JUNE 1968



The National Federation of the Blind is not an organization speaking for the blind-it is the blind speaking for themselves

Printed at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708

Published monthly in braille and distributed free to the blind by the National Federation of the Blind. President: Kenneth Jernigan, 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, 50309.

Inkprint edition produced and distributed by the National Federation of the Blind.

EDITOR: Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue, Sacramento, California, 95822.

Associate Editor: Hazel tenBroek, 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708.

News items should be sent to the Editor.

Address changes should be sent to 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708.



by Kenneth Jernigan













by Gwen Rittgers





by Bud Wakeland

by Tom Leach



by Barbara Tiritilli


by Dr. Samuel L. Andelman

by Milton Esterow




The July issue of THE MONITOR will be the Memorial Issue honoring the memory of Jacobus tenBroek, Founder of the National Federation of the Blind and its President for almost twenty-three years. Expressions of grief and tribute have been received from individuals in all walks of life, living in many parts of the United States and in foreign countries. These messages are still coming in and a cross section of excerpts from them will reflect the high esteem in which Dr. tenBroek was held by so many persons throughout this country and the world.

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by Kenneth Jernigan

During recent years no word in our language has been more used or misused than the term "discrimination. " It has been the battle cry of oppressed minorities, the focus of the national conscience, the cloak of justification for mob violence, and the stimulus and touchstone for the reevaluation of the traditions and concepts of the American dream. It has been at the center of the social turmoil, at once so promising and so ominous, which has been the principal characteristic of the past decade.

In its essential terms the word "discrimination" as used in connection with human rights and the repression of minorities means umeasonable and detrimental classification. It implies, of course, prejudice, denial of opportunity, unequal treatment, and exclusion from the main channels of economic and social life. But these are results, not causes--results of umeasonable and detrimental classification.

To be discriminatory the classification must have both elements--that is, it must be both umeasonable and detrimental. Otherwise, there is no discrimination. It is, for example, undoubtedly detrimental to the individual who has committed a crime to be classified as a prisoner; but it is not discriminatory, for the classification is reasonable. To be umeasonable, the classification must be made without relevance or logic. In other words unless the trait which is used as the basis for the classification is related to the purpose for the establishment of the classification and unless the purpose is socially desirable, the classification is unreasonable--therefore, discriminatory. To use once again the example of prisoners, it would be umeasonable to put all people over six feet tall into this classification. It would because there is no logical or socially desirable basis for the act. The trait of being six feet tall has no relevance or relationship to the purpose for which the classification of prisoner was created--namely, the protection of society fronn criminals.

Classification which one generation may regard as reasonable may be regarded as umeasonable by the next. For the past few years the federal courts have struggled agonizingly with this problem.

Obviously classification itself is not harmful but a necessity. To put it in the language of the lawyer, those similarly situated should be treated alike, and those not similarly situated should not be treated alike.

In recent years America (and, indeed, the world) has experienced a treniendous acceleration of cultural turmoil and upheaval, of shifting values, and new aspiration. The blind, no less than others, have felt the winds of social change. As they have moved toward the achievement of social and economic opportunity, the blind have become increasingly-aware of and discontented with the ancient, detrimental, and umeasonable classifications which have held them in bondage. They have begun to insist with ever louder voice that these discriminations be abolished and to this end have organized themselves for concerted action. This action, though it has been and is in the best traditions of American democracy, has sometimes brought reaction and hostility. But under such circumstances even the hostility must be regarded as a sign of progress, for historically no group has ever gone from second-class citizenship to equal status in society without passing through a period of hostility.

The discriminations against the blind are often not recognized as such. They cloak themselves in many guises. Some are blatantly overt; others are insidiously subtle. Some are basic and fundamental; others are only peripheral and annoying.

One of the basic principles of our democracy is that there shall be no interference with the right of the individual to freedom of movement. A citizen may go where he will throughout the nation to accomplish any lawful purpose without hindrance or obstruction. This right is so fundamental that without it most other freedoms are lost, or are seriously curtailed.

In 1965 a blind Iowan, a graduate of our Orientation and Adjustment Center, went to the state of Georgia to accept employment. Trained in the skills of blindness and imbued with the idea that he ought to make his own way in the world, this man went independently, in the best American tradition, to the place where he could find the most satisfactory job.

Last December he received an emergency call from his sister. Both of his parents, living in Iowa, had been taken to the hospital in serious condition. He hurried to the railroad station to board a train for home. The ticket agent--but let the blind Iowan tell his own story. His letter of protest to the president of the Illinois Central Railroad reads in part:

"On Sunday afternoon, December 5, 1965, I entered the railroad station in Columbus, Georgia, with plans to board the train leaving there at 3:25 p.m. for Des Moines, Iowa.

"Upon talking with the ticket agent, I was advised, because of the fact that I am blind, that I could not purchase a ticket unless he definitely knew that I had someone traveling with me as a guide. The ticket agent stated that it was definitely a policy of the railroad that a blind person could not travel alone. He stated that the conductors would be furious at him were he to sell me a ticket, and because of this he refused to do business with me. This refusal to provide service to me produced a considerable amount of stress and concern. As a matter of fact, I was making the trip to Des Moines for emergency reasons. I had received word that both of my parents were admitted to the hospital, and it was necessary for me to get home as quickly as possible.

"I told the ticket agent that since I was a stranger in Columbus, Georgia, and only there for the purpose of making my living, it would be impossible for me to suddenly come up with a guide, which I did not need, in order to satisfy his whims. I explained to him that I travel all over the United States alone and have never experienced difficulty. I pointed out that this is a clear-cut case of discrimination.

"The ticket agent then asked the person behind me where she was going, and she stated that her destination was Chicago. He said that he would sell me a ticket as far as Chicago, provided this lady agreed to travel with me and assume responsibility for me. After some discussion she consented, and he grudgingly and angrily wrote me a ticket. As soon as we were out of his presence, the lady and I parted company, and I traveled alone without difficulty to Chicago and then to Des Moines.

"As further proof of the insolent attitude of the ticket agent I found, upon my arrival in Des Moines, that 1 had been telephoned at the railroad depot in Columbus. The ticket agent angrily informed the caller that he didn't care what happened to me--that I had caused him enough trouble as it was. "

Thus, we have the story in the words of the man who experienced it. Along with small children and infants, he was placed by the ticket agent in the class of those unable to travel on trains alone and uncared for. What was he to do? He could have meekly turned away and failed to come to his parents, presumably remaining marooned in Columbus, Georgia, forever. Or, as he did, he could have insisted on his right to freedom of movement, thus earning the anger and displeasure of the ticket agent. In fact, the ticket agent very probably felt great kindness for the blind as a class until December 5, 1965. Today, he probably regards them as an overly aggressive, umeasonable, and "pushy" lot.

The railroads, incidentally, and the Interstate Commerce Commission disavow any such policies of discrimination against the blind, and the ticket agent in question may very well have been reprimanded. Nevertheless, this is not an isolated or uncommon action. Last year a blind rehabilitation counselor employed by the Iowa Commission for the Blind had a similar experience. In the performance of his job he went to a small Iowa town to contact a blind person needing services. When he started to leave the town on the same railroad that had brought him there, he was refused permission to board the train. It took a great deal of argument and protest to reverse the decision. The home office of the railroad later disavowed the action and promised to take corrective steps.

Recently I talked with another blind person who had experienced a like situation. He is a very successful businessman, who ranks among the top earners of his company. In the course of his business he went to Denver, Colorado. When he went to the Denver train station to purchase his return ticket (accompanied, incidentally, by one of the local company executives), he was told in angry tones that blind people have no business traveling alone and that he could not board the train. Wishing to go to Omaha, and being a man of ingenuity, he got his ticket by subterfuge. He told the agent that his secretary would be joining him at the next station and that he would be riding alone for only a few miles. The agent was not easily satisfied, however, and asked the name of the secretary and where she was staying in the next town. The information was supplied, and the blind man boarded the train. I probably do not need to tell you that there was no secretary, and there was also no problem during the journey.

This sort of experience is not limited to railroads. It happens on busses and planes as well. But it is becoming less common as the protests mount and more and more blind persons go about their business throughout the nation.

Umeasonable and detrimental classification of the blind is not limited to matters affecting their freedom of movement. It extends to almost every area of activity and endeavor. Consider, for example, the matter of insurance. Early in 1965 a blind resident of Des Moines wished to convert from a well-known group insurance policy to individual coverage. He was told by the insurance medical officer that, because of blindness, he did not meet their underwriting criteria and that accordingly he must (if he wished the coverage) pay extra premiums in the amount of about $80.00 per year. The blind person in question is a successful businessman with a wife and family, and he wished the coverage--but not at the rate of $80.00 a year in extra premiums.

He came to me for advice, and I wrote to the insurance medical officer under date of March 18, 196 5, as follows:

"From what Mr. Blank has told me and from the language of your letter, it would appear that you take the position that Mr. Blank cannot meet your underwriting criteria and, therefore, cannot receive individual insurance coverage because he is blind. If this is so, I would like to know on what facts the decision was based.

"To the best of my knowledge, there is no actuarial evidence that blind people have more accidents or illnesses or that they die at an earlier age than sighted people. In fact, strange as it may seem, I believe there may be some evidence to indicate that blind people have fewer accidents than sighted people similarly situated. In any case, this should not be a matter of opinion, but of fact.

"In other words we are trying to determine whether we have here a case of discrimination or of proper action based upon fact. If a hotel clerk refuses to rent a room to a drunk man, he cannot properly be charged with discrimination. This is so because whether a man is drunk or sober has something to do with whether he is a desirable hotel guest. On the other hand, if the same hotel clerk refuses to rent a room to a Jew (or, for that matter, a blind person), then he most definitely is guilty of discrimination. This is so because the nature of one's religion or the degree of his visual acuity has no relationship whatever to his desirability as a hotel guest.

"It does not lessen the discrimination if the hotel clerk is very sincere in his belief that Jews or blind people are really not as desirable as others as hotel guests. The matter must still be settled by fact and not by opinion.

"Based on all the evidence we have been able to collect and on our own observations, we are inclined to think that the rejection of an insurance applicant solely on the basis of blindness is discrimination instead of a justifiable action. We are inclined to think that the decision springs from belief, emotion, and prejudice instead of evidence. It may be, however, that you are in possession of data which is not available to us. Therefore, I would like to request clarification and elaboration of the position which you have taken.

Very truly yours,"

To this letter of inquiry the insurance medical officer answered in part:

"Blindness is a physical defect, not related to any particular religion, and your comparing it to a Jew who may or may not be healthy, leaves me at a loss. As you well know, the causative factors in blindness are many--Trauma, Cataract, Glaucoma, Optic Atrophy, Syphilis, and a host of other conditions may result in this condition.

"As I stated to Mr. Blank earlier, . . . we cannot issue the contract (at standard rates) if the applicant does not meet our minimum underwriting criteria.


What is one to say to such a letter! Indeed, some blind people are syphilitic. So are some farmers. But one does not, therefore, refuse to sell insurance to farmers at standard rates. Instead, one refuses to sell to syphilitics--farmers and non-farmers alike. Syphilitics are an identifiable class, and the trait of syphilis has some relationship to the establishment of differing insurance rate classifications--namely, probabilities of life expectancy, but there is no evidence that blindness has any such relationship. Therefore, the classification would seem to be umeasonable as well as detrimental, thus discriminatory.

Again, this case is by no means an isolated instance. A few years back I had the experience of being denied the right to purchase flight insurance in an Iowa airport. My argument that I was surely not a greater risk than others on the plane since I intended to ride as a passenger and not as the pilot availed me nothing. I was forced to board the plane uninsured. When I sent a letter of protest to the home office of the company, the local agent was reprimanded and ordered to issue insurance to the blind on equal terms with others. On my next trip to that airport I was greeted by the insurance agent with absolute rage and fury. In fact, his language was so abusive that I finally felt moved to say to him that from his actions one would think I had done him an injury instead of having been deprived by him of a right.

A blind person of my acquaintance recently bought a life insurance policy from a large company but was denied accidental death coverage. When he protested, the vice-president of the company wrote him a most revealing letter. It said in part:

"Undoubtedly among a group of blind persons there will be some lives which will not be more accident prone than individuals having their sight. But as a group, we believe (note the word believe ) that their accident rate is higher. Hence we have never issued accidental death coverage to blind persons. . . . We think that as a group blind persons can be more subject to disabilities arising from injuries and further have some restriction at least as to the area of activities for gainful employment. . . .

"You go too far in suggesting that our position constitutes discrimination. . . . We will frankly concede that we do not have the statistics for blind persons, either good or bad. . . . Now if there were statistics that supported the point that the incidence of disability or accidents was no higher among blind persons and we then refused to recognize these statistics, we would indeed be guilty of discrimination. . . . Certainly in the absence of statistics complete enough to be meaningful, this company's management has the right to exercise its judgment in the adoption of underwriting rules. "

In replying to this letter the blind man said:

"The central thesis of my argument is that unless concrete evidence is brought forth, my blindness should in no way interfere with my insurability. . . .

"Since your refusal to sell certain insurance coverage to blind persons is not based on evidence or statistics, I can only conclude it is based upon traditional misconceptions.

"As to who bears the burden of proof, it is my contention that your company--as well as other companies--must bear the burden of responsibility since you insist upon establishing a relationship between blindness, accidents, and the frequency of other disabilities. Deeply rooted in the American heritage is the notion that the individual is to be considered innocent until proven guilty. An analogous doctrine should apply to denial of insurance coverage.

"If, for instance, your company should suddenly decide that it would not issue insurance to Iowans or that it would charge them higher rates than the people of surrounding states because it believed they might be more accident prone than non-Iowans and if it frankly admitted that it had no evidence upon which to base its belief, how soon would it find itself in court for umeasonable and detrimental classification?"

So the blind man made his case, but he did not get the insurance. Once again the question arises as to what he and the others involved in these insurance cases should have done. They might meekly have submitted to the payment of extra premiums and the denial of coverage, thus earning the ill-will of no one. Or they might, as they have, asked for equal treatment with others, thereby creating a certain amount of hostility. The choice is not an easy one.

As an indication of the whimsical and arbitrary nature of insurance practices respecting the blind, some companies charge a blind person extra rates for double indemnity coverage; some write it at standard rates; and some will not issue it at all. In view of these facts some of us recently requested the Insurance Commissioner for the State of Iowa to take action under the insurance antidiscrimination provisions of the Code of Iowa and to require that companies doing business in the State not classify blind persons as separate from others in the issuance of insurance policies without evidence to substantiate the classification. The matter is now under consideration, and I hope that we get a favorable ruling, even if it brings a certain amount of hostility.

Sometimes progress itself brings problems of detrimental and umeasonable classification. An illustration of this fact can be found in a recent occurrence involving a blind student at the University of Iowa. As our training programs have expanded, an increasing number of blind Iowans have been going to colleges and universities. Upon graduation they quite naturally hope to enter business or one of the professions.

Not long ago a young blind woman, a graduate of our Orientation Center, having finished her preliminary work at the University of Iowa, applied for permission to do student teaching. She was an elementary education major, and student teaching is one of the requirements for certification. There was a serious question raised on the part of the administration of the university as to whether she should be permitted to emoll for the course and make the attempt. They admitted that she was otherwise qualified and that if she were not blind she would undoubtedly be admitted to the course. This is how matters stood when I went before a university committee to plead her case. Even though I was able to point out to the professors that there are today at least a hundred blind persons throughout the country successfully teaching sighted children in regular elementary schools, they still expressed doubt and hesitation. They said that they were not certain that they could think of techniques by which a blind person could cope with certain situations which make up part of the daily routine of an elementary teacher. I pointed out that such considerations were, to say the least, somewhat academic and esoteric in the face of the fact that blind teachers are now doing these things on a regular basis. In other words, I argued, let the regular procedures apply. Judge her by the same standards as others. If she cannot do the work or pass the tests, then flunk her. But do not place an added obstruction in her path. Do not arbitrarily classify her as unable to teach without even giving her the opportunity to try. This would, indeed, be discrimination at its worst, I am happy to say that this situation was successfully resolved and that the woman in question was permitted to emoll for the course.

Incidentally a number of states (including California, New York, and Pennsylvania) have recently passed laws forbidding discrimination against blind persons (otherwise qualified) as teachers. Even in this progressive action, however, the ancient stereotype shows its power; for Pennsylvania in its law permitting physically disabled persons such as the blind to teach in the public schools could see no better way of accomplishing the purpose than by amending a section of the law dealing with mental disorders, communicable diseases, narcotic addicts, and immoral character. The law, as duly amended, now reads:

"Section 1209. Disqualifications, No teacher's certificate shall be granted to any person who has not submitted, , , a certificate from a physician, . , setting forth that said applicant is neither mentally nor physically disqualified, by reason of tuberculosis or any other (chronic or acute defect), communicable disease or by reason of mental disorder from successful performance of the duties of a teacher; nor to any person who has not a good moral character, or who is in the habit of using opium or other narcotic drugs in any form, or any intoxicating drink as a beverage, or to any applicant who has a major physical disability or defect unless such person submits a certificate signed by an official of the college or university from which he was graduated or of an appropriate rehabilitation agency, certifying that in the opinion of such official the applicant, by his work and activities, demonstrated that he is sufficiently adjusted, trained and motivated to perform the duties of a teacher, notwithstanding his impediment."

Note with what unusual weight the burden of proof falls upon the blind or physically disabled applicant. All who apply to teach require a medical clearance; but he alone requires a testimonial--a testimonial from his college or his rehabilitation counselor to the effect that he is "sufficiently adjusted, trained and motivated"--and that he has proved all this by his "work and activities"--whatever that may mean. Not only is the burden of proof upon him; the full spotlight of suspicion is on him: the
underlying assumption that he is ill-adjusted and unmotivated.

The practice of lumping the blind with the criminals, the insane, the drug addicts, etc. , and treating them all alike as a single class is not new. It is as old as the history of man. But from time to time it assumes new forms. Today, for instance, it is finding its way into the jargon of social science and is reflected in some of the college textbooks. As an example, consider the book significantly entitled Social Pathology , written by Professor Edwin M. Lembert of the University of California at Los Angeles. Pathology, as the dictionary tells us, is the scientific study of diseases and the diseased. What are the social diseases with which this author is concerned? They are the diseases listed in several chapters under the heading, "Part Two: Deviations and Deviants "--and they include the following: "Blindness and the Blind, " "Radicalism and Radicals, " "Prostitution and the Prostitute, " "Crime and the Criminal, ""Drunkenness and the Chronic Alcoholic, " and--finally and inevitably-- "Mental Disorders. "

These then are the deviations and deviants--the forms of social disease and the disease-carriers--which are taken to be the proper subject-matter of a study in "social pathology. " This is the company which the blind find themselves keeping in a modern textbook of social science.

It is, of course, exactly the company which the blind formerly kept in the asylum and the almshouse. We need only recall the American almshouse of half a century ago, whose inmates comprised (according to a classic description) "the crippled and the sick; the insane; the blind; deaf mutes; feeble-minded and epileptic; people with all kinds of chronic diseases;. . .short term prisoners; thieves, no longer physically capable of crime; worn out prostitutes, etc. " In short, the almshouse was the place of last resort for all those marked indelibly by society as "deviants. " Over the years the blind have gradually made their escape from this Bedlam and its psychological stigma.

It is especially significant--and in keeping with the proper moral attitude toward "deviants"--that the author of this textbook on pathological behavior regards the blind, and particularly the organized blind, with undisguised suspicion.

After a summary account of two so-called "militant organizations of the blind, " the author concludes: "All these facts create interesting speculation. While the actions of the two groups may be regarded as the group equivalent of tantrum behavior, they also raise a question as to what happens when the blind in a collective capacity desert their traditional roles of humility and agitate in an independent way like any other pressure group. " To which one replies--what indeed I Under the circumstances it is not surprising that the author's judgment of the general capabilities of the blind is contained in his observation that: "While most of the blind are immobilized because of illnesses or because of extreme dependency some blind mendicants are able to move fairly well through their environment." Indeed I Indeed I.

Those of us who are blind are--need we say it once again--citizens as well. We wish to be treated as other citizens are treated, for all ordinary and general purposes. We wish special treatment and classification only for the purposes of meeting the needs or acquiring the skills and training required by our blindness. Most of all we wish to participate freely and to compete normally for our places in the economic and social community--but we hope that in preparing for that competition our chances may be equalized through the special services necessary for adequate training and opportunity. To achieve these objectives we have, in the best American tradition, organized for collective action and self- expression. The man who can refer to this as "the group equivalent of tantrum behavior" and who goes on to be troubled by "the question as to what happens when the blind in a collective capacity desert their traditional roles of humility and agitate in an independent way like any other pressure group" does, indeed, give us food for thought--but in a way which would probably surprise him.

From the beginnings of recorded history the blind have been the victims of umeasonable and detrimental classification. Today these discriminations are being recognized for what they are, and the blind and their friends are insisting with growing success upon justice and equal treatment. No matter how moderately it may be done this resistance to discrimination will inevitably bring a certain amount of hostility. But under such circumstances even hostility is a hopeful sign and is, perhaps, one of the best indicators of our progress. In fact, the future looks increasingly bright for the blind. As more and more blind persons receive training and take their place in the regular economic and social life of the community, ancient stereotypes and misclassifications begin to diminish and lose their force. Although there are individual instances of hostility and resentment at the advancement of the blind, these are by no means predominant. The overwhelming sentiment of the public toward the blind is one of good will and encouragement. Likewise, although there are individual blind persons who are arrogant or overly aggressive, or who cling to their dependent status, the great majority wish only for equal opportunity and equal responsibility. In fact, it cannot be said too often that achievement is made of high hopes and hard work, of drudgery and dreams. The blind of America are willing to work, and work hard; but they also dare to dream.

April 22, 1968

Office of the White House Press Secretary
(Austin, Texas)

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"Mobility" is a precious word to the sightless. The blind person who can move about with ease and confidence has access to people and places that immeasurably stretch his horizons and broaden his experience. With his energies freed, his imagination, too, can soar. Often the key to this mobility is a simple White Cane.

The White Cane enables the visually deprived to overcome his handicap and conquer his environment. With the White Cane, he can detect steps, obstacles, and dangers which bar his way. When he has mastered the special technique required for traveling with a cane, he can make his way without assistance to his job or other destination with remarkable confidence and speed.

Yet the blind person making his way alone over today's hazardous streets requires confidence, not only in his own skill and judgment, but also in his fellow citizens. To every blind person walking with the aid of a White Cane, any moving object or person is a potential threat to his safety. To proceed with confidence, the blind pedestrian must know that those about him will understand the meaning of his cane and will yield the right-of-way.

So that Americans--and especially motorists--may more fully appreciate the significance of the White Cane, and the need to exercise caution and courtesy when approaching persons carrying a White Cane, the Congress, by a joint resolution approved October 6, 1964 (78 Stat. 1003), has requested that the President proclaim October 15 of each year as White Cane Safety Day.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, LYNDON B. JOHNSON, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim October 15, 1968 as White Cane Safety Day.

I call upon all our citizens to join in this observance, that blind persons in our society may continue to enjoy the greatest possible measure of personal independence.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 22nd day of April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-eight and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and ninety-second.


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by Lawrence Marcelino

Perry Sundquist retired on June 18, 1968, exactly 27 years to the day that he became Chief of the Division for the Blind in the California State Department of Social Welfare. He has been a member of the Executive Committee of the National Federation of the Blind for the past six years and is the newly-appointed Editor of the Braille Monitor.

Perry attended public schools in Canada and Washington State, the Washington State School for the Blind in Vancouver, and was graduated from high school at the California School for the Blind in Berkeley.

He received the Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1928 and pursued two years of graduate study at both the University of California and the University of Southern California in the fields of Education and Social Work.

Sundquist married Emily Wright in November, 1931--they had gone through college together at Berkeley. In 1935-36 Perry conducted a statewide study of the Economic Status of the Blind in California for the State Department of Education, which was published by the State. From 1936 to 1941 he was Executive Secretary of the American Brotherhood for the Blind and has been a member of the Board of Directors of that organization for most of the time since then, serving as Secretary. From June, 1941 to the present he has been chief of the Division for the Blind, California State Department of Social Welfare.

From 1930 to 1935 Perry was Secretary of the Los Angeles County Club of Adult Blind, and President of the Club in 1938. From 1934 to 1938 he was Vice President of the California Council of the Blind and has been a member of the Council during the 34 years of its existence. He is a member of the Capitol Chapter of the Council in Sacramento.

Sundquist was Vice President of the National Federation of the Blind from July, 1961 to 1962 when he became President until July, 1962. Perry has actively participated through the NFB in assisting organizations of the blind in many other states to improve their Aid to the Blind programs over the years.

During his 27 years on the staff of the State Department of Social Welfare, Sundquist served as Acting Administrative Assistant in charge of all public assistance programs in 1942 and again in 1945. In 1949 he was Regional Director of nine San Joaquin Valley Counties directly administering Old Age Security and Aid to the Blind.

In 1959 Perry received the Newel Perry Award for distinguished service in blind welfare from the National Federation of the Blind. In 1964 he received the Citation of the California Council of the Blind for his work in the field. In 1962 and 1963 he was awarded Honorary Membership in the California Optometric Association.

During his own State service in California, Perry has witnessed the growth of the Aid to the Blind programs in that State to a point of development unequaled anywhere in the Nation--the Aid to Potentially Self-Supporting Blind Program in 1941; the Prevention-of-Blindness Program in 1945; exempt income in Aid to the Blind in 1950; the repeal of responsibility of relatives provisions and also the cost-of-living escalator provision in 1961; and the repeal of required State residence in 1963. Today California's average Aid to the Blind grant is the highest in the country.

Perry was a member of the Board of Directors of the California Conference of Social Work, 1951 to 1955. He is a Past President of Fort Sutter Chapter, California State Employees Association. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the California Chapter, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness.

Perry is currently a member of the California Social Workers Organization, a Registered Social Worker, a member of the National Association of Social Workers and the Academy of Certified Social Workers. He is a Unitarian and Past President of the Central District of Unitarian Churches. He is a Mason.

On May 15, 1968 the following Resolution was introduced in the Assembly of the California State Legislature:

WHEREAS, Perry Sundquist, Chief of the Division for the Blind in the State Department of Social Welfare, and will retire from state service on June 18, 1968, after 27 years; and

WHEREAS, Mr. Sundquist came to the position of Chief through appointment by Governor Culbert Olson because of his outstanding knowledge of the economic and social problems of the blind, gained from his service as Executive Secretary of the American Brotherhood of the Blind and his leadership in conducting a state-wide study of the economic status of the blind in California for the State Department of Education; and

WHEREAS, Mr. Sundquist has rendered devoted service to the State of California and in behalf of the blind in bringing the services for the blind to their present outstanding level; and

WHEREAS, Mr. Sundquist is a product of the public school system in the State of California, having been graduated from the California School for the Blind and having received his Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1928; and

WHEREAS, Mr. Sundquist has by his exemplary service brought national recognition to the State of California and has always shown a keen awareness of the important role of the Legislature with respect to the formulation of public welfare policies; and

WHEREAS, Mr. Sundquist has been recognized not only for his knowledge of the blind, but for his concerns for his fellow workers, having been elected President of Chapter 58, California State Employees Association, for two terms; now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Assembly of the State of California. That the Members extend their congratulations to Perry Sundquist upon his retirement; and be it further

Resolved. That the Chief Clerk of the Assembly transmit a suitably prepared copy of this resolution to Perry Sundquist and his wife, Emily, who since their marriage in November, 1931, has shared with and assisted him in bringing greater enlightenment to public service for the blind.

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"This is the best of all the Virginia Conventions I"

This enthusiastic comment was heard everywhere--on the convention floor, in the hospitality room, in hotel corridors and elevators--as the Virginia Federation of the Blind met in its Tenth Annual Convention, April 26-28, in the George Washington Hotel, Winchester, Virginia.

The Federation's Washington office chief, John Nagle, opened the convention with a moving address of tribute and appreciation to Dr. Jacobus tenBroek, recently deceased founder and long-time president of the National Federation of the Blind.

Mrs. Hazel F. Daly, district manager of the Social Security office in Winchester, talked about the latest amendments to the Social Security Act, and answered questions on specific Social Security case problems. John Nagle moderated a panel on "Employment Opportunities for the Blind" with Nina Deavers, dishwasher in a hospital, and Alan Schlank, computer programmer for the United States Army as panelists; gave a federal legislative report briefly outlining the activities, efforts, and achievements of the NFB in the 90th Congress; and answered questions on organizational matters, legislation, and other issues of concern to blind people during a program feature described as "What's on Your Mind?", with James F. Nelson, Jr., corresponding secretary of the VFB. "Insurance Discrimination Against the Blind" was discussed by Mr. A. Wallace Mangus, supervisor of accident and sickness insurance. State Corporation Commission, Richmond, Virginia. An overheard remark seemed to sum up the opinion of the blind audience to Mr. Mangus' talk: "If you discriminate against all blind people alike, then it's all right. It's only wrong if you unfairly discriminate against an individual blind person."

"A Print Reading Device for the Blind", the final item of the first convention-day program, was explained by two persons who would make all printed matter accessible to blind persons--Dr. Eugene S. McVey, professor of electrical engineering, and Dr. James W. Moore, professor of mechanical engineering, both of the University of Virginia.

One hundred and three Federationists and their families and friends attended the convention banquet--"We only had more people at one of our convention banquets when Dr. tenBroek was our speaker," announced President Robert McDonald. Charters were presented during the banquet to two newly-organized VFB chapters, and John Nagle gave the address of the evening on: "What is a Federationist?".

During the Sunday morning business session of the convention, a constitutional amendment was considered and approved; reports were read, discussed and adopted. James Garnett, reporting on the activities of the VFB in the Virginia Legislature, told of the Governor's veto of a Legislature-adopted measure sponsored by the Virginia organized blind to repeal the lien law on Aid to the Needy Blind in the state.

The following were elected to a two-year term of office: President, Dorothea Foulkrod, 2000 Riverside Drive, Apartment 155, Richmond, Virginia, 23225; First Vice President, Robert McDonald; Second Vice President, Nancy Hoover; Treasurer, James Copeland; Recording Secretary, Marion McDonald; Corresponding Secretary, James F. Nelson, Jr.; Board Member, Amy Barnes.

Dorothea Foulkrod was elected as delegate of the VFB to the NFB convention in Des Moines, Iowa, later this year, and Robert McDonald was elected alternate delegate.

The final business of the convention was the unanimous acceptance of an invitation from the Potomac Federation of the Blind to hold the 1969 VFB convention in Alexandria, Virginia.

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The Free State Federation of the Blind of Baltimore reports that the following Resolution was adopted by the Senate of the State of Maryland:

WHEREAS, it is the Senate's intention to reaffirm its policy supporting the right of physically handicapped persons to participate fully in the social and economic life of the State and to suggest a certain road traffic measure for the education of drivers and the protection of the blind; now, therefore, be it

RESOLVED, BY THE SENATE OF MARYLAND, That it reaffirms its policy to encourage and enable the blind, the physically handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled to participate fully in the social and economic life of the State and to engage in remunerative employment in private industry and in government at all levels; and be it further

RESOLVED, That the Senate calls the attention of all citizens of the State to the several laws of the State which embody the Senate's policy; and be it further

RESOLVED, That the Senate assures all citizens of the State of its intention to support the spirit as well as the letter of these laws; and be it further

RESOLVED, That the Senate urges the agents of the State and its political subdivisions charged with vehicular traffic safety to cause the prompt installation at every pedestrian intersection of signs stating "White Cane Means Stop I" in an effort to educate drivers and give additional protection to the blind; and be it further

RESOLVED, That the Senate wishes this Resolution to be well publicized and that governmental and private employers give especial heed to the employment policy of the Senate embodied in the laws of Maryland regarding the physically handicapped; and be it further

RESOLVED, That copies of this Resolution be sent to the heads of government of the State and each of its political subdivisions, to each Chamber of Commerce throughout the State, to the State Commissioner of Personnel, to the State Superintendent of Schools, to each County Board of Education, and that copies be posted in a conspicuous place in each public school and each courthouse throughout the State.

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(Reprinted from Telstar, Federated Blind of North Dakota)

RODNEY J. KOSSICK IN VIETNAM--One year ago, March, 1967. Rodney J. Kossick, arrived in Saigon, Vietnam. He is not taking part in the war as we know it, but, he is there to fight. His fight is not against anyone, but, with those blinded by the war.

Rod Kossick was formerly with the North Dakota Division of Vocational Rehabilitation as the Supervisor of Services to the Blind. Rod now is employed by the World Rehabilitation Foundation and because of the success of the North Dakota program he was given the responsibility of establishing a similar service in Vietnam.

Rod "started from scratch". He not only had to design the program, but had to train his instructors. He started training three Orientation and Mobility Instructors in March of 1967. He also had to train the Braille instructors, typing and communication instructors, and the Pre-Vocational Training instructors. By May, 1967, he had nine instructors, by July, he had fourteen.

In June, three blinded veterans started the program. They were joined in August by seven more Vietnamese veterans blinded in action and one graduate of a school for blind boys. This first class of the Adjustment and Pre-Vocational Evaluation program graduated in January and eighteen more will start. Students from the Vietnam University have volunteered to teach English to the instructors and students and help in any problems involved with the language barrier. There are also two other part-time teachers of English and some staff members who are bilingual.

The program has received world-wide attention and is acclaimed by both Vietnam and United States governments. Due to this success, similar programs will be started in July of 1968.

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The Alameda County Placement Project for the Blind (in California) completed its three-year demonstration effort to determine whether an intensive push would result in helping an appreciable number of recipients of Aid to the Blind to be placed in employment. The project was a cooperative effort involving the State Department of Social Welfare, the State Department of Rehabilitation, and the Alameda County Welfare Department.

In conducting the project, a team approach was used consisting of a rehabilitation counselor, a placement counselor, and the client's social worker. Some of the findings of the project, which will be made available to other counties in the State included the following:

1. A substantial number of long-term Aid to the Blind clients between the ages of 20 and 49 can be placed in employment.

2. A far greater number might possibly benefit from a sight restoration program, particularly through low-visual aids.

3. Recruitment is an effective and practical method of registering recipients for rehabilitation services.

4. The application of a team approach with the benefit of different professional experiences is feasible.

5. There are far more job openings in the community for blind persons than there are clients sufficiently trained and thus prepared to fill them.

6. Once placed, these clients desire no further contact from counselors, or services from the Department of Rehabilitation.

7. The County Welfare Department can be a powerful force in the physical restoration and rehabilitative program of those on assistance rolls.

8. The charge that there are many receiving assistance who are fully trained, waiting for placement services, is not valid.

9. The assumption that these persons are not motivated toward self-support is without foundation.

10. The lack of (a) formal education, (b) social adjustment, (c) a marketable skill, compounded with the loss of vision and additional health problems, is the cause of dependency, inactivity, and unemployment among this group.

With adequate training and motivation, blind persons who have been inactive on the labor market for many years can be placed in employment. Of the 244 cases accepted by the project, 46 percent, or almost one-half, were found not feasible for employment--even though between the ages of 20 and 49--due chiefly to multi -handicaps. Of the 112 found feasible, 37 persons, or about 38 percent, were placed in remunerative employment.

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On April 26, John Nagle, chief of the Washington office of the NFB, appeared at hearings conducted by the Special Subcommittee on International Health, Education and Labor Programs of the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee, in support of S. 1779.

The bill was introduced by the Honorable Ralph Yarborough, Texas, subcommittee chairman. It would establish an international program which would provide open support for private, non-governmental activities in the fields of health, education and labor, among others.

Describing the NFB to the committee, Nagle declared: By our organized efforts and individual example, we strive to eradicate misinformation about blindness and false notions about blind people. We reject the inferior, demeaning, and sterile status of benevolent custodialism--our lot by custom and tradition--and we assert the right of all blind people to determine their own destinies, to direct their own lives, to share fully in the hazards, responsibilities, rights, privileges, and opportunities of constructive and contributory living. The organized blind of America know that blind people can live independent, interdependent lives, for we are doing so. We know that blind people, themselves, are best qualified to solve the problems of blindness.

Today, the organized blind movement in America is an irrefutable demonstration of the normality of blind people, of their capacities and capabilities. The National Federation of the Blind is a conclusive demonstration of the possibilities and achievement attainable by blind men and women joined in common cause and working together toward shared objectives.

Since 1964, when the NFB began expanding the scope of its international activities, we have had more than two dozen leaders of the blind from nations scattered throughout the world participate in our annual national conventions and travel in our country. They have learned how we function in our "self-help" organizations; seen the diversity of our employment and activities; the extent of our participation in all aspects of community and national life. Our Members have served as hosts and guides to the leaders from other lands. The blind of the United States have taught much and learned much from this association--as have our visitors.

To further the mutual goals of the American blind and those of other nations of the world, the organized blind of the United States were instrumental in the creation of the International Federation of the Blind--a worldwide organization of affiliated national organizations of blind people.

The people of the world have heard far too much of the wealth and weapons of Annerica. They have heard far too little of the deep and gen- eral concern in America for persons who are physically and mentally impaired--of the special helps and services provided to such people, of the educational and training programs available to them, of the gainful employment they engage in. They have heard far too little of the opportunities for normal, self-dependent living achievable and achieved by physically and mentally disabled persons in this country.

Blind persons who visit the United States as guests of the NFB are shown the schools, libraries and other institutions and agencies which serve the needs of the blind of this nation. They discover what is being done to combat the universally adverse public attitudes towards the dis- abled, the prejudices and discriminations which exist in the fornn of social and economic barriers. These foreign leaders return to their own countries with a strengthened belief in the potentialities available to their fellow-blind.

As you know, there are already great numbers of publicly and privately financed programs to bring persons from foreign nations to the United States. However, we have found that if we wanted to bring teachers of the blind to America to learn how to become better teachers, vocational rehabilitation counselors to become better counselors, or other specialists in the field of work for the blind, funds would have been available to us. But when we have talked of bringing blind persons to the United States to learn how blind Americans have worked together in "self-help" organizations to secure improved status for blind people, we have discovered that there was no established category into which such a request would fit in international exchange programs. And travel grants for blind people to come to the United States are far down on embassy priority lists.

It is our hope that S. 1779 will be approved by you, and promptly passed by Congress. We believe the kind of international program that would be established by this bill is the very kind which would be administered by persomel who would understand what we are trying to do for the blind of other nations.

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by Lawrence Marcelino

The California Council of the Blind held its semi-annual convention on April 26, 27 and 28, 1968, at the Hotel California in Fresno. More than 200 people were in attendance at the general sessions. On Friday night members and delegates met to discuss the Council's fund-raising activities and to plan fund-raising work for the forthcoming year. Later the same night the resolutions committee conducted open hearings on draft resolutions which were subnnitted for consideration by the convention.

In its general sessions the convention adopted 14 resolutions. Most of them called for enactment by the State Legislature of the legislative bills which the Council is sponsoring at the Capitol, such as: establishment of a State Connmission for the Blind; increasing the State Blind Aid Grant by $4. 00; increasing the Special Needs AlIowance in Aid to the Blind by $15.00; passage of a $10,000,000 bond issue by the State for the construction of two State Schools for Multi-Handicapped Blind Children; enactment of a nneasure to provide that whenever the Civil Service persomel at California Industries for the Blind receive across-the-board salary increases, the blind and disabled workers in the sheltered workshops of CIB shall also receive a proportionate wage increase. There were also a number of resolutions urging defeat of adverse legislations affecting the poor including measures that would impose liens on the property of aid recipients, reduce the grant for married couples, destroy the California Aid to the Blind Law by establishing a "conamon standard of assistance for all recipients of public assistance", thereby abolishing the rehabilitative features of the State's Blind Aid Law.

There was lively discussion on a resolution demanding withdrawal fronn the Vietnam war and demanding that moneys now spent on the war be spent for the benefit of the poor. The resolution was tabled and in its place a substitute resolution was adopted expressing the hope that the war will soon end and that the country direct its' energies and resources to improving the conditions of the disadvantaged.

It also seems very likely that the Model White Cane Law will be enacted this session.

A detailed report was given on the legislative activities of the Council. The delegates were heartened by the fact that our efforts so far have been successful toward passage of our measures and defeat of adverse bills.

It was pointed out many times, however, that there will be determined opposition to our liberalizing measures, especially from the current State Admainistration. It was also pointed out that the Council Members should expect more introductions of additional adverse bills.

One of the highlights of the convention was an address given by Professor Thomas Brigham, Director of the Division of Social Work at Fresno State College. Professor Brigham explained some of the current concepts and practices in public welfare in California, principally the misconceptions and anti-welfare attitude which is currently widespread in this State. He commended the Council of the Blind for its dedicated and unceasing effort and praised the work that the late Dr. Jacobus tenBroek performed on behalf of the disadvantaged.

Another outstanding feature of the convention consisted of the speech given by Mr. David Nawi, staff attorney for the Legal Aid Society of Alameda County. David, who worked for some time with Dr. tenBroek at the NFB offices, told of the recent State Court decisions pertaining to public welfare including decisions regarding durational residence requirements and fair hearing procedures. He told of the work being done by the OEO legal services for the poor in defense of welfare recipients.

There were several very interesting panel discussions, one regarding employment of blind teachers in the public schools of California and another regarding employment of blind persons in the Social Security Administration.

There was a panel discussion on the subject of the Business Enterprise Program for the blind. The panel included in its membership two non-Council cafeteria operators, one from Sacramento and one from Los Angeles.

Among other subjects discussed were the Governor's Task Force recommendations that State building cafeterias be closed during coffee breaks and the glaring deficiencies of the appeals procedure. It was pointed out that the Department has been guilty of using improper procedures in dismissing operators. It will be noted that the Council's bill for establishing a State Commission for the Blind contains provisions for fair hearing appeals to be held not by staff members but by the Commissioners.

As has been done for a number of years, luncheon meetings were held by the Alumni Association of the California School for the Blind and the Alumni Association of the Orientation Center of the Blind and as is customary, the Presidents' luncheon, where Presidents of Council Chapters heard discussions and suggestions for development of Council Chapters, which now total 49.

There was a goodly number of college and university students who took a keen interest in all phases of the work and discussions and made us old-timers feel happy that there are so many bright and interested youthful leaders coming into the Council sharing in the expanding work of the organization.

Assemblyman George Zenovich of Fresno delivered the banquet speech. Assemblyman Zenovich has for many years been a very good friend of the blind and is the author of our bill to provide a $4.00 increase in the Aid to the Blind grant. He gladdened our hearts by stating his support for our various Council bills and pledging his continued support for measures to help the poor.

In tribute to Dr. tenBroek a tape was played at the banquet in which a number of Dr. tenBroek's speeches were presented. This composite was assembled by Russell Kletzing who also paid fitting tribute to Dr. tenBroek.

Entertainment was provided by a group of some 10-l2 Fresno ladies who gave us some fine barbershop music.

The Council is deeply grateful to Mrs. Priscilla Gray for more than one reason: First of all, Priscilla is an active member of the Fresno County Chapter, second, she is a top-quality Blind Aid Supervisor in Fresno, and third, she put forth a great deal of time and effort in making the arrangements for the convention and taking care of all the details that go with hosting a convention.

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(From DBPH News, No. 26, April, 1968)

Two new talking book machines will be placed into service this year. The first. Model AE-5, will appear in June. Notable changes in this unit are that:

1) The case will be made of high-impact, low- and high-temperature resistant plastic; its color will be two-tone blue.

2) There will be two speakers: one in the lid and one in the tray. The lid is removable and can be hung on the wall or otherwise positioned at a distance of up to 8 feet from the tray.

3) The amplifier will be completely solid state, or transistorized, using a modular-replacement circuit board. Since transistors need no warm-up time, the reader may pause for any length of time by switching the set off. When he assumes reading--that is, turns the set on--he will hear the narrator's voice immediately.

This phonograph has been approved by the Underwriters Laboratories.

Our second talking book machine, the Model K-1, will be out by the end of the year. It will have all the features of the AE-5 and at least two additional capabilities: for those requiring a means of controlling the word rate, e.g., a student who wishes to read quickly, an adapter may be attached to the basic K-1 that will control the speed of the turntable. Naturally this may also be used to slow down the word rate.

Another adapter offers the physically handicapped remote control of the on-off function of the K-1. A small transmitter, which can be operated by a touch of the toe, hand, or elbow, will send a signal through the house wiring, and a receiver at the phonograph will turn the machine on or off.

In the future, the K-1 will provide two-channel operation, or, in terms of music recordings, the unit will play "stereo." Our need for two-channel operation is to permit an indexing system to be recorded on one channel and the normal reading material on the other.

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In accordance with custom in the State of New Hampshire, this second report on Alfred Beckwith and the State House Snack Bar in Concord should be Part One, rather than Two, for all things seem to be proceeding backwards in New Hampshire. Beckwith was "fired" April 5, 1968 as manager of the snack bar because he was "insubordinate", as well as resistive and uncooperative when he objected to the removal of vending machines from the area served by his snack bar. But Beckwith, President of the New Hampshire Federation of the Blind, was not without friends, and his attorneys, supported by the NFB, demanded that he have the fair hearing required by the federal regulations under the Randolph-Shephard Vending Stand Act. When the Attorney General of the State of New Hampshire finally reviewed the law, a hearing was set April 24, 1968 before the Appeals Board of the Advisory Commission on Health and Welfare--a body normally engaged in hearing the appeals of welfare applicants.

Acting decisively, Beckwith's attorneys also petitioned the Merrimac County Superior Court for a Writ of Mandate--a legal remedy by which a court directs an administrative official to carry out his duties under the law--requesting the court to order the Director of Welfare and the Supervisor of Blind Services to withdraw their order of termination, restore Beckwith to his rightful place as licensed operator of the State House Snack Bar, and account for all moneys earned by the Snack Bar during Beckwith's ouster. These officials had replaced Alfred Beckwith with a sighted snack bar manager, in total disregard of the federal rules and regulations and the purposes of the entire blind vending stand program. The court set April 15, 1968 for a hearing on the petition; but on April 12th Beckwith received the following letter from the principal defendant:

"Dear Mr. Beckwith:

"This is to advise you that your supervisor has recommended your reinstatement to the position of State House Snack Bar Manager pending a hearing before the Appeals Board on April 24, 1968 at 3:00 p.m.

"I am, therefore, acceding to Mr. Camp's request retroactive to April 5, 1968. In so doing I wish to inform you that I do not withdraw my charges as I deem your behavior totally unacceptable.

Very truly yours,


Thus prompt action by federationists restored Alfred Beckwith to his modest business enterprise, at least pending a "fair" hearing. However, can any hearing be fair when the outcome has already been announced? Is it right that a licensed vending stand operator who has never received a copy of his license, or of the rules and regulations which guide his operations, or of the agreement whereby his business is located in a public building, should be judged guilty of their violation? Also, is it right that such an operator then should be judged by an administrator (termed, "Executive Officer") who has already sent a letter "firing" him? Even in New Hampshire the injustice of such a rule, which is section 24.2 of their regulations, was recognized; so the hearing was to be held before three lay persons constituting the Board of Appeals of the Advisory Commission on Health and Welfare.

At the outset this civilian group refused to render an opinion "on the competency, legal or otherwise, of the Board of Appeals in this matter of the termination of Mr. Alfred Beckwith as Manager of the State House Snack Bar". The charges against Beckwith were then four in number, being increased from mere "insubordination" to include "several instances of mismanagement", "using the press to discredit the Division in the eyes of the public and challenging the authority of the State of New Hampshire to exercise control of him and his stand", and "exploiting his blindness and inciting public pity by circularizing a petition in his behalf". These additional charges were ultimately discredited by the Board; they found no misuse of funds, no use of the press as alleged, and that Beck-with had nothing to do with the petition that had been circulated on his behalf. The hearings lasted two days; on the second day Beckwith's attorney, Mr. Lawrence Spellman of the office of Charles Sheridan, Jr. , learned for the first time that the Board was proceeding under a new set of regulations, copies of which had not previously been furnished to Beckwith or to his attorney! Nothing in these new rules defines "insubordination", or for that matter, any of the charges launched against Al Beckwith, yet in a decision dated April 2 5, 1968, and forwarded to Beckwith over a week later, the Board of Appeals recommended "that the Director of Welfare terminate Mr. Alfred Beckwith for insubordination".

The foregoing technical legal details are necessary to set forth the pecularly unfair treatment to which Alfred Beckwith has been subjected. An honest and successful businessman, because he is blind, has been treated as a subservient recipient of the beneficence of the State of New Hampshire, unable to manage his own affairs. When he objects, he is "obstructive" or "insubordinate", and a court designated by his accuser determines whether or not his termination was justified. The failure of the Director of Welfare to follow the federal laws is disregarded and this victim of bureaucratic high-jinks is required to refute charges not made prior to the hearing, and given no real opportunity to challenge the fact that he is condemned under regulations of which he had no notice.

This is only the first skirmish in the battle of Alfred Beckwith against entrenched complacency in New Hampshire. There is serious doubt that the hearing afforded him was within the terms of the law, and no doubt at all that the hearing was not the fair hearing to which he is entitled. The law does not specifically confer any property rights on blind vending stand operators, nevertheless such operators have human rights which, in Beckwith's case, have been severely trampled. Apparently officials in the State of New Hampshire need to be instructed in the objects and purposes of the Vending Stand Act; they require new insights concerning the self-respect and independence of competent entrepreneurs, like Alfred Beckwith, who happen to be blind. The instruction may be expensive for the pupils, and it may be embarrassing to be educated by judicial process, but Alfred Beckwith and the New Hampshire Federation of the Blind and the National Federation of the Blind are prepared to call the class to order.

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(An HEW Release)

Appointment of a Medical Assistance Advisory Council that will advise the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare on matters relating to Federal-State medical assistance programs was announced by Wilbur J. Cohen, Secretary-designate of Health, Education and Welfare.

Appointment of the 21-member Council will allow the Secretary to have the advice of distinguished citizens who are expert in many facets of medical care, either as providers or consumers.

"I plan to consult the Council on program development and practical operational problems," Mr. Cohen said when he announced its formation. "The views of the Council will broaden our understanding and add depth to our discussions. Its recommendations will assist us greatly in making intelligent decisions on this important program."

The Council's first meeting will be held in Washington, D.C., July 26-27. Chairman of the Council will be Dr. Rashi Fein, Senior Staff, Economics Studies Division, Brookings Institution.

The Council will be involved in the Federal administration of medical assistance programs authorized by Title XIX of the Social Security Act. The responsibility for operation of these programs rests with the Social and Rehabilitation Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, of which Miss Mary E. Switzer is Administrator.

Miss Switzer stated that she welcomes the appointment of this Council since it will bring to the program the views of individuals of many backgrounds and interests.

Title XIX programs, commonly called Medicaid, are currently in operation in 38 States, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

The Council will also participate in discussions concerning the relationships of Title XIX programs to the Medicare health insurance programs authorized by Title XVIII of the Social Security Act.

The Council was brought into being by the 1967 Amendments to the Social Security Act. Its members represent State agencies and nongovernmental groups concerned with health, and consumers of medical care and services. The Congress specified that a majority of the Council was to represent consumers.

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According to the advance release of Statistics on Public Assistance, issued by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, for the month of January 1968, there were 82, 500 recipients of Aid to the Blind in the United States receiving an average monthly grant of only $90. 95. Only eight states had an average grant of $100 or more, as follows: California, $138.70; Massachusetts, $122.05; New York, $115.80; Pennsylvania, $110.10; Iowa, $109.00; New Hampshire, $106.65; Oklahoma, $104,00; and Hawaii, $101.60.

The average grants ranged all the way from $45.60 (Mississippi) to $138.70 (California). Over the past many years, the National Federation of the Blind has sought earnestly and continuously to bring about more adequate grants of Aid to the Blind, both by helping individual state affiliates to secure increases and by efforts in the Congress. NFB-supported bills now pending in the 90th Congress and designed to greatly improve Aid to the Blind in all of the states are:

H. R. 4879-S.1950 would greatly improve federally-supported state programs of Aid to the Blind by requiring that special needs resulting from blindness be recognized and fully met, by eliminating the length of time limitation upon the exemption of all resources of a person seeking to achieve self-support under an approved plan, by limiting a relative's obligation to contribute to support, by prohibiting residence requirements and lien laws, by providing for a minimum public assistance payment each month, by permitting categorical administration of aid, by allowing a state to withdraw from a Title XVI combined plan of aid and resume categorical programs, by permitting separate Aid to the Blind administration in a Title XVI state, by requiring that social services be given only to those who request them, that continuance of aid not be contingent upon acceptance of such services, and that social services be administered on a categorical basis, by increasing the federal share in Aid to the Blind payments, and by requiring that Congressionally-provided funds intended to raise the level of aid payments be actually passed on to blind recipients.

H. R. 3065-S. 1949 would prohibit a state from having any durational residence requirement for receiving Aid to the Blind payments.

H. R. 3066-S.I952 would outlaw the legally enforceable obligation of relatives to contribute to the support of needy blind persons.

S. 1965 would provide that increases in social security payments shall be disregarded in determining the need for public assistance.

H. R. 335 would establish a national system of minimum retirement payments for all blind persons aged 16 and over, all persons 62 years of age and older, and all permanently and totally disabled persons 18 years of age and older. Each of these individuals would receive a guaranteed monthly income equal to the federal minimum wage ($275 a month less any net income from all other sources) which is based on the present $1.60 an hour minimum wage.

The Federation's efforts on the national front will bear fruit in the future just as they have improved tremendously the Aid to the Blind programs over the past 28 years. However, individual state affiliates are urged to strenuously seek improvements in their own state laws. Undoubtedly, the most important step which could be achieved at this time would be an amendment to each state law which would provide that the minimum need (aid plus nonexempt income) must be at least $100 a month, with additional amounts if a blind person had special needs over and above the so-called basic needs, or had to pay rent in excess of the amount for this item covered in the $100 figure. Also, the proposed amendment should permit the retention of as much income and resources as permitted by the federal laws and regulations. This alone would automatically increase to $2,000 the amount of personal property in the form of cash or securities, or cash surrender value of insurance; ownership of real property in any amount provided it was producing income; would allow $7.50 a month of exempt income from any source including social security payments, or $92.50 a month if all income was from earnings; and would permit the exemption of additional income and resources for up to three years, if necessary, to help a blind person implement a plan for self-support.

Following is the suggested amendment to the Amount of Assistance Section in the Aid to the Blind law in any given state:

"Amount of Assistance. Any applicant for Aid to the Blind shall be entitled to an amount of aid which, when added to the income of the applicant from all other resources, equals a minimum of one hundred dollars ($100) per month. In any case where it is found that the need of an applicant exceeds the minimum provided in this section, he shall be entitled to receive an additional amount as necessary to meet his need. Such additional amount is intended to provide additional aid to persons with needs arising because of circumstances and situations not common to all recipients, which are not included or not adequately covered by the minimum allowances. Amounts of income and resources shall be exempted as may be required or authorized by federal law or regulations to be disregarded."

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by Gwen Rittgers

The stars shown brightly at the Aladdin Hotel in Kansas City from April 26 through 28 in the convention activities of the Progressive Blind of Missouri, Inc. The hospitality room on Friday night was a gala occasion; the sessions of the convention itself were informative, and the banquet on Saturday night was a stimulating highlight. Jack and Lorraine Arvidson flew in from Minneapolis and were most welcome; John N, Taylor, assistant director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind came as the National Federation of the Blind representative, bringing with him his darling wife, Terry, and two students from the Iowa training center in Des Moines, Roland York and Don Friest.

The Saturday morning session was taken up with the business of the organization; Saturday afternoon brought a panel discussion on the 1967 welfare laws for the blind. John Taylor was the moderator for this panel, and Miss Patsy Timlin, caseworker supervisor of the Jackson County Welfare Department, state representatives R. D. Rodgers and William Spencer, and our own Cotton Busby participated. Mr. Gardner Hart of the Civil Service Commission spoke next, and Mr. Don Faurot from the People to People's International organization was next. John Taylor spoke on the National front for the blind.

The banquet was attended by 113 persons. CM. Combs, Esquire, was master of ceremonies. This year's Dr. Jacobus tenBroek award was presented to Walt Bodine of radio, and the Perrin D. McElroy award was bestowed upon James C. Couts. Eulogies for William H. Crowe who died on Feb. 27 and for Dr. Jacobus tenBroek who died on March 27 were given at the banquet.

John Taylor was of inestimable value with his help in our resolutions, his participation in our meetings, and his outstanding talk as the banquet speaker. He was at our founding convention in 1962 and we were so pleased and so helped to have him again. He also spoke of the National Federation convention this summer in Des Moines, and it sounds like the forthcoming event which one cannot afford to miss.

Our Sunday morning session was taken up with unfinished business and the following officers were elected:

President, E. E. Busby; vice president, Tiny Beedle; recording secretary, Janet Clary; treasurer, Gerald Salter; corresponding secretary, Gwen Rittgers; and with an amended change in the constitution: Pauline Salters, finance chairman, Floyd D. Mohler, legislative chairman, and George Rittgers as member at large. Doris Timmons and Helen Mohler were re-elected as chairman and co-chairman of the political action committee.

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(An HEW Release)

Grants that will help approximately 13,400 persons train for work in the education of handicapped children were announced by the U.S. Office of Education.

The grants will be awarded to 237 public and private nonprofit institutions of higher education and to State educational agencies in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Anyone engaged in or preparing to engage in education for the handicapped is eligible to apply to the college, university, or State educational agency of his choice for a graduate fellowship or an undergraduate traineeship.

"These trainees will join approximately 70,000 specialists already working with the handicapped in expanding school programs throughout the country," said James J. Gallagher, Associate Commissioner for the Education of the Handicapped, "With less than half of the 5 million handicapped children in our country now receiving specialized educational assistance, these new traineeships will help close the gap between the needs of the handicapped and existing services.

"As a result of programs authorized during the past few years, thousands of young people have been trained in special education. These advances in the number of teachers trained bring the promise of a richer future for handicapped children, and new hope for their parents and teachers."

The grants announced today total approximately $24 million and were made under Public Law 85-926, as amended. The funds will be expended between June 1, 1968 and August 31, 1969.

Fellows and trainees in full-time study receive a stipend depending on the level of study--junior year traineeship, $300; senior year traineeship, $800; Master's year fellowship, $2,200; post-Master's fellowship, $3,200. An allowance of $600 is provided for each dependent of a graduate fellow. Those participating in summer session training or special study institutes receive a stipend of $15 per day while enrolled.

To help meet the cost of training, institutions of higher education and State agencies will receive up to $2,000 for each senior year traineeship, up to $2,500 for each graduate fellowship, and up to $75 a week for each summer session traineeship.

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April 21-22, was "organized blind" time in pre-American Revolutionary War Chestertown located on Maryland's Eastern Shore. It was also "organized blind" time on the campus of Washington College, a liberal arts school established in Chestertown in 1782 and the only college which bears the name of George Washington by his explicit authorization and approval,

Roger Petersen, First Vice President of the National Student Division, NFB, and assistant professor of psychology at Washington College, arranged for John Nagle to come from the City of Washington to Washington College, to talk about the organized blind movement.

"And, " said Nagle, "Roger was a fine advance man I Everybody I spoke to while I was in Chestertown already was familiar with the National Federation of the Blind, for Roger, somehow, always manages to include it in his conversations with faculty members, and his students seem to accept an understanding of the Federation as an integral part of their psychological studies! "

Nagle attended the regular monthly meeting of the Chester River Federation of the Blind, Eastern Shore Chapter of the Free State Federation of the Blind. It was a supper meeting held at the Roger Petersen home, with plans for the White Cane Fund-Raising Drive the current business for discussion. Of course, John talked about the NFB.

Starting in the early evening of April 21 and continuing until near midnight, Nagle also addressed a group of Washington College students, three of whom were blind and Petersen converts to Federationism. The meeting was held in Alumni House in an informal atmosphere that was conducive to questions and answers and to a general free flowing discussion of the problems of blindness and the difficulties encountered by blind people.

On April 22, Nagle talked to the constitutional law class of Assistant Professor of Political Science, Richard Schick, describing some of the court decisions which have recently been handed down, decisions affecting the rights of blind people, decisions of much concern to all blind people.

Later that day Nagle appeared before Professor Petersen's social psychology class and talked about stereotypes, prejudices, and discriminations, as these terms have meaning in the lives of blind men and women.

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In 1965, when Congress passed a seven percent increase in social security benefits, it provided that states could elect to disregard up to $5 a month of any income received by public assistance recipients. When the Congress voted an increase of thirteen and one-half percent in social security benefits in 1967, the amount which states could disregard was increased from $5 to $7.50. Since the exemption of even $7.50 a month income from any source is optional with the states, and since at least 34 of these states have not seen fit to exercise that option, most recipients of public assistance who are also Social Security beneficiaries received no benefit from either the 1965 or 1967 increases. Rather this money went into the treasuries of the several states.

When social security matters were being considered by Congress last year, the National Federation of the Blind tried to prevent the very situation which has come to pass, but, it was not successful in its efforts. The disappointment which is widespread was predicted last spring in the Federation's testimony at public hearings before a subcommittee of the Senate's Special Committee on Aging, As did other concerned groups, the NFB scored the classification of social security payments as available resources and the consequent deduction from public assistance grants.

Statistics were presented on the number of blind persons eligible for payments under both social security and public assistance in order to point out the number of persons who would fail to benefit from any increase in social security benefits which were under consideration at that time. It was predicted at that time that many persons would respond with anger and frustration when they discovered that despite the increases they have heard about, their financial position remains the same.

The Federation proposed that the Social Security Act be amended to exempt all payment increases added by Congress since January 1, 1966 from consideration when determining a person's need for Aid to the Blind or other form of public assistance and the amount of aid which would be received. The Federation urged the Congress to make it mandatory rather than optional with the states that increases in social security must be "passed on" to recipients. Congress however, did not accept the proposal and the 1967 amendments merely increased to $7.50 the amount of the allowable "pass on" which still remains a matter of choice with the states. As noted previously, a majority of the states (34) unfortunately have not exercised the option but have used the provision to reduce the cost of public assistance grants, in effect, pocketing the $5 per month provided by Congress (now $7.50).

As social security amendments may be scheduled for hearings in the future, the NFB will continue to strive for a mandatory requirement upon the states that any increases in social security benefits must be passed on to those persons who are also recipients of public assistance.

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by Wallace Turner

(Reprinted from The New York Times, April 28, 1968)

SAN FRANCISCO, April 20--Thousands of women in California and southern Nevada have had silicone injections to increase their bust measurements, an inquiry over the last three months has shown.

Sometimes the reactions have been disfiguring and have caused heart attacks and blindness, A Los Angeles area woman died after silicone injections caused breast cancer.

Silicone is a compound of silicon, next to oxygen the chief elementary constituent of the earth's crust. It appears in various forms, ranging from an oily appearing liquid to a putty-like mass. The type used in the injection treatments is of the consistency of light oil. A commercial use is to lubricate electric devices.

The substance will not dissolve nor be absorbed in the body. It has been known to move, however. One Las Vegas show girl found that the silicone had become a deposit on her back. In another girl, it drained to the groin and had to be removed surgically.

A cocktail waitress in Las Vegas recalled that in 1964 she had just had her eighth $50 injection from a doctor. By accident it went into her blood stream, was carried to her heart, eyes and lungs. She was unconscious for four days, still cannot see well, and for a year had to be led around.

"It's like I had blind spots," she said. "I look at people and they look like they have no heads."

In Las Vegas, food or drink handlers must be X-rayed to discover lung diseases. The radiologists are constantly confused by shadows that could mean disease, but almost always mean only silicone injections.

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by Bud Wakeland

(Reprinted from the Oakland Tribune, May 15, 1968)

Richmond {Calif)--The planned boycott by some 100 Contra Costa County social workers of a 68-year-old blind man's lunchroom concession in the county building here was called off with apologies.

"How awful," declared Mrs. Veryle Lewis, district supervisor of the social workers. "I'm very indignant. I've advised those responsible for the proposed boycott that this was not the proper thing to do."

Several social workers drafted and circulated petitions calling for a "100 per cent boycott" of the lunchroom operated by L. W. Hatfield.

The social workers started the petitions after Hatfield, who sells sandwiches, soft drinks, coffee and cakes, posted a sign stating that henceforth he would have to charge five cents for the cream, sugar and lemons and other items that are used with tea and coffee.

Hatfield was referring specifically to those social workers--the majority of them--who flock into the lunchroom with brown bags and with their own tea bags and instant coffee.

Hatfield has been furnishing free hot water for the drinkers. "But I expected, " he said, "that people would bring their own cups and spoons, if they wanted the hot water."

Instead, he said, the social workers freely use his cups, spoons, napkins, sugar, lemon and cream for their drinks. "I just thought it was an imposition," he explained.

But the social workers, who earn from $530 to $1,273 monthly, said in their petition that they were being exploited by Hatfield. "Bring your lunch and sit at the table. Purchase nothing, " the petitions advised.

The petitions set off a furor in the building among other employees. Counter "petitions signed by clerks, secretaries, judges and district attorney's office personnel were circulated. These petitions said: "How Far Can You Go?" They called for the other county employees to pack the lunchroom with paying customers.

Hatfield said he bore no ill will toward anyone. "I'm glad things are settling down," he said.

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by Tom Leach

(Reprinted from Chicago's American, May 8, 1968)

Washington--Even after a blind person obtains an education and learns a trade or profession, he still faces one of his most difficult roadblocks--discrimination among the sighted.

So says a man who not only is blind but deaf. He is Dr. Richard Kinney, 44, associate director of the Hadley School for the Blind in Winnetka, Ill.

Kinney, just back from a four-week tour of South America to inspect facilities for handicapped persons, said opportunities for the blind in some of these countries are "pitiful."

"In Paraguay there is only one school for the blind," he said. "In Argentina, there are only four blind attorneys. We have hundreds here."

Despite better conditions in the United States, blind persons here still aren't being given a chance to utilize their full talents, said Kinney.

"All the training and the education in the world won't help a blind person unless he's given a chance to prove himself," he said. "So, often, a qualified blind person has difficulty in obtaining employment. The sighted public must provide this opportunity." ....

Kinney, because he cannot hear, has two means of communication. Questions can be typed on a braille typewriter he carries, which he then reads with his fingers. He also communicates through messages tapped out on the palm of his hand by the fingers of his secretary. . . .

Kinney lost his sight through illness when he was in the first grade. He dropped out of school for four years, but later resumed classes and graduated as valedictorian of his high school class.

Later, while a sophomore at Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio, his hearing failed. He continued school through braille correspondence courses and then attended classes aided by a classmate who spelled lectures into his hand by the finger method.

He was graduated from Mount Union in 1954 summa cum laude and as valedictorian. He was the third American with the twin handicaps of blindness and deafness to earn a college degree. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from Mount Union in 1966.

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(Reprinted from The New York Times, May 3, 1968)

Dr. John Milton McLean, an internationally known eye surgeon, died in New York Hospital after a long illness. He was 58 years old.

Dr. McLean, attending surgeon in charge of the hospital's eye division, was also professor of surgery (ophthalmology) at the Cornell University Medical College.

He was credited with having devised the current technique of wound closure in cataract surgery and with having set up the first corneal eye bank, at New York Hospital which later was moved to Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital.

He was a leader in clinical research on the use of the hormone ACTH to treat inflammations of the eye and in the basic work on the new cryo-surgery (freezing-surgery) of the eye, especially in retinal detachment. He also helped standardize measurement of pressure in glaucoma.

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[Editor's note: The following letter and tables were received from The U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions, in a letter from the Administrator dated April 15, 1968.]

This is in further reply to your letter of January 19, 1968, requesting certain information on sheltered workshops certified by the Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions.

The enclosed Table 1 shows the number of certificated workshops and the handicapped workers employed in these shops, by certificate rate intervals, as of July 31, 1967, for all workshops having a floor rate. The number of certificated workshops having no floor rate and the handicapped workers employed therein are shown in footnote 1.

Certificates are issued by the WHPC Divisions permitting the payment of wages lower than the statutory minimum wage when necessary to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment. Under these certificates workers must be paid wages based on their individual productivity, commensurate with local prevailing wages for the same or similar work. However, except for work activities centers and training and evaluation programs, these certificates establish minimum hourly floor rates below which the handicapped workers may not be paid. No floor rate may be below 50 percent of the statutory minimum wage. There is no floor rate for a work activities center or for training or evaluation programs, but handicapped workers in these programs also must be paid wages commensurate with their productivity.

Table 2 summarizes investigation activity in sheltered workshops for fiscal years 1961 through 1967, showing the number of persons who did not receive the applicable minimum wage. Investigation statistics for sheltered workshops have been kept on the basis of employees involved, rather than on an establishment basis, without further breakdown as to whether these persons are handicapped or nonhandicapped employees of the establishment. Some of the underpayments shown resulted from failure to pay the statutory minimum wage to nonhandicapped employees.

The Sheltered Workshop Report of the Secretary of Labor submitted to the Congress in September 1967, a copy of which was previously furnished you, provides further information on wage rates and average hourly earnings in workshops before and after the effective date of the 1966 Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Table 1. Distribution of Workshops and Handicapped Workers

Employed Therein by Certificate Rates 1/ as of July 31, 1967

Certificate Rates 1/ per hour (cents)

Workshops 2/ (number) Handicapped Workers (number)
70 - 74
75 - 99
100 - 124
125 and over

1/ Where different rates are authorized for two or more departments of a workshop, the rate for the major department is used.

2/ The figures do not include: (a) 322 workshops, employing 8,705 clients, which are work activities centers and have no floor rate; (b) 9 workshops, employing 247 clients, which are training and evaluation programs and have no floor rate.

Table 2. Workshop Investigation Program for Fiscal Years 1961 through 1967

Fiscal year Shops investigated minimum wages (number) Employees paid less than (number)

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by Barbara Tiritilli

(Reprinted from Chicago's American, April 26, 1968)

In the struggle for civil rights, Cliff Smith, 27, of Elmwood Park, (Ill.) is definitely a minority of one. Smith has been looking for a decent job- -for which he is well qualified--and has finally found one.

Smith is blind. "And we're a minority group," he said. Nevertheless, the man has overcome his handicap.

He works as a computer programmer in the Melrose Park division of Standard Kollsman, manufacturer of television tuners. This is a tough, complicated job requiring Smith to feed instructions to a computer and to catch the machine's mistakes in such details as paychecks, inventory systems, and time cards.

"We call it de-bugging," Smith said. "I'm not the only blind man who does this. ..."

Smith takes his assignments by earphone from a tape recorder. He transcribes these in braille. Then, on a braille typewriter, he types instructions for a keypunch operator to feed to the computer. Smith handles the computer process for about 1,000 company employees in 3 divisions.

Smith said he came to Chicago last March to look for a job. He was interviewed at least 25 times and was refused a job repeatedly in spite of his adequate credentials.

He has a bachelor's degree from Seton Hall University in South Orange, N.J., and 2 years of graduate work in history at UCLA, and Catholic university, Washington.

Nobody in opportunity-filled Chicago would hire him.

"Employers just didn't believe a blind man could do the job," he said. "Each one would ask, 'How can you do it? ' and when you would explain or demonstrate, they would just ask the same question again."

Smith finally got a job with Standard Kollsman in December.

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(Reprinted from Denver Post, April 19, 1968)

A mobile library in Bombay, India, and a school for the blind in Freetown, Sierra Leone, Africa, soon will be receiving 5,000 pounds of books in braille and large type, thanks to the Denver Area Association of the Blind.

Ray McGeorge, the association's president, said the project of sending books to Africa and Asia was begun six years ago at the suggestion of a blind retired school teacher from Los Angeles.

"Dr. Isabelle Grant, who has taken an active interest in the education of blind children in foreign countries, spoke at the Colorado Federation of the Blind convention in 1961. We've been trying to send books overseas since then," McGeorge said.

He said he got in touch with Wilbur Fulker, principal of the Colorado School for the Blind in Colorado Springs, and asked for any books the school discards.

McGeorge and the Denver-area group repair the books, pack them and mail them overseas. In 1962, they sent 1,500 pounds of books and in 1965, 2,000 pounds of books.

Although books in braille and in large type may be mailed free, the association has had to pay the freight charges from Colorado Springs, plus packaging costs. McGeorge estimated the association has spent $250 thus far on the project, and that the newest shipment will cost $150.

In previous years, the association has sent books to a school for blind boys in Dacca in East Pakistan, and to a lending library for the blind in Lahore in West Pakistan.

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by Dr. Samuel L. Andelman

(Reprinted from Chicago's American, April 29, 1968)

The hand is quicker than the eye. So is the fist.

Which is why so many men suffer a black eye every now and then.

Now, a simple black eye may be embarrassing, but it presents no great medical problem. However, there is the danger of an orbital fracture every time someone is punched in the eye.

I came across a rather unique Northwestern university study recently which showed that of 106 fractured orbits treated in Cook county hospital in 1966, 69 of them were caused by blows of a fist.

Another nine were caused by clubs, five by baseball bats, four by being kicked by a human foot, and 12 by pistol whippings during robberies. The other four victims were so intoxicated when they were injured that they couldn't remember how they were hurt.

Here is what is likely to happen when a fist slams against the facial and cranial bones that form the orbital cavities:

The optic nerve may be severed or become pinched between the broken bones. This could cause temporary or even permanent blindness.

Any of the 12 muscles that control movement of each eyeball may be pinched or torn loose. While uninjured muscle fibers may compensate for the lost muscular function, months or even years later the overworked muscles may lose their control and double vision could result.

Displaced orbital bones and fatty tissue may cause double vision because of a loss in eye alignment.

Bony supports of the orbits may be separated or weakened. This may make the person vulnerable to further skull or brain damage if he is struck in the same area again.

A blowout fracture may occur. This happens when a sudden increase in orbital pressure causes a break in the weakest portion of the orbital floor. This also could result in double vision.

Surgical correction of such fractures usually is relatively simple if it is performed promptly. The trouble is that far too many of these injuries are not detected at the initial examination and correcting already healed deformities can be quite a problem.

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by Milton Esterow

(Reprinted from The New York Times, May 3, 1968)

RALEIGH, N. C.--Marjorie Bennett McCune, a soft-spoken gray-haired woman, recently stood before a Berthe Morisot sculpture of which she said later:

"I enjoyed the lovely head of the beautiful little girl with a round, smiling face and pigtails hanging down her back. There was something fresh and lovely about the young face that my fingers could not miss."

Miss McCune, who is blind, had just visited the Mary Duke Biddle Gallery for the Blind at the North Carolina Museum of Art.

The gallery, designed so that the blind may touch works of art, opened two years ago. Charles W. Stanford is its director and is also the museum's curator of education. . . .

The 16-by-32 foot gallery was created with a grant from the Mary Duke Biddle Foundation of New York. In April the gallery received a grant of $25,000 from the department [of Voc. Rehab HEW] that will enable it to double its size.

Since its opening, 4,000 blind persons have visited the gallery, which changes its exhibitions--mainly shows of sculpture borrowed from museums, dealers and collectors across the country-every two months.

The gallery was built so that the blind visitor needs no help at all once he arrives at the door. Instructions in Braille on how to use the gallery are attached to the wall at the entrance. Also on the wall is a relief map of the gallery with Braille labels indicating exhibition space, library and study area.

The objects are displayed on a counter two feet wide and three feet from floor level. A guide rail, raised 2 inches above the counter directs the blind visitor through the exhibition. On the inside of the rail are Braille labels"-many of them made by blind students--describing the objects.

The items are within easy reach and the blind visitor may stop and hold them in his hand. Since the gallery's opening no object has been damaged, Mr. Stanford said.

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(An HEW Release)

A project to bring welfare services into inner-city neighborhoods and to involve neighborhood residents in planning and providing the services was announced by Federal Social and Rehabilitation Administrator Mary E. Switzer.

The three-year project will be carried out in Boston's Grove Hall district with the help of $762,837 in Federal funds during the first year, including $633,631 in regular Federal funds for public welfare programs and a special Federal project grant of $129,206. The funds are being made available to the Massachusetts Department of Public Welfare by the Social and Rehabilitation Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

The project provides for a decentralized welfare program with neighborhood residents served directly from the Boston Welfare Department's Grove Hall office and a number of storefront offices throughout the district.

The small neighborhood offices will enable welfare workers to develop services such as homemaker assistance and child care in accordance with specific needs in the areas served. Neighborhood residents will be involved in planning, evaluating, and staffing the public welfare service activities.

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William S. Dwyer, the legislative chairman of the Empire State Association of the Blind, reports that the ESAB scheduled its Board meeting on April 27 in Syracuse so that a farewell party could be had for the Burkes (Vince and Marion) who are moving to Florida where they will take up permanent residence. Former members of the Board and other close friends joined together to give Vince and Marion a great send-off, as befits two loyal Federationists.


The Toledo Council of the Blind has held an election with the following results: Clarence Rode, President; Lois Ames, Vice President; Rita Bresler, Secretary; Byron Place, Treasurer; Dewey Cummings, OCB Executive Board Member. (From the OCB Bulletin, No. 6807, May 1, 1968)


The Free State Federation of the Blind is pleased to announce that Mrs. Muriel Spriggs, who is blind, is now working at the United States Post Office as Secretary. Mrs. Spriggs is proud to say that she obtained this job through her own initiative.


Over 27,000 blind persons have been rehabilitated to productive lives during the past five years, the Federal Social and Rehabilitation Administrator has announced. An additional 39,000 persons with other visual impairments have also been rehabilitated under the Federal-State program of vocational rehabilitation.

Speaking before a national meeting of board members of workshops for the blind, sponsored by National Industries for the Blind, Miss Switzer called for increased efforts to: Train blind persons for up-to-date jobs in "our computer-oriented technology;" provide extensive diagnostic evaluations for persons who might otherwise be thought to be untrainable; experiment with new types of jobs where production operations could be re-engineered so that they could be carried out productively by the blind, including multi -handicapped blind workers. Federal funds for these purposes are available from the Social and Rehabilitation Service. (An HEW Release)


Postmaster General W. Marvin Watson announced that a courageous distribution clerk from Reading, Pennsylvania, has been honored as the Outstanding Handicapped Postal Employee of the year. Mr. Donald A. Schnable, a career employee with 16 years' service, was presented with an inscribed plaque at a luncheon ceremony at the Willard Hotel.

The Post Office Department, which has hired 14,000 handicapped persons in the past six years and which is one of the nation's leading employers of the handicapped, established the award to recognize excellence and achievement among these workers. Considerations in the selection include job performance, employee and community relationships and other factors.

Runners-up for the second annual award are Mr. H. Richard Hefner, a blind trial attorney in the Office of the General Counsel at Washington, and Mr. Talmage E. Hawkins, a classification relief clerk at Lynchburg, Virginia, who has suffered from polio.


Several Blind college seniors received achievement awards and $500 checks from Recording for the Blind, Inc. President Johnson told them that each in his own way "represent(s) a triumph of the spirit. " (From the S. F. Chronicle, May 8, 1968)


Peter Dryden's column Parade of Progress in the May 5, 1968 edition of PARADE says: "Welcome news for many of the nation's 400,000 blind people will be an electric range with Braille control panel. Raised dots allow easy adjustment of oven and surface cooking units. Details: Admiral, Dept. PF, 3800 Cortland St., Chicago, Ill., 60647."


The Fort Wayne Council of the Blind wishes to thank the National Federation of the Blind for their part in making the booth at our annual home show a major success. If you recall, the NFB office in Berkeley sent our chapter approximately 350 pamphlets on "What is the National Federation of the Blind." All the literature was gone before the home show had reached its fifth day.

Cambridge, Mass. (AP)--A blind Harvard Law school student who has been reclassified 1-A by his draft board and ordered to take a pre-induction physical says he is looking forward to it.

"I'm particularly anxious to take the eye test," Harold Krentz, 23, of Mount Vernon, N. Y., said. "If I go, my ambition is to be a bombardier."

Krentz said his 2-S deferment was canceled and his draft board gave him 30 days to appeal. His father called the board, he said, and was told that his blindness should not hinder him from taking a physical.


In a newly-revised edition of BLINDNESS--Ability, Not Disability, published by the Public Affairs Committee, the author reports on encouraging developments and on some of the problems still facing us. Among the topics discussed in the pamphlet are: changing attitudes toward blindness; optical aids for legally blind persons; myths about blind persons; important causes of blindness; rehabilitation services; special features of the Social Security Act; talking books and library services; and travel concessions and mobility aids. The pamphlet is available free in quantities up to fifty from the Publications Division, American Foundation for the Blind, 15 West 16th Street, New York, N.Y., 10011.

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