organizer and president of the International Federation of the Blind, for he took advantage of the need to go to Spain to open and renew contacts with organizations of the blind in England, Holland, Belgium, France, Spain, and Portugal. It was again a fascinating experience to witness the deftness with which Chick handled meetings with so many disparate and often thorny personalities, his sureness in sorting evidence, and in the end his almost uncamy ability to attract affection and trust. They were given because of the certainty that both would be reciprocated and respected.

It is difficult indeed in these years of American dominance for an American to organize and lead a private movement in many countries, but this was an unusual American.

On that note let me stop. We could wish that we had had more years of Chick, but none of us who knew him remains unaltered by those we have had.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--SCHOLAR

by Frank Newman

It is of course clear this afternoon that Chick tenBroek had a very crowded life. I am not sure it's clear also that he crowded many of our lives. I would not want you to think today that merely because we take turns talking about different aspects of his life that that was all we knew. I think all of us here are bursting withrecollections, with anecdotes. For example, I for a short time was a Shasta Road neighbor.

I am going to talk a little bit about Chick's work as law scholar and law administrator and a little bit about his work concerned with academic freedom. And yet there are so many other things.

After a big conference down in Santa Barbara where we were discussing educational administration--and this was six years before FSM, and, as Professor Borah has suggested. Chick was way ahead of all of us on some of the needs of the Berkeley campus of the University of California vis-a-vis bigness-~at that conference particularly he had been putting forth the program of the residential college long before Santa Cruz, long before the Tussman program, but, of course, nobody believed him. On the way home we were tired and stopped for a drink. I used to love to fight borderlines with him because he could always push me further than I ever imagined I would go. We had done a little bit of work together on the discrimination of hiring qualified blind people, particularly by the federal government, so I was pushing him as to whether there were any limits. We were with a group of people and he told us he was working on a case, through the Federation, of a blind chemist. We all hooted and said for goodness sakes we wouldn't want such a fellow doing research for us. After all what could he see in the test tube, et cetera, et cetera. I can still remember Chick held up his glass and he said, "What is this you're drinking? You say it's bourbon. How do you know it's bourbon? Can you see it?" We thought about that a while and agreed that maybe there was more to chemistry that those of us who were not chemists could ever think. But then I remember about once every five years I would catch him on something. This was such an occasion. Maybe that's why I remember it. So after he had scored this triumph on the blind chemist he said, "But I have a confession to make. Our next case is going to be the blind electrician and I'm not sure I want him working in my house."

And we wondered why and he said--that was one of the problems, he knew everything about everything — he said, "Well don't you realize that under the new developments electricians use different colored wires for different purposes. How's the guy going to know what color the wire is?" But, of course, the obvious answer was that there are devices in this world that we've invented, and Chick invented a few of them himself and experimented on many of them with Hazel, and we've learned an awful lot about these activities in this world.

I suppose the great thing was that Chick could outdo any of us, I thought, on what we had called the lawyer-like approach, on being a real lawyer. And so he would read all the cases, and all the statutes, and all the regulations. And he would weave them together into fantastic footnotes. But, unlike most of us, he could also look ahead. He knew where the law probably was going to go, where it should go. I remember that the first time I ever worked on one of his articles before I knew him, this is the one in the 1941 Oregon Law Revriew. It was on a topic that was very fashionable at the time just before World War II, related to special problems of expansion out of the Roosevelt New Deal. I remember at least two former Under-Secretaries of the Treasury had written articles on this subject, and the Dean of the Harvard Law School had written on this subject, and the Legislative Counsel of the Department of the Treasury had written on this subject, and here was this fellow named tenBroek with an article in the Oregon Law Review. I discovered in my work, my graduate work at the time, it was by far the best that was written. I read through it. The footnotes were so learned. And then he came to the final paragraph. As usual he pointed out that some cases went this way and some cases went that way and we had to be very analytical to be sure that the Court meant exactly what it said, and I still remember this marvelous final sentence. He said: "But considering some of these problems we must regard, " and this is a technical phrase, "the legislative intent basis of the doctrine of judicial deference to administrative conclusions of statutory law,"--all of that is very legal and scholarly--"as a still somewhat harmful bit of judicial hokum." Just think--1941.

At the same time he knew what wasn't hokum and the things that really counted. I remember after Baker against Carr, which was the big case in the United States Supreme Court not so many years ago, on legislative reapportionment, nearly all of us were terribly excited and we talked about this case at coffee and at conferences. Most of us were saying how this compared with what Felix Frankfurter had said and with what Justice Holmes had said, and with what Marshall had said. I visited the house one afternoon and to my surprise Chick was buried in this case. I don't know what he was working on at the moment that was so relevant, but he wasn't worrying about what Felix Frankfurter, or Holmes, or Marshall had said once about this same problem. He was in the current Congressional Record reading what congressmen were saying because, of course, that is what counts on legislative reapportionment--how the legislators respond. He was just way ahead as he always was.

He wrote articles in the 1930's in the California Law Review on interpretation of the Constitution. I discovered last year in a really remarkable book by three very distinguished scholars on the interpretation of treaties in international law a very significant citation of this tenBroek series of studies. I sometimes wonder, though, if they weren't committing the same sin that many of us commit, I fear, with Chick's articles. The footnotes are so complete and so fine that you always know about the article and know that anybody who cares should read them but I wonder whether these three fellows really had read the article. I had a feeling that the impact of the ideas was not so great as the impact of the footnotes seemed to be. That was always one of the problems because his product was so immense. How do you read all the tenBroek material? You can't. I suppose we need to set up a special seminar in tenBroek ideas.

Now a few comments on academic freedom. That was my first association with Chick. It was at the time of the loyalty oath and from the loyalty oath days we went into almost everything. I had never realized that academic freedom was such a big subject until Chick tenBroek taught me. There were many of us in those loyalty oath days that reminded me of the green and shallow freshman that was referred to in one of the letters read by the Chairman today or that lazy minded young man who was forced out of his laziness. A good many of us were like that in the early days of the oath. We thought it was such a simple matter and all we needed to do was strike or have a demonstration or something comparable in the years of 1949 and 1950. But Chick educated us all on the real meanings of academic freedom and, I think, he learned a little himself en route. It seemed to me that from then on it was almost every year that something would come up. We met everywhere conceivable in Berkeley. Sometimes at the house, sometimes at the Faculty Club, sometimes at the Unitarian Church, sometimes in basements. Sometimes we would plan that he would be our major speaker. I can still remember those impressive early days when Joe Tussman would hold the cardboard box and the braille notes would be on top of the cardboard box and eight or nine hundred members of the Academic Senate would be hushed because they were like the group that Professor Borah mentioned in Spain, they had not seen this phenomenon yet, and it was most impressive and even won us some votes occasionally. There were other academic freedom fights. Fashions in respectability go up and down in academic freedom fights, and I can remember at times Chick and I would meet clandestinely because if it had been known that either one of us was involved in a certain case the cause of freedom would have been hurt. Almost every year--Hazel knows best, Howie Schachman knows, and there are others who know--the impact of this man on freedom within this University is really something phenomenal, just phenomenal.

I will close with a brief comment that relates again to one of Professor Wilson's comments. I suppose I was a channel man. I assumed that you did certain things about loyalty oaths, that you did certain things about the privilege and tenure committee, and you did certain things about civil rights, and you did certain things about unfair discrimination against the blind and handicapped. I never learned from anybody else that really it was all a part of the same story. This remarkable man really did understand freedom. He knew that it was all part of the same. In the hours that were so precious last fall, I didn't have enough time to discuss with him some new discoveries of mine which I think were new to him too because neither of us had worked in international law before, but there are now out of the United Nations since December 1966, not long ago--December 1966, some documents that are called the International Covenants on Human Rights. Those documents deal with civil rights and political rights and also with social rights, and economic rights, and cultural rights. Here's a clause of one of them, for example, that Chick would have loved. "The States parties to the present covenant recognize the right of everyone to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests of progress. The States parties to the present covenant undertake to respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research and creative activity. "Now just think of that in a bill of rights. At the same time it covers education. At the same time it covers many, many things multiplied from our own Bill of Rights. This is brand new. This is the kind of document that Chick would have loved.

I suppose that it will be his teachings which will help some of us carry on through this new kind of law that is developing out of these new kinds of documents that has the machinery in it, the machinery of enforcement which always concerned this man. He would have been intrigued too by one of the legal arguments, I think. One of his most recent articles was called "The Right to Live in the World". "The Right to Live in the World" and it seems to me that that is terribly important for this reason:

You know, we talk about the constitutional clause which says "No one shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. "We used to assume that life meant that you shouldn't be executed without due process. We thought liberty meant you shouldn't be in jail without due process. Property was obvious. The tenBroek teachings, I think, are that we have a bigger meaning of life. The right to live doesn't mean the right not to go to the electric chair or anything like that. The right to live means really to live. It means life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness and the three basically are the same thing. Now, the fascination of the great tenBroek teaching, I think, is that that is even becoming a legal doctrine. He helped develop some of the roots other people are now taking on. It will be a great monument for which we can thank him partly, if we are able to go that far. I have a hunch maybe we will.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--MY BROTHER

by Lillian tenBroek Preston

Before I begin to share some of the family memories about Jacobus tenBroek with you, may I express our thanks to each of you. His mother, his wife, his children, his grandchild, his brother and sisters appreciate the tribute in your presence here today.

Jacobus was born in a log cabin. He was the second of six children whose parents were Dutch immigrants on a homestead in Alberta, Canada. He entered the first grade in a one room school house at the age of six. His family called him Co. You called him Chick.

Many memories of Chick surround events that shook the family. The first of these was the accident that caused his blindness. The next occurred when the family moved to America and bought a farm in Laton, California. It was from here, at the age of nine, that he was referred to the School for the Blind in Berkeley. From that day on he was no ordinary member of the family.

Chick came back to the farm for Christmas and summer holidays; each year he had to be conditioned to the rigors of farm work and the hot summer days. This influenced his decision to live in a cooler climate and, though teaching was no less arduous, it was more satisfying to a man of his talents.

When Dr. Newel Perry traveled to Laton to advise the family that Chick should be given no special favors because of his blindness, the word was enthusiastically received by his siblings. They were happy to guarantee that he would carry his share of the work load. For his part, Chick ably defended the rights of the minority.

He was no ordinary member of the family but he did all of the ordinary things that farm children were assigned to do. He milked cows, fed pigs, pitched hay and chopped wood. Now you know where he acquired his powerful grip and who kept the fire burning in the tenBroek home.

He took his turn riding the plow horses. He learned to swim in the irrigation ditch. He rode a bicycle by following the sound of a tin can bouncing along on a country road. A few years later he had a barrel of fun riding a tandem bicycle around the campus with anyone who was able to steer a steady course at the speed that his strong legs could pedal.

By the time he entered high school he had discovered debating as an extra curricular activity. He sharpened his wits and practiced his technique on all of us, especially his father. He soon became the family speech writer and coach. His sister, Ivy, was delivering her eighth grade valedictory address when she was overcome by stage fright. She could not remember the next line. The family stirred with uneasy apprehension. Ivy was about to run from the stage when Chick saved the day by booming out the next three words, "Let no man". Not one of us can remember the rest of that sentence but it probably was, "Let no man be silent because of fear, or for lack of a champion to lend his voice. "

In a letter dated January 28, 1931, he wrote, "College life suits me to perfection. "Indeed college life did suit him so well that he stayed, and stayed, and stayed. It used to be a family joke that Chick would have a long grey beard before he ever left the University.

During his law school days he met Hazel on a blind date. She could read all day without losing her voice. She was an expert typist. She had possibilities as a librarian and she had a job in an auto wrecking company.

Marriage was on his mind but he was unemployed. The first of many rejections for a teaching position came because sighted men, while admiring his brilliant mind, could not imagine how a blind man could teach, or maintain order, or give examinations. With dogged perseverance he persuaded the political science department of the University of California to let him have one class for one semester without pay.

The demonstration was convincing. With the twenty-five dollars a month that Hazel earned, and the promise of fifty dollars a month as a teaching assistant, marriage plans proceeded rapidly.

Theirs' was a love that could bear any burden, hide any defect, work no ill and had no fear. Theirs' was a love that could thrive on long hours of urgent work as well as those tender moments when he sat by her sick-bed and braided her hair. Theirs' was a love that grew fonder with the pain and joy of raising three lively children.

Chick's life was full of wonderful blessings and the best of these was Hazel. He was a man of great vision and she was the light of his life. Whatever is said of his achievements they are due in no small measure to his faithful wife. Chick and Hazel have been a continuous source of pride and joy to the family. They have enriched the lives of all of us.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--THE DREAMER

by Russell Kletzing

Perhaps the noblest attribute of man is his ability to dream--to dream of a better way of life; to aspire to a world in which discrimination and deprivation have been vanquished; to covet the day when man's in-humanity to man, whether through malice or ignorance, will have faded into obscurity. It is man's dreams and hopes and aspirations that have brought him from savagery to our imperfect civilization, and it is these noble impulses alone that offer him a chance to survive on this planet and
make of it a place of human fulfillment and peace.

Jacobus tenBroek had many dreams. Indeed, dreaming, aspiring, and striving were as necessary to this man as food, shelter, and human companionship. His plans and hopes for a better day for all the disabled and disadvantaged were the nourishment of his spirit and the wellspring of his ambition. The challenge of improving the lot of his fellow man honed his intellect to a razor sharpness and gave it an incisive cutting edge unsurpassed in our time. The anguish of the unfortunate--the destitute and the deprived, the scapegoat and the underdog--moved him to a compassion that warmed and strengthened all whom it touched and drove him unstintingly to pour out his vast physical and emotional energy to improve their lot--even to the very end of his life.

To be a dreamer, a thinker--to conceive bold new concepts for the solution of mankind's ageless problems--this is the stuff of which greatness is made. To create, to innovate, to propound solutions, is title enough for many a great man to a place in the hearts of future generations. But for Jacobus tenBroek, creative thinking was only a point of departure, for his ultimate genius was his ability to translate dreams and plans into action and progress. Few men in any generation have possessed his ability to inspire and galvanize colleagues and cohorts to organize effectively for collective action toward the goal of social change. The organizations he stimulated and the far-reaching progress they have achieved constitute a living monument to this great man.

And the greatest of these is the National Federation of the Blind. It has revolutionized the place of blind people in our society. It has fought successfully for legislation, state and national, that has revamped programs for the blind and dramatically improved their conditions of life. It has transformed the social security program of public assistance into a positive force for the rehabilitation of the blind--no longer designed merely to help blind people in distress, but rather to help them out of distress. The National Federation has thrown its full weight behind an effort to make rehabilitation programs into avenues leading to full competitive employment, rather than blind alleys leading to sheltered dead ends-- and this battle is still continuing. Through every technique of education, demonstration, and example, the Federation has eroded the time-dishonored stereotypes of the incompetence and helplessness of the blind. Most significant of all, however, it has, alone and unaided, placed the destiny of blind Americans at last in their own hands, and they are keeping their rendezvous. Because of the National Federation, blind people for the first time have become a vital part of the wider society, with a consequent feeling of worth and independence, which only such full and equal participation can make possible. Each of these sweeping transformations was conceived, tenderly nurtured, and steadily brought to fruition by Jacobus tenBroek.

The problems of the blind, however, do not stop at our country's borders. Indeed, in many parts of the world, the plight of our fellow blind, the depths of their deprivation, and the void of their hopelessness are almost beyond our ability to comprehend. Yet their problems are not basically different from our own: blind children everywhere need good education, free from cloying custodialism ; blind adults everywhere need jobs and the preliminary orientation and training which are a vital prerequisite to work; all blind persons need greater understanding of the abilities of the blind and the eradication of stifling superstitions and misconceptions; no blind persons need the world-pervasive, condescending, and demeaning attitudes of agencies that lead only to sheltered serfdom and trained idleness.

For Jacobus tenBroek, the problems of the blind were the stuff of dreams and the spur for inspiration. To solve the common problems of the blind throughout world, he knew there must be a worldwide organization of the blind themselves--an International Federation of the Blind. In ringing tones that none who heard them will forget, he spoke out to the blind people of America and of the world:

I propose a new and grand objective, the inaugration of an International Federation of the Blind. Let the liberating principle of Federation--the spirit of democratic association and collective self-direction--catch fire amongst the blind people of Asia, of Europe, of Africa, of Latin America, as it caught fire and blazed forth in the hearts of blind Americans.

And the spirit of International Federationism did catch fire and blaze forth--warming and encouraging the blind of every continent to make a new start and to have new hope. Though less than four years old, the International Federation has grown to a fraternity comprised of the organized blind of sixteen nations, which includes most of the major countries of the world--and it is still growing apace. It has set for itself the awesome task of using its international pool of experience and ability to attack the most critical problems of blind people everywhere. It would upgrade the standard of education and make it available to all blind children. It would employ every proven technique to break down the barriers to full and free employment of the blind. It would promulgate a standard of mobility based on the white cane-for free movement is the sine qua non of full employment and maximum participation in society.

The International Federation of the Blind has arrayed itself resolutely against those would-be benefactors whose own myopic vision perceives blind people as fitted only for subservience and lifelong protection. It stands just as irrevocably for the concept that blind people everywhere must participate--nay, lead--in formulating and carrying out the programs that are so vital to their future. The IFB is kindling the spark of self-organization in every jungle, in every desert, in every valley, and in every city of the world. It is fanning the flame of Federationism to a glistening white heat that is forging the blind of the world into a clean, new tool with which to shape a better life.

But what better way to describe the International Federation than in the words of Jacobus tenBroek:

The International Federation of the Blind is the blind people of the world speaking for themselves--acting in concert for their mutual advancement and more effective participation in the affairs of their respective nations.

It is an organization of the blind of all nations, operated by the blind of all nations, for the blind of all nations. It is an educational and fraternal association, dedicated solely to the common needs and aspirations of blind men and women everywhere in the world.

We join in this common cause to stand as living proof of the essential normality, equality, and capability of blind men and women as first class citizens of the world, as well as of their individual nations, and to furnish a beacon for the underprivileged and disadvantaged blind people of the earth--and create a potent symbol through which blind people everywhere seek the rights and opportunities that are the birthright of all men.

Jacobus tenBroek's shining dream of International Federationism has only begun to take shape. Its final fulfillment must depend on us, the blind people of all nations, who remain to carry it forward.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--FRIEND

by Perry Sundquist

It was my happy circumstance to have been closely associated with Chick for some forty-eight years. I first met Jacobus tenBroek here in Berkeley at the California School for the Blind. Our paths crossed and re-crossed continuously since then--as comrades-in-arms, as officials in public and private welfare agencies, and as lasting friends.

In evaluating a man with as many significant facets to his personality as Chick tenBroek possessed, one must choose some measurement. I suggest, as our yardstick, we make an assessment of him in terms of his contributions to his fellow men.

Dr. tenBroek's academic accomplishments as a teacher and as a scholar were so distinguished as to be widely known throughout the country, even by those of us far removed from university circles. Suffice it to say that Chick tenBroek's teaching and administrative abilities, and his great contributions to scholarship through his substantial amount of published material, have earned him a preeminent position in his chosen vocation.

However, Chick's epochal work in the broad field of social welfare has been equally outstanding and concerns us here more directly. Dr. tenBroek has made a lasting contribution directly to his fellow men. He made this contribution, moreover, on his own time and without pay, while at the same time earning his living in another field of endeavor and winning professional recognition therein.

In the main. Chick's welfare work fell into four principal areas or groups of activities.

First of all, of course--earliest in its inception and continuing over the longest period of time--was Chick's work for the California Council of the Blind. He helped to found that organization in 1934 and was one of its leaders ever since. In the latter capacity, he played a very important role in making the Council the most influential organization in the State of California in matters affecting the welfare of the blind. tenBroek himself personally conducted many of the campaigns and activities which have made California's treatment of the blind not only the most generous financially, but also the most constructive and forward-looking in the Nation. These campaigns and activities have ranged from the removal of public and private employment discrimination to the improvement of educational and welfare provisions and administration.

Second--in May of 1950 tenBroek was appointed by the then Governor of California (and now Chief Justice of the United States) Earl Warren to fill an unexpired term on the State Social Welfare Board. In 1952, again in 1956, and yet again in 1960, the Governor and the Senate reappointed Chick, this time to full four-year terms. tenBroek's contributions to the State Social Welfare Board over these thirteen years were characterized by careful and systematic performance of his duties--he always handled cases and prepared briefs and other arguments beyond his normal share of the Board's work and his membership on the Board was characterized not only by the high caliber of his work but by his wit, freshness, and good nature. He has enriched immeasurably all social welfare programs in California.

Third--"through his scholarly writings and well-nigh classic addresses over the past twenty-five years, Dr. tenBroek brilliantly developed doctrines on many important phases of social welfare. Today he is recognized nationally as a man who was one of the most serious and original thinkers in the whole field of public welfare in the United States. His work in this area will undoubtedly proundly affect the course of public welfare in this country for many years to come.

Finally--there is Chick's work for, with, and in the National Federation of the Blind, and the International Federation of the Blind. In connection with these organizations, tenBroek's welfare work was not only translated into practical achievements in behalf of his fellow blind, but in a very real sense, the National Federation of the Blind has found itself the beneficiary of all of that original thinking and brilliant exposition of doctrine. The National Federation of the Blind was organized by Chick at a meeting in Pennsylvania in 1940. Starting at that time. Chick was elected and re-elected its President every two years down to July 1961 when he gave up the post. He was elected President by acclamation at the 1966 Convention in Louisville. The organization began as an association of statewide organizations of the blind in but seven States. It has grown during these past twenty-eight years until today it has statewide affiliates or members in the fifty States of the Union, stretching from Maine to Alaska and from Florida to Hawaii. The National Federation of the Blind carries on a comprehensive program designed to improve the welfare of the blind through vigorous action on many fronts--an organization which speaks for the blind because it is the blind speaking for themselves. Chick was not only President of this organization for so many years; he was its vital center and moving force. It is impossible to over-estimate the great strides forward made by the blind in their activities and toward their goals through the vehicle supplied by Chick tenBroek and the National Federation of the Blind. The benefits accruing to all of the blind citizens of this country are tremendous.

The vision of world federation--of the blind people of all nations, free and united, joined in brotherhood and common cause--has long been with Dr. tenBroek. It was in July 1962 that this vision was transformed from dream into a practical objective. At that time, the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, in convention assembled, passed a unanimous resolution calling for the creation of a worldwide association of the blind, by the blind, and for the blind. In July of 1964, at another convention of the National Federation, fifteen international visitors from eight countries convened with the organized blind of America. There was laid the cornerstone of the coming world organization. On July 30, 1964 the International Federation of the Blind was officially inaugurated at a charter meeting of delegates and prospective members. Dr. tenBroek, the founder of the National Federation and its President for twenty-one years, was elected the first President of the International Federation.

I have told of the scholar and teacher, of the social reformer, the administrator, the leader--but the trait which pervaded the man in each of these several and diverse roles was that personal warmth which found expression in an infinitely kind and very effective concern for his fellows. Chick became an original thinker and authority in the broad field of public welfare; he became Chairman of the California State Social Welfare Board; he allowed himself to be re-elected President of the National Federation of the Blind year after year during the whole two-decade history of the organization--he did all of these things because they offered him an opportunity to serve his fellow men, to marshal his great capacities in their behalf. The high esteem in which this man was held by so many individuals and groups is a reflection of their thoughtful evaluation of him and his contributions.

During his Presidency of the Federation, Dr. tenBroek earned wide recognition by men and women in every walk of life as a dynamic leader in the broad field of social welfare. Such brilliant leadership has evoked spontaneous bursts of enthusiasm from social work organizations, public and private welfare officials, the leaders in the several learned professions, the press and radio, and innumerable individuals--all finding in Chick tenBroek a man who combined scholarly excellence with social concern. They realized that, at long last, an individual had come across the welfare scene in the United States who was doing great things and fighting an heroic battle for all of those disadvantaged groups who cannot speak effectively for themselves. Such leadership imparted a warm feeling of encouragement and strength to all those across this land, blind and sighted, who are interested in helping others to help themselves.

Chick brought to his many tasks of service a remarkable intellectual capacity, an extraordinary ability to express himself in sentences which not only made sense but were eloquent to the point of being classics, a boundless mental and physical energy which made him a prodigious worker, an enlightened yet all-pervading dedication, a constant optimism toward the eventual triumph of human values, and a deep and abiding sense of humor. It is of such ingredients that greatness is made. Chick was also singularly blessed by having constantly at his side Hazel tenBroek--a devoted wife, loving mother, and most able collaborator.

The story of Chick tenBroek is the saga of a man's selfless dedication to deeply-held convictions--the tale of one person's hard work and sacrifice of time, energy, and money to advance those programs which are already translating the hopes and dreams of blind persons into realities. He was one of the most thoughtful and kindest human beings that anyone could hope to find. At the same time. Chick was an intensely stimulating and vital individual. The sheer impact of the personality of this man has inspired thousands of sighted and blind men and women to do two won-erful things--to believe in themselves, and to want to help others.

This, then, was the man Jacobus tenBroek--a friend, a colleague, a comrade-in-arms. With his wife Hazel and their children. Chick lived atop the Berkeley hills, overlooking the University of California campus and San Francisco Bay. And as he pursued his daily existence of finding his way from home to campus classroom, to airports and meeting rooms and convention halls around the country, and back to Berkeley--those of us who were privileged to know Chick tenBroek over the years do not have to wait for the verdict of history to realize that here walked a giant amongst us.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--THE MAN AND THE MOVEMENT

by Kemeth Jernigan

If my remarks today were to have a title, it might well be: "Jacobus tenBroek--The Man and the Movement. "For the relationship of this man to the organized blind movement, which he brought into being in the United States and around the world, was such that it would be equally accurate to say that the man was the embodiment of the movement or that the movement was the expression of the man.

For tens of thousands of blind Americans over more than a quarter of a century he was leader, mentor, spokesman, and philosopher. He gave to the organized blind movement the force of his intellect and the shape of his dreams. He made it the symbol of a cause barely imagined before his conning: the cause of self-expression, self-direction and self-sufficiency on the part of blind people. Step by step, year by year, action by action, he made that cause succeed.

There are those who will tell you it all started in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania in 1940 when the blind of seven states came together to organize. But they are wrong. It started much earlier in the age-old discriminations against the blind, in the social ostracism, the second-class citizenship, and the denial of opportunity--it started in primitive times before the first recorded history, in the feelings of the community at large and the restiveness of the blind, the wish for improvement, the resistance to
a system.

Its seeds were there when the first schools for the blind were founded in America in the 1800's, when the first feeble beginnings of rehabilitation occurred in the present century--in the increasing numbers of blind college students, in the ever-expanding agencies established to serve the blind, in the custodialism, the hope, the frustration, the despair, and the courage.

But it also started on July 6, 1911, on the prairies of Alberta, Canada. On that date and in that place was born Jacobus tenBroek. His father was a strong-willed "renegade" Dutchman who first asserted his own independence by running away from home at seven to become a cabinboy. Over the next thirty years he literally sailed the seven seas and roamed most of the world, but at the ripe age of forty he felt a hankering to settle down. Through devious negotiations with the Dutch community in California he arranged a marriage with a girl whom he met for the first time on their wedding day--and promptly took up homesteading in the rugged Canadian prairies of Alberta. Like his fellow "sodbusters" of that era, Nicolaas tenBroek earned the right to own his section (640 acres) of hard ground through arduous years of clearing and breaking it. But unlike the other homesteaders, who customarily constructed their huts out of the native sod, elder tenBroek chose to build his home of logs chopped from the tall Alberta timber.

In that primitive, dirt-floor cabin, both Jacobus and his older brother Nicolaas were born. Some years later when the worst edge of grinding poverty had been turned, their father set about erecting the first frame house to be seen in that part of the province. But the rustic log cabin still stands today, hardly the worse for more than a half-century of wear--as a monument to Dutch craftsmanship and North American timber.

One day, seven-year-old Jacobus and a boyhood friend were playing at bows and arrows, taking turns aiming at a roughly-constructed bull's-eye cut out of a large piece of canvas. On a sudden whim, young tenBroek darted behind the cloth to peer through the hole at his companion. At that moment the other boy released an arrow from his bow--and for once that day the missile was perfectly on target.

The sight of one eye was irrevocably lost to Jacobus tenBroek on that afternoon. Even then, however, had he received prompt and expert medical attention he would have retained the full sight of the other eye. But in rural Alberta in those days, such care was not to be had. Before many years had gone by Jacobus was totally blind.

Perhaps it required the challenge of blindness to get his "Dutch" up. At any rate, the stubborn streak of independence he had inherited from both parents, coupled with a spartan upbringing on a prairie homestead prevented any lapse into helplessness or self-pity. The family decided to move back to California so that Jacobus could enroll in the California School for the Blind. Following this schooling he enrolled in the University of California, where he graduated with highest honors and went on
to win the Order of the Coif at the University Law School.

In 1937 he won what he was to consider his greatest triumph: the hand of his wife Hazel. The three children and the happy life which followed gave evidence to the wisdom of that judgment.

The question has been put before: What if that fateful arrow had never flown? But the arrow did fly and the results are a matter of history. Jacobus tenBroek went on to earn five college degrees, including a doctorate from Harvard and another from the University of California. He became a brilliant teacher and scholar, a renowned author, and a prominent authority in the field of social welfare. He also became the founder and leader of the National Federation of the Blind. From the very beginning the organization was active, tumultuous, dynamic, inspiring. It struggled, prospered, had civil war, and re-built. And through it all, one man was a central figure--Jacobus tenBroek. His enemies called him a tyrant, and hated him. His friends called him Chick and loved him.

I first met Chick in 1952, when the Federation was twelve years old. From that time until his death he was my closest friend--my teacher, companion, counselor, colleague, and brother. I worked with him in good times and in bad, and had occasion to know him in every conceivable kind of situation. He could be harsh and quick of temper, but he could also be gentle, considerate, and generous. He was the greatest man I have ever known.

When he began the Federation in 1940 the plight of the blind was sorry, indeed. To start any organization at all was a monumental effort. It involved finding and stimulating blind people, licking stamps and cranking the mimeograph machine, finding funds and resources, and doing battle with the agencies bent on perpetuating custodialism.

When I came on the scene in 1952, the Federation was a going concern. The convention was held in New York that year, and we had our first nationwide coverage--a fifteen minute tenBroek speech. The early and mid-fifties were a time of growth and harmony for the organized blind movement. New states were joining the Federation; money was coming into the treasury; and we established our magazine, THE BRAILLE MONITOR. By 1956 the organization had reached full maturity. Almost a thousand delegates gathered at San Francisco to hear a classic statement of the hopes, purposes and problems of the blind. It was Dr. tenBroek's banquet address, "Within the Grace of God". His addresses the following year at New Orleans--"The Cross of Blindness" and "The Right of the Blind to Organize"--were equally cogent.

Shortly after the New Orleans convention smouldering sparks of conflict within the Federation flamed into open civil war. The three succeeding conventions--Boston in 1958, Santa Fe in 1959, and Miami in 1960-- left the organization in virtual ruin. What had been a great crusade had now become a bickering political movement. Unity was gone; and although the overwhelming majority of the members still believed in the leadership of Dr. tenBroek, they seemed unable to mobilize themselves to meet this new type of challenge. The opposition established a magazine, calling it the "Free Press". There were character assassinations, charges and counter-charges. When Dr. tenBroek rose to speak to the delegates at the Kansas City convention in 1961, his voice was weary, and his words carried sorrow and defeat. He cited two lists of occurrences during the preceding year--things the Federation had done, and things that had been done to the Federation--by its own disruptive faction from within. He said that he had undergone extreme and bitter personal attack, aimed at destroying his career and his reputation. "They have called me a Hitler," he said, "a Stalin and a Mussolini. They have compared me to Caesar. "He then told the audience that he felt that he had no choice but to resign. As he talked, the dissenters shifted uneasily in their seats, the majority wept. When he finished, I walked off of that stage with him and it seemed to me as if the organized blind movement might be finished.

But the Federation did not die. From those dark days of 1961 it rallied. The resignation of Dr. tenBroek seemed to galvanize the members into action. The dissenters were expelled. Renewal and rebirth began. The 1962 convention at Detroit was a welcome contrast to the four which had preceded it. Although Dr. tenBroek was not the president, he was still the spiritual leader of the movement. This fact was made clear by his reception throughout the meeting and, particularly, at the banquet, where he delivered the principal address.

In 1965 the Federation met in the nation's Capitol. The convention was tumultuous, enthusiastic. The Vice President of the United States spoke, as did the Speaker of the House and numerous others. The climax came at the banquet when more than one hundred congressmen and senators came to the packed hotel ballroom to hear one of the truly great tenBroek speeches.

In the history of every movement there are crucial events and landmark years. 1966 was such for the Federation. When the delegates met at Louisville, there was an air of expectancy. On the afternoon of the first day. President Russell Kletzing rose to make his report. He summarized the past four years of organizational development and concluded by saying that he would not be a candidate for re-election. Then it was moved that Dr. tenBroek be elected to the presidency by acclamation. There was pandemonium. As on that other day in Kansas City, the majority wept. It was a day of complete re-dedication and renewal.

This was in July. In August Dr. tenBroek learned that he had cancer. The surgery which followed brought hope, waiting, and ultimate disappointment. As the year progressed and the pain grew, the end seemed inevitable. He came to the 1967 convention at Los Angeles in high good humor and tranquility. It was his last. There are many who say it was his greatest. When he rose to make the banquet address, it seemed a fitting climax and valedictory.

In the fall of 1967 surgery was again necessary. The cancer was widespread and incurable. On March 27, 1968, Jacobus tenBroek died. During his years he lived more and accomplished more than most men ever can or do. He was the source of love for his family, joy for his friends, consternation for his opponents and hope for the disadvantaged. He moved the blind from immobility to action, from silence to expression, from degradation to dignity--and through that movement he moved a nation.

No greater summation of his philosophy can be given than his own concluding words in his speech "Within the Grace of God. "

In the 16th century John Bradford made a famous remark which has ever since been held up to us as a model of Christian humility and great charity. Seeing a beggar in his rags, creeping along a wall through a flash of lightening in a stormy night, Bradford said: "But for the Grace of God, there go I." Compassion was shown; pity was shown; charity was shown; humility was shown; there was even an acknowledgment that the relative positions of the two could and might have been switched. Yet despite the compassion, despite the pity, despite the charity, despite the humility, how insufferably arrogant! There was still an unbridgeable gulf between Bradford and the beggar. They were not one but two. Whatever might have been, Bradford thought himself Bradford and the beggar a beggar--one high, the other low; one wise, the other misguided; one strong, the other weak; one virtuous, the other depraved.

We do not and we cannot take the Bradford approach. It is not just that beggary is the badge of our past and is still all to often the present symbol of social attitudes towards us; although that is at least part of it. But in the broader sense, we are that beggar, and he is each of us. We are made in the same image and of the same ingredients. We have the same weaknesses an d strengths, the same feelings, emotions, and drives; and we are products of the same social, economic, and other environmental forces. How much more consonant with the facts of individual and social life, how much more a part of true humanity, to say instead: "There, within the Grace of God, do go I.''

So Chick spoke in a graphic pronouncement. On another occasion he said: "Movements are built of principles and of men. Movements without principles should not exist. Movements with principles --but without men of energy, intelligence and training to give them life--cannot exist. "

He was such a man. He gave to the movement all that he had-- his time, his energy, and his love. The only thing he took in return was such satisfaction as he derived from his labors. In the hearts of blind men and women throughout America and the world, his memory lives, and will live. In the life and work of Jacobus tenBroek can be read the story of a man and a movement.

Back to Contents

LETTERS FROM STUDENTS

What can I say? When we were young, we thought him an Olympian. As we have grown older, we have become aware of him as something much finer--a man deeply involved in developing his own human qualities and those of everyone with whom he came in contact.

************

Chick was more than a mentor and esteemed advisor. He was a dear friend and model for emultation. He is truly irreplaceable.

************

When I was a seventeen year old freshman on the Berkeley campus, in 1947, I had the privilege and inspirational experience of taking speech from your husband. His concise thinking and analysis of problems, his humanitarian and liberal approach to civil rights and the solving of the problems of the minority groups, was truly inspirational to me, as well as to the thousands of other students that had the privilege of taking courses from him. I know in my own personal experience, had it not been for Dr. tenBroek's warm interest in me as an individual and in my success, I might easily have become lost among the thousands on campus, and not achieved my goals.

Of all the wonderful memories I treasure from my five years at the University, thoughts of Dr. tenBroek's classes will always be foremost in my mind.

Like many of his students, I was continually awe-struck by the magnitude of his brilliance, and amazed by his compassion as a teacher.

************

As a student in his Speech and Debating classes way back in the days of '42-45, I admired him greatly as a professor. His energy, ability and courage have been an inspiration to me these many years.

********** * *

Your husband was the finest professor I ever had and one of the strongest men I have ever known. He taught others to think--to ask of their society greater ends and more rational means.

I can only think of your husband (and my professor) as being alive. He was so full of life, and what makes life worth living, that he will never die for me until I die. He challenged and inspired me as no one else has ever done. If there is a God, it is difficult to fathom how unselfish He must be to let us have him for as long as He did.

I remember his wit, his eloquence, his discipline and his pride. I celebrate his contribution to justice in the United States and the United Nations.

My highest goal in life is that some day I may accomplish something so worthwhile that I will be deserving to call him "Chick. "

A little black cloud has hovered over me ever since I read [of his death], plus a sense of outrage, sadness and a feeling of great loss not only to myself but to the world of students who loved him and admired him. . . even in his most argumentative moments. He was not only a great man in the legal field, but in addition to being a fine teacher, a loveable, likeable man. I am certain that I am not the only student fortunate enough to have known him who will feel the great loss and the sadness that personal contact enhances by such loss.

I was shocked and saddened to read of your husband's too early death. It sometimes seems that the very finest of men are at greatest risk of dying young. I suppose that they are not, really, but that their passing is just more keenly felt and mourned.

Your husband was my teacher in his Speech course in 1953, when I was a physics student. He made the most vivid imprint upon me of any other teacher I ever had. Like the blind prophet in Oedipus Rex, he seemed to have the most certain vision. He was able to evoke an unencumbered contact of minds in his class, unlike any other educational experience I had.

Professor tenBroek was instrumental in instilling in me a deep appreciation for the institutions of civil liberties. Although I have taken a Ph. D. at Stanford and will teach at Purdue University in the fall, Professor tenBroek will be remembered for helping develop an analytical mind, as well as a sense of humility, in a "green" and arrogant freshman.

I voraciously enrolled in every class that Dr. tenBroek offered while I was attending the University, and count this among my greatest experiences. My regard and respect for this remarkable man know no bounds. We are all much the poorer for his passing, but he has certainly left behind a great legacy for he has significantly touched the lives of all who came in contact with him.

I'm sure you know that it v/as in Chick's class that I met Tom, and one of the things that drew us together was a mutual admiration of this man--a truly superb human being whose impact on his students was fundamental in character building through having a living symbol of the achievements possible to a human as a person or for mankind in general.

The two semesters I had in Chick's class made the four years of college worthwhile, and added a dimension to my life for which I'll be eternally grateful. I'm sure the hundreds of other students he had, share this feeling.

I took four courses from Professor tenBroek and, in many ways, I consider "the tenBroek experience" to have been a turning point in my educational career. The clarity of his logic pierced the lethargy of my thought processes and put me on the road to active thought. I came to Professor tenBroek as a "C" student and upon leaving his courses, received few grades less than "A". The major reason for the transformation was, I think, his turning a lazy mind towards activity. I told Professor tenBroek several times the effect his courses had had upon me-- he never failed to negative his contribution. I am only sorry now that I did not thank him more for the benefits he conferred upon me.

I have begun to work in the area of poverty law and am beginning to recognize the tremendous contribution Professor tenBroek made in this field. I hope to carry forward many of his ideas.

As a junior and transfer student from UCLA in 1938, Dr. tenBroek was the very first teacher who motivated me to earn an "A" grade. My marks had been miserable prior to that time. World War II took me out of California, and I have been back for only brief periods since. His impact on my life was massive and I will always be grateful to him.

Whatever his many achievements, he was for me the master teacher. There were times when he paced us so hard through his agonizing, mind- stretching exercises, that we all wanted to accuse him of sophistry. Yet each day and each week we came back to stretch some more, hoping to achieve the quality of rational thought he expected of us.

Although I may be the Prodigal Son, I can only say that I mourn the loss of Professor tenBroek much as I would that of my own parents, for he was to me, as he knew, my intellectual and philosophical father.

I doubt that I spoke to your husband more than twice in private. Most of my impressions of him were gleaned from the classroom. I have many reminiscences of these classroom hours. In addition, I know I could describe in detail everything about those short private conversations. In fact, I have related these recollections on many occasions to my own students as examples of important ideas. You see, I too, have become a teacher; and I owe much of my satisfaction and joy in this endeavor to my special tutelary.

I feel privileged to have known Dr. tenBroek on both the personal and academic levels. My childhood memories are enhanced by recollections of experiences with the tenBroek's, with Professor tenBroek an important figure in those experiences. Perhaps more important, my curriculum here at the University has been infinitely broadened by having had a course from Jacobus tenBroek. His dynamic implementation of the Socratic method awed me at the same time that it encouraged me to explore and search for answers and explanations. I walked out of his classroom excited and enthused.

How often over the years, as I have reviewed what limited success I have had, have I looked back to the courses that I took under the direction of Dr. tenBroek and the inspiration he gave me. His inspiration lives on in my heart and mind, and I am sure in the works and deeds of all of his students, over the years.

It is indeed sad that Dr. tenBroek passed away at a time when his theories were taking a firm hold on our society. I can attest to this fact in noting that there are presently three cases pending before this Court which deal with the constitutionality of various sections of the California Welfare Code.

I was a student of his in 1960 and shared then the universally held view that he was the best professor at the University. My days at the Harvard Law School and the London School of Economics have not altered my view that he was my finest teacher. He continues to be an inspiration to me.

I was one of his students in the mid 50's. He always felt, and rightly so, that I was intellectually lazy and he never failed to push me into greater and more difficult tasks. He taught me prior to my entry into law school the value of intellectual discipline, and while he and I argued, sometimes seriously, over politics and points of view, the process resulted in giving training, shape and discipline to an unused and immature mind.

If I have not always been successful from either an academic or a professional standpoint, it was not the fault of his teachings and intellectual leadership.

I wanted you to know that he had a great impact upon me and was one of the few good teachers in all my nineteen years of schooling who ever moved me or challenged me. A lot that I am today I owe to him and he will be missed.

It has been over twenty years since I took a course from Professor tenBroek, and I remember it as if it were yesterday. I have followed the various causes he was engaged in through the press and was pleased that he received such thoroughly justified acclaim. My loss, while in no way is comparable with yours, is nonetheless heartfelt.

In terms of hours, days and months, the time I was allowed to spend with him as a student in 1946 and 1947 was short as viewed from a distance of more than twenty years. The impact of that relationship has truly shaped all of the intervening years. I have often thought and said that your husband was to me the epitome of the teaching profession and his tutelage was the single most important part of my academic training.

I first heard of Professor tenBroek in 1961. A friend told me I could not afford to miss the "tenBroek experience. " Since that time I have amassed over a yard of materials from his courses, and many hours grading papers written by his students.

Although I have seen only a fraction of his influence, no man has commanded so much of my respect and affection. He was by far the greatest teacher I have encountered. I will always feel honored to have worked for him, and grateful for all that he taught me, I shall never forget the tenBroek experience.

Back to Contents

LETTERS FROM FRIENDS

The world can really not afford to lose a man of such stature. In everything he represented, whether as a person, a scholar, a statesman, an administrator, a friend (I am certain also as a husband and a father), there was greatness. We would have a hard time remembering any other person for whom we had such boundless admiration and affection. A room with Chick in it, whether it was his home, his office, his classroom, a meeting of friends, or the Senate floor, gained an aspect of brilliancy and, above all, of intellectual and moral integrity radiating from this excellent man. I don't know of anybody who was not immediately affected by the overpowering presence of this true leader and totally-committed human being.

Everyone on Shasta Road was proud to have Chick tenBroek as a neighbor. Others knew him as a great humanitarian and a fine teacher, but we who were lucky enough to live near him knew him simply as a big, kind man who always had time to say a few words to everyone, even the smallest children. As an eight year old, I did not feel at all strange stopping him on the street to demand what he thought of my new hairdo, a pony tail. And he did not feel at all strange patting my head all over very carefully to determine exactly what my new hairdo was before he said he found it very becoming. His constant questioning and his sense of fairness will live on in all his students, and his neighbors will never forget him.

He was a great man and a brilliant man, whose enabling influence will live in the lives he touched with his teaching, his philosophy, his humanitarianism and his infinite courage. We are all stronger because he was among us to show us what a man could be.

I haven't been very neighborly but just to know that the tenBroeks were there at the bend of Shasta Road has been one of the stable comforts of my existence. I can think of Dutch as a small boy, see Anna at my door in Halloween costume, greet Nic, still, as he grows to manhood . I have kept in touch, perhaps more than you know.

It was a privilege for me to know personally a man of Dr. tenBroek's character. His strength and power was exceptional. He was unselfish in his devotion to the blind of this country and the world. He will be remembered for generations for the concrete ground work he laid to help blind people become independent and self-respecting citizens rather than being dependent and subservient to others.

He was a marvellous man and all my memories of him are good and happy ones--it was such fun to be with you all here and good to have a chance to know you both now that I'm older and not still running around in the back yard. I don't mean to sound frivolous but there are no blots or dark patches connected to thoughts of you both and I respect and very much admire all he was and all the tremendous amount he did and accomplished.

What a great and gallant figure he was and how heroically he served the community of the blind as well as the sighted! I think of him as one having rare social imagination, beautifully clear thoughts and a dedication that few achieve.

Throughout his very active lifetime, he achieved many goals and in numerous fields of endeavor. Not the least of these goals was that of bringing the blind of this nation together and organizing them into one solid front against the entrenched social and economic injustices of our society in which his less fortunate brethren have, much too long, been forced to exist. With his great storehouse of wisdom and knowledge, his many talents and his time and energy, he fought the good fight to turn the tide of want and inequality of opportunity into human dignity and useful existence. His unceasing drive to make the National Federation of the Blind a real force for good will live on as a memorial to his memory.

I did not know Dr. tenBroek well because I have been active for a relatively short time and because I have attended only two conventions. But meeting him only once--"that is, the first time in Louisville--is something which I can never forget. A full realization of his accomplishments had come to me during the year preceding that convention, but meeting him revealed to me his deep sense of humility, his ability to give dignity and importance to those making the minutest contribution, his limitless concern for the problems of those struggling for a fair chance. He was an extremely rare kind of person a man who has been an inspiration to all of us--a man who has caused the poor and the disabled to hope, to dream, to dare, and to achieve. This is the way I remember him: It is the way he will continue to live for me. The greatest tribute we can pay to him is to carry on what he has begun and to bring it fully to fruition.

The world, and especially the United States of America is a better place in which to live because Doctor Jacobus tenBroek lived among us. We say that he is gone from us now. It is true that the physical man has left. But what of the real Doctor? Is not generosity, trust, loyalty, the desire to help others, knowledge, a drive for better days through better ways and many other attributes that made Doctor tenBroek dear to you and admired and loved by all of us still a vital part of life itself? Truly, the spirit that made Dr. tenBroek so valuable to each person he contacted is now available to all of us: has been set free too of the limitations of the body and is released so that every blind person may feel its vitality and gain strength therefrom.

I felt very proud in recalling my association with him during my years at the University from 1940 to 1944. Even then at the start of his career at Berkeley, I remember how very impressed we all were--students and faculty -with his lectures and teaching methods as well as with the fine relationships he established with his students and colleagues. What a marvelous contribution he made to the lives of all of us who had the privilege of working with him.

How incomprehensible is the loss of Dr. tenBroek. His life touched so many of us and of our fellow men who never knew him. He was a source of great wisdom. Whenever I met with him or spoke with him on the telephone, I came away inspired and strengthened. His counsel caused me to undertake and accomplish things that would have been otherwise impossible.

As one of the hundreds whose lives were enriched and whose faith was made stronger by Chick, I know "for whom the bell tolls."

You don't know me, but I was his reader when he was graduating from high school and when he was in college. I knew him as "Chick" and he always knew so much more than I did that I couldn't keep up with what I read. That was over thirty years ago and I have never forgotten him. He was an inspiration to everyone who knew him.

We know the whole Berkeley Community must mourn his loss. Of course, he was a citizen of the world and the effects of his sensitive and rare understanding of people and events will be felt for many, many years to come. We were reminded of his greatness when a former student of his, who is now at the Law School here, had dinner with us the other night. Though it was the first time we had met him, we immediatley felt a kinship. For some time we spent enjoyable moments exchanging reminiscences.

Particularly we of the faculty of the School of Social Welfare have for a very long time admired Professor tenBroek for his outstanding position of leadership in the academic community, standing courageously for his ethical conviction for democratic ideals, freedom of opinion and expression. His death deprives us all of his leadership which has meant so much to all liberal members of the faculty and students.

During my thirty years with the State Department of Social Welfare, Jacobus was the brightest star that crossed the horizon. It was always stimulating to listen to him and to tangle with him was certainly an experience one never forgot. It was indeed a high privilege to have known him and he will be deeply missed by all of us.

He had so much to give--but had given unmeasureably through all his years. My closest association was during the years of his leadership with the Social Welfare Board which was a most productive experience. His works will live long after him.

Serving on a study committee for the Welfare Board, under his chairmanship, provided the opportunity to know your husband. His compassion, courage and brilliance set him apart and above. The lives of untold numbers are better because he touched them.

I shall never forget the first time I met him. It was not the force and appeal of his extraordinary personality that impressed me the most. I was immensely moved by his compassion and by his courage. You can be sure that Chick and the example of his inspiring leadership will be remembered as long as the struggle for human betterment continues to be waged by dedicated men.

Letter to a Colleague:

I was very sorry to learn of the death of Professor tenBroek. Though my acquaintance with him was limited to our stay in Madrid together in 1964 at the Congreso de Americanistas, that brief encounter was enough for me to realize that this was an unusual spirit in this troubled world of ours. It is a great loss to the University to have him go at this early age.

His talent, industry and courage were always something I thought about when I wanted to quit or hide on an unpleasant or difficult job. And though I hadn't seen him for years--the last time I was in Berkeley must have been five or six years ago--always had the feeling that if I needed a friend he would be around.

When he joined our Political Science Department he added a dimension which I had long tried to have introduced with nothing but failure to show for my efforts. He was unique in so many ways the size of his loss is hard to appraise. A replacement can be only a poor substitute.

For students he knew the value of disciplined learning. They appreciated it. For some of us he had ideas which often made us question our own conclusions--a great contribution in these days when so many of us are sure we are right.

His cheerful way of life will be missed around Barrows Hall. For me he often brightened a cloudy day.

Chick contrived to do so much good in his life for so many comparative strangers that it cannot be a new experience for you and your children to have to share him with the rest of us.

For us, it was Chick's work in behalf of handicapped people that made a difference. [My wife's] father is a blind professional man; Chick's work helped him to make the contribution to his community that he has made and continues to make. Multiplied by the work of hundreds of others similarly situated, I cannot think of a memorial more in keeping with Chick's generosity of spirit.

I was deeply saddened to read of your husband's death in the paper the other day. I had heard that he was responding to some new treatment awhile ago, and had hoped this meant that he would live longer and be close to his family and all the many others who cherished him for his bravery and human generosity.

I am grateful that I had the chance to meet him before his death. I had benefited much from his work, and even from our talk that day.

His intellectual imagination bubbled up and taught much even in his illness. I remember you all, sitting near the warm fire of your hearth. I'm sure this is the kind of warm memory that many people have of Jacobus tenBroek.

I extend to you and your family my deepest sympathies.

I was one of Chick's long-time friends and had the pleasure of seeing how a brilliant career developed from a brilliant graduate student through all the steps you know much better than I.

It seems to me that Chick has achieved immortality in the only two ways given to man--through leaving progeny behind him and intellectual works which will be read and studied and will influence people on down through the years--people who may not know, in future years, much about him, but who will be moved and influenced by his ideas, ideals, and values.

We were heartbroken to hear of Chick's passing. In all the ways that matter, he was a man. And we shall miss his presence in our lives.

. . . That brave and good man is going to be much missed. He was a source of courage and inspiration to many more of his colleagues than I think he ever realized.

It was a moment of great shock when we read in the San Diego paper that Jacobus--who always seemed a veritable pillar of strength--had died. ... I will continue to think of him walking alone--head up--with only time for 'doing'. . . .

I know I can't begin to tell you of my great admiration for Chick. His every thought, word and deed was directed to improving the lot of his fellow man. He proved through his own courage and conviction that people can achieve anything in this world they want, given the opportunity.

His was a life of continual thoughtfulness and concern and diligent action in improving not only the welfare of the blind, but people everywhere. His many splendid contributions to the betterment of this old world, and to the happiness of all those with whom he came in touch, can never be measured but are a living monument to him.

His writings seem to me to be some of the greatest works of all time and I know from hearing him at the national conventions, and once here in Iowa, that he was a man of unusual brilliance and charm. He seemed to have a very special joy in living and a great appreciation and awareness of the beauty in the world about him. No wonder he will always live on in the hearts and memories of all those who were privileged to know him.

We all know that Dr. tenBroek worked beyond the limits of any ordinary man to lay the groundwork and prepare our way. It is going to be hard for all of us to continue without his wisdom and direction. I just hope we can all measure up.

Our University and the world of scholarship in general has lost an outstanding scholar and teacher whose contributions will be long remembered. We in the department have lost a valuable and respected colleague and friend.

Back to Contents

INDIVIDUAL ENCOMIUMS PROFESSOR JACOBUS tenBROEK

by Mark Lipton

[From The Daily Californian — April 5, 1968]

One week ago the world as well as the Berkeley campus was deprived of an asset which can never be replaced. To talk of Professor tenBroek, a man, in terms usually used to describe inanimate resources in one sense is narrow and unfair. But it is one of the few ways to measure the worth of the individual. The way he combined his resourcefulness with his peculiarly human character made him a man to be remembered, revered, and respected.

The man, tenBroek, was in reality two men. He was to many Berkeley students the most outstanding professor in the political science department and to an inestimable number of others he was the man most responsible for them having the full measure of their political rights.

Teaching political science, constitutional law and the history of legal institutions was one way in which the professor could convey to others the ideals by which the man lived. He was, however, a teacher in the true sense of the word.

One experienced tenBroek. His class was not for the uninterested or unprepared, at any rate, not for long. His passion for the subjects was injected to anyone who dared verbally to cross swords with him. The accessibility of Professor tenBroek as well as the cordiality with which he treated students out of the classroom created relationships (between him and innumerable students) essential to the maintenance of a campus community.

Having taken two courses from the professor his style and warmth are particularly apparent to me. No matter how rigid his rules, how strict his requirements, an underlying force of reasonableness was always apparent. It was apparent and logically expected because of the deep respect tenBroek had for human dignity, for man.

This respect and devotion to human dignity became quite apparent in the work done by tenBroek. As chief organizer of the Welfare Rights Organization in California, founder of the National Federation of the Blind, and president of the American Brotherhood of the Blind, to mention but a small fraction of the associations and organizations of which tenBroek was an integral part; he made it his charge to preserve liberty in general as well as to concretize the rights of those less fortunate.

It becomes quite clear why Professor tenBroek must be spoken of as an asset, why he must be described in terms usually reserved to inanimate resources. He was more than a man, bigger in every way than any person could be.

He cannot be described therefore by terms which are meant only to praise mere men. His blindness increased his vision as well as his motivation. It permitted him more than anyone to see what many of us cannot, to understand the plight of the poor and the handicapped for he envisioned the poor as handicapped in need of help, not hindrance. For these reasons, for the life he lived, Professor Jacobus tenBroek was an asset of humanity which can never be replaced.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--PROFESSOR

by Manuel Urena

This piece is not intended to be a comprehensive or detailed statement concerning the life and work of Dr. tenBroek, of his leadership capacities, or of his capability in academic circles. There are others who are eminently better qualified to handle that monumental task. Rather, this effort will dwell principally with tenBroek the teacher; for I am one of the few fortunate individuals in the Federation who was lucky enough to reside in California and to live at a point in time when the University at Berkeley numbered him among its illustrious faculty. Of course. Dr. tenBroek was counselor and teacher to all of us, for he made us understand ourselves better and aided us first to define and then to achieve our personal and collective objectives. The physical setting was of little consequence to him; the pedagogy would work its wonders whether the location be the classroom, the meeting hall, or a casual stroll under the stars. To Dr. tenBroek it was all one: namely, a chance to asist his fellow man by injecting vitality into a listless life and infusing enthusiasm and eagerness to live fully. His tutelage was a very special kind. The essence of it may be distilled into a simple formula: that the imparting of knowledge and vision depends upon understanding rather than mimicry and that the vision of one man must be discovered by another rather than transferred to him. He was aware of what every good teacher instinctively knows, that the function of those who instruct if indeed they are wise, is not to give of their wisdom but rather to show their followers the thresholds of their own minds. In this aspect each and every Federationist is immeasurably indebted to him.

The few of us who were privileged to have him for a professor have an even greater debt. The format of the tenBroekian style in the classroom was strictly Socratic: no matter the subject content, the procedure was never varied. Professor tenBroek steadfastly turned away from the monologue lecture approach. Consequently, his classroom would always be enlivened by carefully guided Platonic dialogues between the students and himself. He profoundly believed that this method of instruction, to use the Doctor's own words, "the Platonic dialogue: dialectical, inquiring, insistently logical and incessantly prodding" achieved maximum results. The student who came under the wing of Dr. tenBroek soon learned the value of meticulous critical analysis and precise, cogent writing. Within the first hour in the classroom, pupils learned a good deal about self-expression and commenced the long and arduous process of eliminating superfluous and irrelevant rhetoric in their speech habits. It was impossible--how shall one put it--to endure, to survive, or to experience a tenBroek course without substantially improving one's ability to articulate.

Significant as these attributes are, they were not the most important assets to be gained. I would rank higher two other unique characteristics that were constantly manifested in his classroom. The first of these was the close, and warm relationship with the students that inescapably emerged soon after the beginning of a semester. Although he possessed an unsurpassed dynamism and his standards were rigorous, the atmosphere in the classroom was always friendly, cordial and genuinely conducive to serious study. Indeed, his excellent rapport with his students was always in evidence and in countless instances the association persisted beyond University days and later often served as a base of recruitment for many of his public social reforms.

The second of these qualities was that by one means or another he always successfully managed to make the subject matter contemporary. Those of us who were well acquainted with him know very well that it could not have been otherwise. This is so because if there is any one quality that particularly distinguished Dr. tenBroek, it was that he was a product of his time and epoch. Moreover, he saw little purpose in knowledge for the sake of knowledge alone; rather, he preferred the application of learning for the betterment of mankind. Consequently, it is not at all surprising to encounter in the forefront of social thinking many of those who not too long ago were sitting in his classroom. ...

With startling rapidity the Doctor urged and exerted his students to explore untrodden frontiers and to pioneer in the realm of original ideas in order to discover different solutions to old and new problems alike. It was the pupils who attempted to steer clear of controversial issues--but to no avail. In a seemingly effortless manner Professor tenBroek would make us hew the line until the topic under investigation had been fully aired and researched. It was this phenomenon of converting the classroom into a research laboratory of ideas which I think was principally responsible for making his classes popular and effective. The conflicts, crises, and calamities of the community, state, and nation did not seem remote or foreign, but rather appeared to be very near and very intimate. He had the rare gift of relating the trials and tribulations of our day and time with the personal lives and fortunes of the young scholar. What is more significant, he persuaded those around him that they could and should play a preeminent role in resolving the problems of the day. In short. Dr. tenBroek was an active person and year in and year out a steady stream of activists marched forth from his side and plunged headlong into careers of political, social, and economic reconstruction and rebuilding.

However, with all his activity and public participation, he still found time and energy to make himself available to work with and advise students concerning their individual lives. I vividly remember the last day which I was to spend with him. I had gone to the University to meet and accompany him to his home. I waited for an hour and a half while he interviewed students and assisted them with one difficulty or another--this despite his failing health and his need for rest.

And now he is gone. What should our attitude and posture be for the immediate and long-range futures? Obviously, the foremost task is to carry on and do what we can to further his work and fulfill his vision. Dr. tenBroek, in the strict sense of the word, was a visionary, and because he could see the future he did much to shape it and to chart the course for future action. In our efforts to follow through we must transmit and preserve his ideals, his commitment, his spiritual influence, without becoming platitudinous or maudlin. In connection with this enterprise there are visible signposts to show us that we are moving in the right direction. Whenever we join the fight so that hungry people have something to eat, he'll be there; wherever we change the law so that the oppressed are given equal opportunity and reasonable security, he'll be there; and he'll be with us when we rebel against injustice and man's inhumanity to man. In that day when all men are free to live comfortably and undisturbed in their dwellings, he'll be there. Finally, for those of us in the organized blind movement, whenever we lend a helping hand to one another in the process of overcoming prejudicial obstacles and hurdles, he'll be there; and when we are jubilant and celebrate a particularly hard won victory, he'll be there; and when we suffer adversity, he'll be there too. But most of all, if we should lose our way or doubt our competence, why he'll be all around helping us to regain our footing and to continue the trek toward that promised land of equality, security, and opportunity.

Back to Contents

PROFILE OF AN OUTSTANDING AMERICAN

by Donald Capps

[From The Palmetto Auroran--March 1968]

[Ed. Note: From an article which appeared in the March 1968 issue of the Palmetto Auroran, shortly before Professor tenBroek's death]

It has been said that a man's greatness can be measured in terms of his service to man. For all of his adult life Jacobus tenBroek has dedicated himself to the service of his fellow-blind throughout the world. Today there are not many great Americans still living who were born in a log cabin, as in the case of Abraham Lincoln. But such is the case of Jacobus tenBroek. It is probably because of this humble beginning that Jacobus tenBroek has found within the depths of his heart the love and humility so essential to being of service to others.

Dr. tenBroek has always believed that the blind themselves should provide leadership in solving their own problems. From his early school days he was active in organizations of the blind. In 1940 Dr. tenBroek founded the National Federation of the Blind, and from its inception he has preached and practiced a philosophy of normality, equality and productivity, having given speech after speech throughout the country before blind and sighted audiences. One has only to slightly insinuate that an individual, because of his blindness, is inferior in any way to cause Dr. tenBroek to get his "Dutch" up. He feels that blindness alone is not necessarily a physiological or emotional disadvantage, but that with proper education and training a blind individual can live a life of normality, productivity and self-respect. Thousands of Federationists have attended national conventions of the National Federation of the Blind for more than a quarter of a century, and time after time have taken their seats in the Convention Hall to await the sounding of the gavel and the rich baritone voice of Dr. tenBroek, who has invaribly launched national conventions by saying, "The hour of ten having arrived, the Convention of the National Federation of the Blind is now in session."

Unlike many who have achieved outstanding prominence and success, Dr. tenBroek has always had time to give to those blind persons who have not been so fortunate as he. Once the writer inquired as to his hobbies and diversions, only to be told that "the Federation is my hobby, and I have no other hobbies. tenBroek stated that nothing gives him as much happiness and satisfaction as does his work with the blind throughout the nation and the world. Because of his genuine concern for blind persons everywhere. Dr. tenBroek, in 1964, founded the International Federation of the Blind which is patterned after the National Federation of the Blind, providing the world's blind the means by which to demonstrate through their own leadership their ability to alleviate some of the consequences of blindness. ...

While Dr. tenBroek feels that every blind individual should be given an opportunity to reach his true potential--whatever that potential may be--believing that a blind person should have the opportunity to earn his own way, he has recognized the need for a realistic program of financial support for those blind persons who may not be able to be entirely self-supporting and has devoted much of his energies toward bringing about a livable grant for the blind. While still madequate, thousands of blind persons throughout America are today receiving greater financial support because of tenBroek's efforts on their behalf with his brilliant appearances before legislative committees. Thousands of others are making their own way because of more liberal rehabilitation programs which Dr. tenBroek has vigorously supported.

It is the feeling of the writer that Jacobus tenBroek has proved to be the most dynamic personality in the field of services to the blind in our time. It is unlikely that his performances, whether in the areas of writing, oratory, or dedication to his fellow-blind will ever be surpassed. To really know him and to be associated intimately with him represents a challenging inspiration. His contribution to the cause of blindness will live as long as time itself.

Back to Contents

A TRIBUTE TO JACOBUS tenBROEK

by Tom Parker

[National League of the Blind, Great Britain and Ireland]

I had known of Dr. tenBroek for many years but did not meet him until 1964. This meeting was a result of a telephone conversation between the two of us: he was in Spain, I was in London. We then arranged to meet one another when he got to this country.

He and a colleague from the University of California visited my home and for many hours we discussed many topics but largely those of blind people and their problems throughout the world.

I next met Dr. tenBroek in Washington at the 1965 convention of the NFB where I attended as a guest speaker. In the years in between a personal friendship grew up between us.

In May of 1967 he visited England and, as Chairman of the Standing Orders Committee for the National League of the Blind, it was my privilege to arrange the necessary time for him to address our conference. He made a tremendous impression on the delegates attending that conference, and outside the formal sessions of the conference, he used to join us in the evenings at the local "Pub" where we all foregathered. He was thus able to mix freely with our members and probably the most moving scene was when the time came for him to leave the pub, because he wished to retire a little earlier than the rest of us, and the whole of the Scottish contingent just stood around singing "Will ye no come back again?" Although Dr. tenBroek must have left many gatherings of people during his very active life, he was obviously very moved by this experience. Of course he did come back the following month.

Very early on Sunday morning the 11th of June 1967, I received a phone call from Dr. tenBroek telling me he was in London en route for Paris. I immediately invited him and his son Nic to come out to my home but explained that I would not be able to spend much time with him during that week because on Wednesday the 14th of June, I would be flying up to Glasgow to take part in a demonstration of the Scottish blind workers which was being organized that day by the League. Dr.tenBroek was interested in the struggle then proceeding of the blind workers in Britain, and a few hours later when he reached my home on that Sunday afternoon he had already decided that he was coming to Glasgow with me to see how we did things.

We flew to Glasgow together and the Glasgow blind were so glad to see him once more that they put him and his son in the second row of the procession marching to the City Centre, That was the last occasion on which I met him personally. He flew back to London that night and I remained in Scotland to address a meeting the following night.

The grief of the American blind is shared by all those of us who met him in this country. His untimely death is a loss not only to America but to the blind of the whole world.

Back to Contents

AS I KNEW DR. JACOBUS tenBROEK

by Sanford Allerton

[From The Michigan Council Bulletin]

In the passing of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek in March at the early age of fifty six, we have lost the greatest leader of the blind who ever lived. I can repeat what I said in public some eleven years ago when the Council was warmly welcomed into the Federation family. He was to the independent blind what Helen Keller was to the deaf. True, he had a larger advantage in academic degrees (earned), professional teaching, research and communication. Like her he was unselfish and he devoted his whole life to the blind without remuneration. He held the torch high, preaching that the blind were normal human beings capable of most types of normal work. He also wrote books but not about himself or any poetic philosophy but rather as contributions to Constitutional Law and about the community of the poor of which he was a recognized member of considerable stature.

He was so many things in one individual. He was the typical professor, an intellectual, an author, an eloquent speaker, an organizer, a gentleman of great wit, a recluse scholar, an artist in logic and verbal attack, a human being, the common man with much love and proper hates and many forceful prejudices.

He attacked anything which he deemed stood in the way of a blind man's achievement of first class citizenship. He battled in Washington, lectured Senators, contested cases in court, and he had many a bitter argument with retrogressive personnel.

The N. F, B. was the incorporate philosophy of his work and hand. He inspired support in the states. He traversed the country giving support and assistance, and he often sent help as he did in Detroit where blind salesmen were threatened or when needed to enlarge a legislative program.

What kinds of problems of the blind did he attack? They were individual and collective. To mention a few, they concerned unjust decisions of agencies and courts, lien laws on property and exemptions on property taxes, larger assistance checks with the right to earn a little without deductions, employment of the blind in civil service jobs and industry. He battled for the right of the blind to train for and teach in public schools. He promulgated further protection in white cane laws. He fought for the right of the organized blind to be represented on agency boards. He contested low wages in workshops along with the right to unionize and march or strike in protest. He urged that blind men and women should own their own stands and advocated reforms in the Randolph- Shepherd act. He struck out for better "Rehab" services.

He pushed for common goals and cooperation with all blind groups in Washington. In fact, he created the N.F.B. office in Washington which was the backbone of all Federal projects of the N.F.B.

He hated stereotypes, beggars, incompetence, and above all ignorance. To advocates of the concept of the helpless blind he would say, "Blindness is but a nuisance". Oddly enough, no other idea infuriated the professionals more. He would say it without cracking a smile.

He and his N.F.B. were in the thick of the struggle for first class citizenship for the blind long before the Negroes, the aged and the handicapped ever thought of it. Indeed, many projects which originated in the N. F. B. are now common to all.

What kind of man was he personally? Well, if you visited with him at a convention, he would be very apt to ask, "Would you like a drink?", and he never forgot to call you by your first name. . . To us, he was just "Chick", the nicest sort of guy you would ever care to know.

Back to Contents

JACOBUS tenBROEK--CHIEF-OF-STAFF

by Dr. Jacob Freid

[Editor's Letter from the Jewish Braille Review April 1968]

Events crowd in so quickly that the mind boggles at absorbing it all. And more than the mind, there is the heart. Sometime ago we wrote about the scourge of cancer and its "Russian Roulette" toll of one of every six lives. Now the dreaded event we had feared has occurred since our last issue, as our own CHICK tenBROEK was called from our midst at the head of our ranks to his eternal reward.

Within a week's time he was joined in death by MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Both men had a dream, one of blind and the other of black human beings, as one day being vouchsaved equality of opportunity to fulfill its destinies as men in this nation. Both were neo-Jeffersonians--affirmers of "the people, yes!" Both were revolutionaries, leading their troops into battle against the Lords of Things as They Are, under the banner As They Should Be.

Jacobus tenBroek knew that to break through the mountain passes to the frontiers of equality he had to bring to bear the forces of philosophy and intellect within a democratic context. Only thus could he achieve the right to share in the American dream and promise for the blind. He understood that in the realm of the blind no less than the sighted, the keepers of the keys to the citadel exalted obedience, order, authority, and tradition over liberty, freedom, opportunity, equality and the pursuit of happiness.

The "old guard dies, it does not surrender" and to the agency and establishment Kings of the Hill in the world of the blind this mover and his movement were dangerous firebrand heretics preaching heresy. The proper litany of the blind world was "bless the squire and his relations, and keep us in our proper stations" in the sheltered workshops, in the local poorhouse and on the welfare rolls. They were opposed to change which would enable others to share their power or to challenge or to usurp it by change effected democratically by the blind having a voice in the determination of their own destiny. Dr. tenBroek knew there had to be a revolutionary restructuring of public and agency attitude and commitments and the people were more important than vested interests. He also knew that in this instance revolt like charity had to begin at home. Through his own genius he forged a position of academic emminence and legal stature as a master teacher, poor law authority and author. He could speak as one who had "made it" to convince the blind that they too had the stuff to make it and that ability and the natural right to organize, to choose their own representatives and mold their own status by democratic process.

The opposition and prejudice were predictable. In work for the blind we have more than our share of men like Memphis Mayor HENRY LOEB who controlled our World Councils and Comstacks. CHICK tenBROEK' s sword was a brilliant intellect, a magnificent voice and a Jeffersonian de- termination to use the legislative halls, the Constitution, the public plat- form and the written and spoken word as allies to achieve fulfillment of the aspirations, talents and personalities of the blind.

Those who have the indelible memory of having heard him speak will not acknowledge any living voice to be superior to his. His addresses were passionate in their meaning, but rational in their argument and devastating in their logic and scholarly marshalling of facts. He handled his speech as if it were a debate. Always there was the unseen opponent who was a perpetrator of injusticies, whether in or out of work for the blind. His power came from sharing indignation, not from painting Utopias or prophecying an early victory of a revolution. But he sparked self-reliance and confidence that "we shall overcome".

The blind were his special front line, but the battle was everywhere where civil liberties and equal rights were tethered or denied--whether black or white or American-Japanese victims of war hysteria. As a patient and master marshaller of scholarly research and facts he overcame this with bigger convictions. He denounced, but he was never petty. He had enemies who feared his tongue but did not know him. For CHICK tenBROEK was an opponent of any system or group marked by opposition of the human spirit or denial of justice. We shall not see his likes again, but his voice and vision are a priceless legacy and inspiring memory to which we pledge our loyalty, and our lives, and our honor.

Back to Contents

EDITORIALS AND OTHER TRIBUTES

SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE
March 28, 1968

Jacobus tenBroek, one of the brightest stars in the University of California's academic firmament, died of cancer yesterday at Presbyterian Hospital here. He was fifty seven.

A Constitutional scholar of international renown, an authority on social welfare, and a tireless crusader for the blind, Dr. tenBroek walked a special pathway at the University, beloved alike by students and colleagues.

In the words of Chancellor Roger Heyns, Dr. tenBroek "gave new hope to the handicapped through his many efforts in their behalf and his own marvelous example. . . "

Blind since an early boyhood accident in a rural area of his native Canada, Dr. tenBroek accomplished the seemingly impossible.

He won three degrees at the University with highest honors--a Bachelor's, a Master's and a Doctorate in the science of jurisprudence. Then he took another law degree at Harvard,

He joined the Berkeley faculty in 1942 as an instructor in speech, rising to the department chairmanship in 1956. Then, suddenly, he switched to political science in 1961.

For three successive terms beginning in 1950 he served on the California Welfare Board and held the chairmanship from 1960 to 1963.

For many years he was president of the National Federation of the Blind and was a co-founder and president of the International Federation of the Blind, He also served as American delegate to the World Council for Welfare of the Blind.

He won two Guggenheim fellowships; wrote two books and coauthored a third; and turned out an apparently endless stream of learned articles.

One of the most popular teachers on the campus, he dazzled students not alone by oratory, but by his championship of civil rights and student liberties.

One of Dr. tenBroek's most spectacular moments came in December, 1964, immediately after the Sproul Hall sit-ins, when he hoisted himself upon a chair at Bancroft and Telegraph Avenue to deliver a speech while a student held up his braille notes.

He also took the lead in sparking a "friend of the court" plea by two hundred forty four topranking professors, urging that charges be dropped against students arrested in the sit-ins.

Dr. tenBroek traveled widely, never used a Seeing Eye Dog, and acquired a legendary ability to find his way alone in strange cities. It was also reported, in awed whispers, that the professor could detect going-ons in his classroom that escaped sighted teachers.

Of him. Chancellor Heyns said:

He was a scholar who considered teaching as the highest duty and privilege, and yet was a productive and devoted researcher in his field; a man who inspired students and colleagues, he was a tough and honest opponent of those who would compromise liberty or ignore the plight of the poor.

He will be deeply missed by this campus and all who knew him.

Former University of California President Clark Kerr said:

Professor tenBroek was an inspiring teacher who served as a model for many students through his obvious triumph over a handicap which he never permitted to interfere with a full and active public and scholarly career.

I think it was not his blindness, but rather his profound respect for his students and for the art of teaching that impelled him to listen — really listen — to what his students had to say, and to communicate so attentively to each of them as individuals. They and I will miss him deeply.

HOT LINE FOR THE DEAF BUND

[American Brotherhood for the Blind--April 9, 1968]

The San Francisco Chronicle article was surely written by someone who knew Dr. tenBroek, for by its tone it says much more than by words alone. To know Dr. tenBroek was to admire him. His kind doesn't come along very often, and the world, while poorer and saddened by his loss, is richer and uplifted by his having passed this way. He was that rara avis --that remarkable person who was in rapport with his fellow man. And, by so being, he was able to accomplish the seemingly impossible; equally important, he inspired others to undertakings for which they thought they lacked inclination, confidence or ability. To a fumbling and confused world. Dr. Jacobus tenBroek leaves a legacy of the verities--of faith and hope and charity for his fellowman.

THE SPOKESMAN

[Western Disabled Alliance--May 1968]

A giant has passed from among us. Dr. Jacobus tenBroek died on March 27th. His voice has been stilled, but his words and his work are permanently etched in American society through the legislation, the court decisions and organizations, all of which came into being because of him.

The countless lives that have been bettered, both among those he taught and those he helped, are living monuments to his greatness as a man,

A guardian of the public conscience and a stalwart proponent and protector of our constitutional system, he has left no peer.

The W.D.A.'s Spokesman is published and continues to go to press because of the facilities provided by Dr. tenBroek for its printing.

His invaluable advice and assistance kept our organization alive, and we shall always cherish the privilege of this friendship.

TRENTON AREA ASSOCIATION OF THE BLIND

He was a great democratic leader who brought to his work the power of his personality, the strength of his character, the depth of his conviction. As a leader, he generated and stored-in-trust the power of an organization he founded nearly thirty years ago which today is more than thirty thousand strong. He proposed policies and carried forth programs, was vigorous in his administration and vigilant in defense of the organization's purposes.

A scholar and educator. . .beloved husband, father and grandfather ... a full professor at the age of twenty nine. . . speech instructor, political scientist. . . authority on Constitutional law. . .author, lecturer, orator. . . counselor to governors and consultant to governments. . .an active voice against paternalism, prejudice and poverty; he proposed the capability of the blind and opposed the reliability of the welfare dole. . . he stood before the Congress of the United States in the forefront of a united movement; he was founder and president of the American Brotherhood for the Blind, founder and president of the National Federation of the Blind and founder and president of the International Federation of the Blind . . .a world traveler and delegate to the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind--he was blind; he had a vision; his death is mourned.

THE EYECATCHER

[Empire State Association of the Blind--April 1968]

How shall we evaluate the work of this great man? How best can we perpetuate his memory"? Dr. tenBroek had a dream and that dream lives on. He had a pen and his words live on as an inspiration to everyone who reads them. He was a man of performance and the NFB stands as a living monument to his foresight, his courage, and his understanding. He was a man of action; he believed in deeds not promises. Like another great American who so recently made the supreme sacrifice on the balcony of a Memphis hotel, he fought for the rights of a minority group. Like Dr. King, Dr. tenBroek's whole philosophy was motivated by the right of an individual to live in the world on an equal basis with his fellow man The most fitting memorial which we of the NFB can erect in the memory of Dr. tenBroek is our determination that "Hope Deferred" shall be translated into hope fulfilled.

THE WHITE CANE

[Washington State Association of the Blind — April 1968]

The world will suffer the loss of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, not only blind people. It isn't very often that a person of his brilliance and ability comes among us. Those of us who have had the opportunity to be in his presence for even a short while know only too well how great this loss actually is.

Any blind person who makes his way in a sighted world is to be commended. Those who not only do this but become truly outstanding persons in spite of their handicap are that much more worthy. But there is also a pattern of bravery in Dr. tenBroek's case that many did not know about. For some time has has been a sick man, undergoing serious cancer operations. But the person who didn't know this would never have suspected from his behavior that here was a man whose days were low numbered, suffering from his affliction and acting as if all were well with the world.

This great man was so busy teaching and working for the blind that he didn't have time for self-pity. He went down with his guns firing: leading, inspiring, fighting. This is a great tribute in itself. Words alone will never do this man justice, but we want to add our memorial to one of the great men who has passed through life on this earth. We know that we have no fear of being questioned on such a statement.

VFB NEWSLETTER
April 1968

Closest to Dr. tenBroek was the National Federation of the Blind which he served as president for many successive terms from its inception and. . . was in this office at the time of his death. Perhaps known only to himself was the full extent of his hard work and great sacrifice. Yet his admirers do know that, after fulfilling his fulltime professorial function, working for the government of California, participating in seminars, speaking and writing, besides serving as editor of THE BRAILLE MONITOR, many week-ends found him in various parts of the United States at state Federation conventions, without a doubt desiring also to be at home with his family. While still possessed of great vigor and astounding mental acuity. Dr. tenBroek was assaulted by a rapidly progressive illness. One is tempted to ask: "How can he possibly be replaced?". . . .

TELSTAR

[Federated Blind of North Dakota--April 1968]

Chick is not dead! He will always live in our personal memories. His warm, magnetic personality and dynamic leadership will continue to influence the spirit of the NFB for generations to come. "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."

Congressman Jeffery Cohelan, California

His scholarship and his devotion to his community will long be remembered by all who knew him.

Senator Thomas H. Kuchel, California

He was most highly respected by all who knew him, all of whom mourn his passing.

Everett E. Wilcox, Superintendent, California School for the Blind

Many of us, before we came to California, were aware of the many contributions and assistance that Dr. tenBroek had made to the welfare of those who, for one reason or another, were required to rely upon limited circumstances. . . .His continuing interest in the children enrolled here will not be forgotten.

Chief Justice Earl Warren

He will always have a special place in the hearts of his many, many friends who reached far beyond the academic world and who will remember him with warm affection and great admiration. He has given us a legacy of rare courage and wisdom.

Charles J. Hitch, President, University of California

Though I did not have the pleasure of knowing Professor tenBroek personally, I did know him by reputation as one of the outstanding leaders of the faculty at Berkeley. His accomplishments as a teacher and scholar, and in University and public service, were indeed exceptional, and the stimulus of his presence will be greatly missed.

Roger W. Heyns, Chancellor, University of California, Berkeley

He was a man of rare talent, dedication and devotion to people and to ideals. This campus has been left the poorer by his passing, and I personally shall miss seeing him and talking to him and hearing from him. On each such encounter I came away challenged and I know that his peers, his students and all who knew him, derived the same stimulation.

Although we are deprived of his physical presence, I hope you will find some measure of comfort in the knowledge that his influence will continue to be felt in the campus community far into the future. His example of personal courage has already become part of our University heritage.

Lincoln Constance, Former Dean of the College of Letters & Science, University of California, Berkeley

My mind's eye turns back nostalgicly to the time when he was Chairman of Speech and I was "The Dean", and we had mutual problems in abundance! Chick was to me one of the most remarkable and inspiring men I have ever known, an exemplar of what can be accomplished through sheer courage and willpower, not to discount the superb intelligence and big heart that accompanied them. I found him a solid rock of support. . . . The Campus, the University, and the world will be poorer without him, but he left many fine accomplishments as a memorial.

Phil C. Neal, Dean of the Law School, University of Chicago

The faculty of the Law School join me in sending you our very deep sympathy. I am sure you have some sense of how greatly Professor tenBroek was admired by the members of the faculty, and throughout the legal academic world, for his immense scholarly contributions. He was a remarkable man and his career has been, and will continue to be a shining example of achievement. It is a great loss for our profession and our own feeling of loss is keen indeed.

From the Netherlands

We know that there cannot be any consolation for this heavy loss. . , but we sincerely hope that the love of so many blind people will help somewhat. There are so many people all over the world who respected him, for he was not only an energetic personality, but also a stimulus and good friend for those who met him.

It will be a great loss for the NFB, but more I think for the young IFB, both his creations. His importance and value for others cannot be overestimated.

Rejendra Vyas, National Association for the Blind, Bombay, India

His departure from this world has left many a heart in sorrow. Chick extended his influence and friendship to a large circle of friends and admirers. My wife, my father, and myself who came to know him personally feel as if we have lost one of our own kith and kin. And this is true of scores of other friends all over the world.

I vividly recall our first meeting with him in April 1963 in Berkeley, California. . . .1 came to know him rather closely in Phoenix, Arizona, and later at New York in the summer of 1964. I have had the good fortune of coming into contact with many a people from all over the world, both blind and otherwise, who are engaged in the rehabilitation of the blind. I can say without any iota of exaggeration that I have really come across very, very few men of the caliber, talents and intellectual abilities possessed by Chick. A thinker, a powerful orator and organizer and above all a man of great learning, Chick left an indelible impression on the mind of anyone he met. I vividly recall his great help to me on the resolutions committee of the WCWB of which I happened to be the Chairman at its New York session. After a full day's work and followed by dinners and parties, the resolutions committee met and continued its session very often well past midnight to prepare the final resolutions for the General Assembly. Here Chick with his penetrating insight and masterly command over the English language proved of great help in drafting resolutions.

The important part which Chick has played in the work for the blind in the United States is too well known. His contribution in organizing the National Federation of the Blind and creating an Organization of the Blind on international levels has been very significant.

Many have disagreed with him in some of his views, but everyone has admired his sincerity of purpose. He will be remembered by all those who recognise his significant contribution in bettering the lot of the blind.

"Those Loved by the Gods", they say, "are called away soon." Maybe this is the reason why he is no longer with us. I conclude in the fervent hope that Chick's memory will guide and inspire many of his colleagues who would continue the good work he had started.

Peter Salmon, Industrial Home for the Blind, Brooklyn, New York

I feel deeply the loss of Dr. tenBroek and wish to say that I have benefited through knowing him over these many years. I am sure that the individual blind people for whom he labored during his lifetime will not forget him, as indeed they should not. . . , [We have a] deep sense of appreciation for the very great help which he personally exerted and which, in addition, was manifested by the National Federation of the Blind, with respect to the successful outcome of legislation to bring a better day for deaf-blind children, youths, and adults.

Suresh C. Ahuja, National Association for the Blind, Bombay, India

The voice and personality that had a quality of magnetism has been stilled. I can still remember the first time I heard Chick speak at Phoenix and how completely enthralled I was. He was a born leader and it is a matter of pride to all the blind that he succeeded in fighting his way up.

John Jarvis, Secretary General WCWB, England

We have all lost a man whom many of us respected all the more for his untiring devotion to what he believed to be in the best interests of us all and many of us never allowed our differences to stand in the way of our admiration for one of the most outstanding men of this generation.

Rienzi Alagiyawanna, First Vice President, IFB, Ceylon

He has left us all on the crest of a great wave. He was the architect of this wave of enthusiasm in the service of the blind and we looked to him as the beacon light that would guide us to our goal. He has now left us alone, to be a light unto ourselves. We could best do so in view of the story of his life and the light of his achievements.

John F. Wilson, Director, Royal Commonwealth Society for the Blind, London

Chick was one of the outstanding personalities in work for the blind, not only in the United States but increasingly on the world scale, and the philosophy which he formulated and advocated so persuasively will have its enduring impact on work for the blind for many years to come.

I know that blind welfare was only one of his many interests and that his major contribution was in the academic field, but those of us who had the stimulus of working with him appreciate the intensity of his devotion to this cause and the academic quality he brought into the debate.

Back to Contents

MEMORIAL RESOLUTIONS

IN MEMORIAM RESOLUTION

Adopted at the Fifteenth Biennial Convention Travelers Aid Association of America April 28--May 1, 1968 Detroit, Michigan

In the untimely death of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek on March 28, 1968, this country lost a truly great citizen.

He overcame the handicap of blindness and became the Founder and President of the National and International Foundations for the Blind.

He turned his great legal skill toward righting the injustices affecting the lives of deprived people.

He wrote his forceful testament "The Constitution and the Right of Free Movement", as a protest against the inequity of residence laws which was of invaluable assistance to Travelers Aid in its unremitting fight against the same laws.

He left this Association his unequivocal opinion to serve as a goal for its endeavors.

"Length-of-residence requirements in public welfare violate the equal protection command of the Fourteenth Amendment. Public welfare aids and services are granted for the purpose of meeting needs. Newcomers have these needs as well as long-time residents".

To his family, Travelers Aid Association wished to extend its deep admiration for Dr. tenBroek and his great accomplishments.

SENATE RESOLUTION NO. 153

Senate of the State of California

Senate Journal, April 4, 1968

EESOLUTIONS

The following resolution was offered:

By Senators Petris and Sherman:

Senate Resolution 153

Relative to the death of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek

"WHEREAS, The Members of the Senate have learned with deep sorrow of the death, on March 27. 1968, of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, internationally renowned constitutional scholar at the University of California; and

WHEREAS, Despite blindness since early boyhood, he earned three degrees at the University with highest honors — a bachelor, a master, and a doctorate in the science of jurisprudence and another law degree at Harvard University; and

WHEREAS, Pie joined the Berkeley faculty in 1942 as an instructor in speech and subsequently rose to chairmanship of the department and, after switching to political science in 1961, rose again to a full professorship; and

WHEREAS, His scholarly renown was further enhanced by his being awarded two Guggenheim Fellowships, authoring two books and coauthoring a third, and writing numerous learned papers; and

WHEREAS. His sense of public duty led him to serve many years as president of the National Federation of the Blind, to be a cofounder and president of the International Federation of the Blind, to serve as American delegate to the World Council for Welfare of the Blind, and to serve three terms on the California Welfare Board and as its chairman from 1960 to 1963; and

WHEREAS, His academic achievements and public service, in the words of Chancellor Roger Heyns, "gave new hope to the handicapped through his many efforts in their behalf and his own marvelous example"; and

WHEREAS, His inspirational teaching at the University, his tireless crusading for the blind, and his championing of civil rights and student liberties earned him a place in the hearts of his students and colleagues; now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Senate of the State of California. That the Members express their sincere condolences and sympathy to the family of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek ; and be it further

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate transmit suitably prepared copies of this resolution to his widow. Hazel, his daughter,' Anna Hammond, and his sons. Jacobus and Nicolaas.

Resolution read, and unanimously, adopted, on motion of Senator Petris.

HOUSE RESOLUTION NO. 221

Assembly of the State of California

Assembly Journal, April 4, 1968

RESOLUTIONS

The following resolution was offered:

By Assemblyman Burton:

House Resolution No. 221 Relative to the death of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek

"WHEREAS, The Members of the Assembly have learned with deep sorrow of the death, on March 27, 1968, of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, internationally renowned constitutional scholar at the University of California; and

WHEREAS, Despite blindness since early boyhood, he earned three degrees at the University with highest honors — a bachelor's degree, a master's degree, and a doctorate in the science of jurisprudence — and an advanced law degree at Harvard University; and

"WHEREAS, He joined the Berkeley faculty in 1942 as an instructor in speech and subsequently rose to chairmanship of the department and, later joined the political science faculty in 1961 as a full professor; and

"WHEREAS, His scholarly renown was further enhanced by his being awarded two Guggenheim Fellowships, authoring two books and coauthoring a third, and writing numerous learned papers; and

"WHEREAS, His sense of public duty led him to serve many years as president of the National Federation of the Blind, to be a co-founder and president of the International Federation of the Blind, to serve as American delegate to the World Council for Welfare of the Blind, and to serve three terms on the California Welfare Board and as its chairman from 1960 to 1963; and

WHEREAS, His academic achievements and public service, in the words of University of California Chancellor Roger Heyns, "gave new hope to the handicapped through his many efforts in their behalf and his own marvelous example; and

WHEREAS, His inspirational teaching at the University, his tireless crusading for the blind, and his championing of civil rights and student liberties earned him a place in the hearts of his students and colleagues; now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Assembly of the State of California, That the Members express their sincere condolences and sympathy to the family of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek; and be it further

Resolved, That the Chief Clerk of the Assembly transmit suitably prepared copies of this resolution to his widow, Hazel, his daughter, Anna tenBroek Hammond, and his sons, Jacobus and Nicolaas.

Request for Unanimous Consent

Mr. Gonsalves was granted unanimous consent to take up House Resolution No. 221 without reference to committee or file. Resolution read, and presented by Mr. Gonsalves.

Members Made Coauthors of House Resolution No. 221

Mr. Gonsalves was granted unanimous consent that all Members of the Assembly be placed upon House Resolution No. 221 as coauthors. Resolution read, as amended, and adopted unanimously.

RESOLUTION 6801

WHEREAS, The Progressive Blind of Missouri, held Dr. Jacobus tenBroek in its heart with love, honor, and respect: and

WHEREAS, The Progressive Blind initiated the Dr. Jacobus tenBroek award for meritorious service in the cause of blindness in the year of 1962; and

WHEREAS, this organization has suffered a grievous loss with the death on March 27 of our friend and leader:

THEREFORE, Be it resolved by the Progressive Blind of Missouri, Inc. in convention assembled at the Aladdin Hotel in Kansas City on this 28th day of April, 1968, that we express by resolution our sympathy to Mrs. Hazel tenBroek and family on the death of Dr. tenBroek who was so dear and valuable to the blind people of the world.

Be it further resolved that a sum of twenty-five dollars from the organization's state treasury, together with an individual donation shall be sent in memory of Dr. tenBroek to the International Federation of the Blind.

CONDOLENCE RESOLUTION

We, the Organized Blind of West Pakistan, overwhelmed with grief and sorrow, condole the sad and untimely death of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, a great leader and hero of the blind who fought so gallantly throughout his life for the emancipation and self-determination of blind people and solemnly pledge to uphold the noble ideal for which he lived and died with renewed zeal and fervour to prove to the so called custodians of blind people that although our great leader is dead, they will receive inspiration from his glorious achievements and his dauntless spirit will continue to guide them on the uneven paths of life. May his soul rest in eternal peace and tranquility.

RESOLUTION

Central Executive Committee

Pakistan Association of the Blind

April 4, 1968

RESOLVED, that the Office Bearers and Members of the Central Executive Committee of the Pakistan Association of the Blind feels great sorrow on the sad demise of Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, Founder-President of the International Federation of the Blind. He devoted his life for the welfare of the blind not only of his country but of the world.

WE, the blind of Pakistan have lost our great supporter and leader. The Committee prays almighty God to restore his soul in peace.

Back to Contents

EULOGY

by Rabbi Norman F. Feldheym

There shall be no eulogy preached here this afternoon. Although no man ever walked this earth who deserved one more than Jacobus tenBroek. But we who have gathered here, we are family, we are dear and devoted friends, we are the co-workers so dear to his heart. And for us it was his life, his work, his tremendous strength of body, mind, and soul; it was his devotion that are his eulogies. And there is no man. . . no man . . . no matter how well equipped, who could really describe what Jacobus tenBroek means to us. Some men have tried: great, important, brilliant men, have tried. Chancellor Heyns wrote: "Professor tenBroek has added to the hope of the handicapped by his many efforts in their behalf and by his own wonderful example. He was a scholar, and yet he considered teaching the highest duty and the greatest privilege. He was a great researcher in his field and he inspired colleagues and students alike and yet he was a tough and honest opponent to all who would compromise human liberties and ignore the plight of the poor." Clark Kerr said: "Professor tenBroek was an inspiring teacher who served as a model to many of his students because of his obvious triumph over a handicap that he never permitted to interfere with a full and active political and scholarly career." Someone else wrote: "He was one of the bright stars in the academic ferment and academic firmament of the University of California." He was a constitutional lawyer of international renown, an authority on social welfare, a tireless crusader for the blind. He was, perhaps, the most popular student and the most popular teacher on the campus. He inspired his students not only by his brilliant oratory but by his ability to listen. It was his ability to listen--to really listen to what his students had to say--that enabled him to communicate with each as an individual. All of these things and so many more have been said and have been written and they are imposing, impressive, and they do touch upon what Jacobus tenBroek meant to us who are here this afternoon. But the most important ingredient, his greatest genius is missing; this was his ability to evoke our love and our loyalty. We loved Jacobus tenBroek. We loved him with all our hearts, with all our souls, with all our might. And more wonderful, he loved us. There will be other champions of the blind, perhaps without his style and his tenacity. There will be other great teachers, and stimulators, and researchers, and students of the law. There will be others who will be tough and honest opponents of those who would compromise human liberties and ignore the plight of the poor, but perhaps without the dedication, the logic, the legal astuteness, and his compassion. But for us, who love him, there is no substitute, there is no replacement. His warm, his vibrant personality, his scintillating wit, his mighty will, prodigious energies that served him all his life, that kept him working even in the month in which he met his death. His sagacity, his wisdom, his comforting strength, the way in which he so tenderly ministered to all of our ills and our problems.

His love for us. These are gone and these are gone forever and they would leave us empty, naked, and alone except for one thing: That is that this charismic personality, this great teacher taught us, we who loved him, he taught us best. He taught us to see through every darkness no matter how profound; he taught us to defy every obstacle no matter how taxing and demanding. He taught us to see in every situation the good and the useful, no matter how devoid it might have been of hope. He taught us that handicaps, no matter how they may sere the soul or hurt the heart, can be forces of strength, and sources of wisdom; they can generate within us energies as well as despair; how to dredge out of our being, out of our love for each other, hope and strength and wisdom and understanding when we needed them, as we need them now. He also taught us the importance of people. How he dinned into my mind that the good cause, the right cause, the just cause, the legal cause, was to be espoused, not because it was a cause, not because it was good, or just, or right, or legal, but because it served people. It enriched their lives, it added to their dignity, it increased their understanding, their ability to cooperate. He wanted us to be, he taught us to be, not only a champion of causes, but a champion of the human soul, the human heart, and the human mind. And so when this day is over, we will go out into the world, and we will live as he taught us by what he taught us. And so when the ending of the tolling of the bell has come, the flags are lifted from half-mast. Jacobus will be with us in death as he was in life. The noblest of noble men. . .the noblest of noble men. The greatest blessing that most of us have ever known.

Back to Contents