THE BRAILLE MONITOR

MARCH 1968

INKPRINT EDITION

VOICE OF THE NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

The National Federation of the Blind is not an organization speaking for the blind-it is the blind speaking for themselves

Printed at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708

Published monthly in braille and distributed free to the blind by the National Federation of the Blind, President: Jacobus tenBroek. 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708

Ink print edition produced and distributed by the National Federation of the Blind.

Editor: Jacobus tenBroek
Assistant Editor: Floyd W. Matson 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708

News items and changes of address should be sent to the Editor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FREE MAIL USAGE BY BLIND AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED--NEW P.O. REGULATIONS

REMARKABLE COURT ACTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA

TEXT--OPINION OF THE MASTER--SOUTH CAROLINA

WISCONSIN CIVIL SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES

NEW HAWAII AFFILIATE HOLDS CONVENTION

PETITION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA FEDERATION OF THE BLIND FOR INTELLECTUALLY HONEST RECORD KEEPING

HADLEY HAS ROOM

BLIND STUDENTS GET A BAD DEAL
by Raymond R. Roberson

LONG-TIME JFK AIDE ADDRESSES TALKING BOOK DISCUSSERS
by John Nagle

THE TEST CASE AT THE BAR
by Fred P. Graham

RIGHT TO HEARING BEFORE AID TERMINATION--TEST SUIT
by Peter Kihss

ALABAMA SET BACK ON WELFARE ISSUE

A FEDERATIONIST SPEAKS FROM THE HEART
Letter from Marie Jensen Stauter

WHITE CANE SAFETY DAY IN THE "SUNSHINE STATE?'
by T. M. Fuery

NFB STUDENT DIVISION--TO BE OR NOT TO BE

NOT TO BE- -Letter from Geerat Vermey
TO BE- -Letter from Jacobus tenBroek
TO BE--Letter from Jim Gashel

TEXAS CONVENTION
Letter from Bonnie Cross

THE SELECTION OF CLIENTS BY SOCIAL WELFARE AGENCIES: THE CASE OF THE BLIND
by Robert A. Scott

NFB STUDENT DIVISION NEWS
by Judy Young

THE NETHERLANDS SOCIETY FOR THE BLIND IN 1966

IBM OFFERS ELECTRIC TYPEWRITER THAT PRINTS BRAILLE

BILKED BLIND MAN BARS YOUTH ARREST
by Alfred E. Lewis

WHITE CANE IN BLACK AFRICA
Letter from Isabelle Grant

GREETINGS FROM MARY AND CYRIL FORREST

CRAFT VILLAGE, VICTORIA FALLS

HEW REVEALS FIVE WELFARE PRIORITIES

BLIND TOUR TO EUROPE--FRANKLIN TRAVEL, INC.

BLIND TOUR TO EUROPE--KLM

NEW YORK STATE LEGISLATIVE PROGRAM
by Bill Dwyer

A WEEK TO REMEMBER
by Anthony Mannino

MONITOR MINIATURES

 

FREE MAIL USAGE BY BLIND AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED NEW P. O. REGULATIONS

The following paragraphs are taken from a Post Office Department bulletin dated December 28, 1967, issued to explain the changes recently made by Congress in the postal rate laws with reference to use of the mail by blind persons and persons whose physical impairment prevents or limits their reading or using regular printed matter. The section numbers identifying each paragraph are those in the Postal Manual, the collection of Post Office regulations which is in the possession of every postmaster.

If you encounter any difficulty when making use of the newly extended free mailing privilege from organizations and agencies for the blind to individual blind and physically disabled persons, show this bulletin to your postmaster.

If this does not solve your problem, write about it to John Nagle, 1908 Que Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, explaining the circumstances in full, and he will take your matter up with the Post Office head-quarters officials.

FOR THE BLIND AND OTHER HANDICAPPED PERSONS

Section 138.1 The following conditions are applicable to articles mailable free of postage under this section:

(a) Except as provided in 138. 2(a) the matter is for the use of the blind or other persons who cannot use or read conventionally printed material because of a physical impairment who are certified by competent authority as unable to read normal reading material;

(b) No charge, or rental, subscription, or other fee, is required for such matter or a charge, or rental, subscription, or other fee is required for such matter not in excess of the cost thereof;

(c) The matter may be opened for postal inspection;

(d) The matter contains no advertising.

Section 138.2 Items mailable free:

(a) Unsealed letters sent by a blind person or a person having a physical impairment as described in Section 138. la in raised characters or sight-saving type or in the form of sound recordings;

(b) Reading matter and musical scores;

(c) Sound reproductions;

(d) Paper, records, tapes, and other material for the production of reading matter, musical scores, or sound reproductions;

(e) Reproducers or parts thereof for sound reproductions; and

(f) Braille writers, typewriters, educational or other materials or devices, or parts thereof, used for writing by, or specifically designed or adapted for use of, a blind person or a person having a physical impairment as described in Section 138. la.

Section 138. 3 Markings:

All matter mailed under the provisions of Part 138 shall show the words "Free Matter for the Blind or Handicapped" in the upper right corner of the address side.

Section 138. 4 Weight and Size Limits:

The weight and size limitations in 135. 31 are applicable to mailings made under this part.

(The size and weight limitations under the new provisions are the same as those which apply to regular parcel post.)

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REMARKABLE COURT ACTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA

Few developments of our times are more important than the judicial revolution now getting under way with respect to the law of the poor. In past issues of the MONITOR we have tried to keep readers informed of the particular cases which are the signposts of that revolution. There are the famous Kirchner and Parrish cases in California holding constitutionally invalid responsibility of relatives provisions in welfare programs and night raids conducted against AFDC recipients. There is the famous Pennsylvania case, Argo v Good, affirming the right of the blind to go about in public places and engage in occupations involving travel. There are the famous decisions of a half-dozen, three -judge district courts of the United States, striking down residence requirements in welfare programs. There are lower federal court decisions forbidding race discrimination in welfare programs, sanctioning the right of recipients to fair hearings with respect to all-important decisions of the welfare department, maintaining that welfare recipients may not be deprived of an adequate monthly income because of previous overpayments by the welfare department. These are but a few of the novel and significant law cases which are beginning to establish an all-important proposition: Welfare recipients are people, too, and they are protected by the constitutions of state and nation.

A new decision has just been handed down in South Carolina equaling in novelty and importance any of the decisions just referred to. It was a decision bringing to an end a long-standing controversy between the leaders of the organized blind in South Carolina and the organization known as the Association of the Blind of South Carolina.

The Association of the Blind was founded in 1920. It operates a broom shop and dormitory. The brooms made by the blind workers are sold throughout the state by Lions Clubs.

A number of the leaders of the organized blind applied for membership in the association and were categorically and systematically rejected without explanation. The leaders of the organized blind then sought judicial intervention to require the association either to admit them or give some bona fide reason for their exclusion. The Richland County Court has now handed down a decision ordering the association to do just that.

The basis of the decision is the equal protection clause of the state and federal constitutions. That clause in the 14th Amendment to the federal Constitution provides that: "No State shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. "In this case it was argued that the association is a private eleemosynary institution and therefore not covered by the constitutional provision which prohibits states from denying the equal protection of the laws. The Richland County Court, however, referred to the annual subvention by the State of South Carolina to the Association of the Blind and held that the actions of the association were therefore in law the actions of the state. This holding is strictly in conformity with numerous decisions of the United States Supreme Court which say that any organization or agency receiving state funds or property is thereafter controlled by the requirements of the 14th Amendment.

These are the conclusions of the court appointed Master set forth in his own words :

"I, therefore, conclude that the testimony is devoid of any evidence establishing a basis for the rejection of membership applications submitted by the named plaintiffs. ... In view of such authority, I conclude that the denial of membership in the Association of the Blind of South Carolina, in the absence of a showing of good and sufficient cause, constitutes discrimination against these plaintiffs. The practice of discrimination by the Board of Directors of the Association constitutes prohibited State action in violation of the equal protection of the laws afforded the plaintiffs, and all those similarly situated with them, by Article 1, Section 5 of the Constitution of South Carolina and by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States; therefore, the admission of the plaintiffs to membership in the Association of the Blind. . . should be ordered unless, within ten (10) days from the date of any final decree herein, defendants give to plaintiffs or their attorneys some basis for their rejection, adequately substantiated by a showing of good and sufficient cause. "

Thus are opened up wholly new possibilities of the blind themselves gaining participation in agencies and associations for the blind and eventually, by this process, of re -orienting their attitudes and programs.

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TEXT--OPINION OF THE MASTER

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA )
)
COUNTY OF RICHLAND )

IN THE RICHLAND COUNTY COURT
Plaintiffs
-vs- Defendants
Lois Bolton, Ruby Bryant, Herman Bryant, Donald C. Capps, Jack Huthmacher, John W. Potter, Kathryn Cartledge, Marshall Tucker, John Raybourne, George Kirkland, Daisy McCarter, Francis Chestnut, for and on behalf of themselves and all other similarly situated.

A.D. Croft, W.A. Dallis, Marvin S. Lowe, Wesley Waites, Jr. , Frank T. Meeks, William C. Ouzts, J. B. Clements, John D. Long, III, A, C. Bishop, Mrs. D. R. Mack, C. C. Moore and R. F. Neidhardt, constituting the Board of Directors of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina, The Association of the Blind of the Blind of South Carolina, Robert E. McNair, as Governor of the State of South Carolina, Grady L. Patterson as Treasurer of the State of South Carolina and Henry Mills as Comptroller of the State of South Carolina.

Columbia, S. C., January 22, 1968

TO THE JUDGE OF THE RICHLAND COUNTY COURT:

I, the undersigned Master, report that pursuant to the Order of Reference granted in the above entitled cause, a reference was held on October 11, 1967, attended by the attorneys of record, the testimony was taken, and from the testimony and evidence I find and conclude as follows:

1. I find that each of the named plaintiffs in this action is an adult resident and a citizen of the State of South Carolina and by reason of such residency and citizenship each pays an income tax to the State of South Carolina on an annual basis. Each of the named plaintiffs is also a blind person, either totally or legally. Each of the named plaintiffs has from time to time filed with the South Carolina Association of the Blind an individual application for voting membership in the said Association. Since and including the year 1965, no application for membership sub- mitted by a named plaintiff has been approved by the Board of Directors of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina.

I further find that the defendants, A. C. Croft, W. A. Dallis, Marvin S. Lowe, Wesley Waites, Jr. , Frank T. Meeks, William C. Ouzts, J. B. Clements, John D. Long, III, A. C. Bishop, Mrs. D.R. Mack, C. C. Moore and R. F. Neidhardt, constitute the Board of Directors of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina. The said Association of the Blind of South Carolina is a corporation duly organized and existing by virtue of the laws of the State of South Carolina.

I further find that the defendant, Robert E. McNair, is the Governor of the State of South Carolina, and as such is its Chief Executive Officer. The defendant, Grady L. Patterson, is the Treasurer of the State of South Carolina. The defendant, Henry Mills, is the Comptroller General of the State of South Carolina.

2. I further find that the Association of the Blind of South Carolina originated in 1920 as a private, unincorporated association which was subsequently chartered in 1923 as an eleemosynary corporation by the State of South Carolina. The purpose of the Association of the Blind as stated in its corporate Charter is: "To provide for the general improvement of conditions among the adult blind of the State and to give them vocational training and employment where possible.

3. I further find that commencing in 1923, the year in which the Association of the Blind of South Carolina was chartered as a corporation, the State of South Carolina has annually appropriated sums of money to the Association. Such appropriations from the State of South Carolina during the years 1923 through 1967, inclusive, have aggregated Six

Hundred Eighty-six Thousand, Five Hundred and no/100 Dollars ($686, 500. 00). All such annual appropriations have been directed to the general uses and purposes of the Association of the Blind, without designation as to specific use.

4. I further find that the State of South Carolina, by Act of its General Assembly (Statutes at large of South Carolina, No. 521 (1929)) conveyed to the Association of the Blind of South Carolina a tract of real property for the purpose of erecting a dormitory and workshop facility. The tract included four (4) acres, more or less, and the deed of conveyance executed by the State of South Carolina contained a provision for reverter in the State of South Carolina as follows:

That the title to said lot is to be vested in said Board just so long as said lot of land is used for the purpose of maintaining the said dormitory and workshop, and for the general uses and purposes of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina, and that when said property has been abandoned for the above-mentioned purposes, the said lot of land shall revert to the State of South Carolina.

5. I further find that the State of South Carolina, by Act of the General Assembly (Statutes at large of South Carolina, No. 391 (1945)) conveyed to the Association of the Blind of South Carolina an additional tract of real property containing one (1) acre, more or less. The deed of conveyance executed by the State of South Carolina made provision for reverter in the State of South Carolina, "if said association should dis-continue the occupation of said premises or the use thereof for the purposes of said association."

6. I further find that the Association of the Blind has continuously utilized the conveyed premises for its general uses and purposes, as prescribed by the deed of conveyance and remains in possession and control of the property.

7. I further find that the direction and control of the affairs of the Association of the Blind are under the direct authority of its Board of Directors, the members of which are annually elected by the membership of the Association. Within the authority of the Board of Directors are disbursements and designation of use of all funds of the Association, implementation of all programs designed to effect the purposes of the Association, and election of the general membership from among applications submitted by individual blind South Carolinians.

8. I further find that inspection of financial statements of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina revealed that the association has operated at an annual deficit since its inception in 1923. The Association's workshop facility and employee dormitory have not been, nor are they presently, self-sustaining. Annual appropriations from the State of South Carolina and benevolent contributions have provided, in combination with revenues derived from the sale of blind-made products, the ways and means of continued operation of the Association of the Blind. I find that without the annual appropriations from the State of South Carolina during its periods of past operations, the Association of the Blind of South Carolina would have been insolvent and devoid of sufficient funds to continue its operations.

9. I further find that since and including the year 1965, one or more of the plaintiffs to this action have made application to the Association of the Blind for membership as active or participating members. The classification of membership to which the plaintiffs sought admission constitutes a voting membership, thereby providing the member with the opportunity of a voice in the election of the Board of Directors of the Association. No application submitted by a plaintiff, subsequent to and inclusive of the year 1965, has been approved by the Board of Directors of the Association, nor has any reason for the rejection of the said applications been communicated to the applicants. I find no evidence in the record which constitutes the basis of a "for cause" rejection of a plaintiff's application for membership.

10. I further find that the Association of the Blind of South Carolina, by reason of its substantial and continuing financial involvement with the State of South Carolina through acceptance of grants of real property limited by reverter provisions and utilization of annual appropriations of State funds, has assisted in the implementation of the State's functions and duties with respect to the blind citizenry of the State of South Carolina. The case of Hampton vs. City of Jacksonville, Florida , 304 F. 2d 320 (5th Cir. 1962) compels a conclusion of existing State action upon the sole basis of the presence of a reverter clause in the deeds conveying real property to the Association. The fact of substantial annual appropriations of State funds strengthens this conclusion under the authority of Smith vs. Hampton Training School for Nurses, 360 F. 2d 577 (4th Cir. 1966), Eaton vs. Grubbs , 329 F. 2d 710 (4th Cir. 1964) and Simkins vs. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital, 323 F. 2d 959 (4th Cir. 1963). So substantial has been the involvement of the State of South Carolina in perpetuating the Association of the Blind of South Carolina that action of the Association, although chartered as a private eleemosynary corporation, constitutes action on behalf of and by the State of South Carolina. In its determination that the criterion for establishment of State action, in ostensibly private acts, is the actuality of State involvement rather than the form of the transaction under consideration, Smith vs. Holiday Inns of America, Inc., 220 F, Supp. 1 (M. D. Tenn. 1963), provides direct authority for the present conclusion.

11. I further find that action of the Board of Directors of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina, as the governing body of the Association, constitutes action of the Association; consequently, its action in utilization of funds, implementation of programs and elections to membership must be viewed as action by and on behalf of the State of South Carolina. Support of this conclusion is not, nor need it be, predicated upon a total abandonment of strictly private function. In Simkins vs. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital, 323 F. 2d 959 (4th Cir. 1963), prohibited State action was found to exist where the activities of the State government had become so involved in the conduct of otherwise private bodies that there was established a unity of activity. It was held in that case that State action exists where inter-related activities are performed under the aegis of the State, without the private body necessarily becoming either an instrumentality of the State or its agent in a strict sense.

CONCLUSIONS

12. I, therefore, conclude that the testimony is devoid of any evidence establishing a basis for the rejection of membership applications submitted by the named plaintiffs. The case of Hawkins vs. The North Carolina Dental Society, 355 F. 2d 718 (1966), provides authority for the conclusion that the right to vote attendant with membership constitutes a vital benefit of organizations of associations such as the Association of the Blind. In view of such authority, I conclude that the denial of membership in the Association of the Blind of South Carolina, in the absence of a showing of good and sufficient cause, constitutes discrimination against these plaintiffs. The practice of discrimination by the Board of Directors of the Association constitutes prohibited State action in violation of the equal protection of the laws afforded the plaintiffs, and those similarly situated with them, by Article 1, Section 5 of the Constitution of South Carolina and by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States; therefore, the admission of the plaintiffs to membership in the Association of the Blind of South Carolina should be ordered unless, within ten (10) days from the date of any final decree herein, defendants give to plaintiffs or their attorneys some basis for their rejection, adequately substantiated by a showing of good and sufficient cause.

13. I further conclude that in reviewing applications for membership in the Association of the Blind, the Board of Directors may reject any such application for good and sufficient cause. Such conclusion is made manifest by the case of Autherine J. Lucy, et al, vs. William F. Adams , Civil Action No. 652 (N. D. Ala. 1957) (unreported decision of Jan. 24, 1957). As the administrative organ of a body imbued with State action, however, the Board of Directors should be prohibited from exercising discrimination in the consideration of membership applications. Applicants who meet the requirements defined by the Constitution and By-laws of the Association must be accepted into the membership of the Association of the Blind of South Carolina unless some basis for their rejection can be adequately substantiated by a showing of good and sufficient cause.

14, I further conclude that the defendant. Association of the Blind of South Carolina, should pay the costs of this action.

Respectfully submitted, Harry M. Lightsey As Master in Equity for Richland County.

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WISCONSIN CIVIL SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES

COUNSELOR FOR THE VISUALLY HANDICAPPED. Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Assistance, Services to the Blind. Open to Non-Residents. Start at $707 a month. Earn $35 raise after six months. Further merit raises to $917.

LOCATION: Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Assistance, Services to the Blind. The first vacancy is in Rhinelander. If similar vacancies in Services to the Blind occur in other districts during the life of this list, persons who qualify at this time may be considered.

JOB DESCRIPTION: Assume the responsibility for the visually handicapped in securing employment consistent with their capacities and training. Make home visits and explain services of Agency. Determine applicants' eligibility for rehabilitation services. Provide counseling and guidance to the clients in adjusting to their visual handicaps. Provide instruction in mobility, home making. Braille reading and writing, typewriting, personal grooming, handicrafts, talking book service and library service in accordance with the person's needs. Assist legally blind individuals to become as financially independent as possible through counseling, physical restoration, psychological evaluation, training and placement. Make follow-up contacts as necessary for the suitable vocational adjustment of the individual. Cooperate with and assist in obtaining services from agencies and organizations to provide the most efficient service to clients. Keep extensive records and make reports.

QUALIFICATIONS: Training and experience--A master's degree in vocational rehabilitation, guidance, education, social work, psychology or related fields, and two years of counseling experience including some experience in working with the visually handicapped. An equivalent combination of training and experience may also be considered. Wisconsin residence is not required.

Essential skills and knowledges--Knowledge of the reactions to blindness of individuals, their families, employers and the community. Thorough knowledge of the methods, principles, techniques and tools of vocational rehabilitation training. Considerable knowledge of federal and state laws, policies and regulations pertaining to the vocational rehabilitation of handicapped persons. Ability to plan, organize and implement a rehabilitation program and provide highly skilled rehabilitation counseling.

APPLICATION: Send your application to the Bureau of Personnel. First review of applications will be shortly after Jan. 25. Applications will be accepted until the needs of the service are met. Application forms are available at the Bureau of Personnel, State Office Building, 1 West Wilson Street, Madison, 53702.

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NEW HAWAII AFFILIATE HOLDS CONVENTION

The first annual convention of the Hawaii Federation of the Blind--a full day of addresses and discussions climaxed by a gala evening banquet--was held on February 10, 1968 at the Princess Kaiulani Hotel on Honolulu's Waikiki Beach. General chairman for the sessions was HFB President Warren Toyama.

Among the convention highlights were three separate talks--morning, afternoon and evening--by the First Vice-President of the National Federation, Kenneth Jernigan.

Ken Jernigan, who is also director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind, first addressed the morning session on the growth of the commission and its highly effective programs of rehabilitation and orientation. His afternoon talk--"The Federation of the Blind: What, How and Why"-- discussed the nationwide movement of the organized blind with reference especially to its role within the states.

The evening banquet, attended by numerous community political and civic leaders as well as by federationists and agency officials, heard a major address by Ken Jernigan on the subject, "Blindness--Discrimination, Hostility, and Progress." Following his speech two prominent legislators -State Senate President John J. Hulten and State Representative Howard Y. Miyake, House Majority Leader--delivered extemporaneous remarks expressing their support for the aims and philosophy of the Federation.

The banquet, under the lively guidance of Roger Dinwiddle, vice-president of the local Federation, was made more colorful by the presentation of flower leis to Miss Eva Smyth, pioneer leader and worker for the Hawaii blind, and other guests representing public and voluntary agencies in the field of welfare and services.

Other speakers during the day-long meeting included Representative Miyake, who delivered a luncheon address; Fusao Uchiyama, Administrator of Special Schools and Programs for the Physically Handicapped, and Mrs. Yasuko Takemoto, Rehabilitation Services Coordinator for the State.

At an election session of the membership, the following officers were re-elected for an additional year beginning May 1: Warren M. Toyama, president; Roger Dinwiddle, vice president; Valerie Lloyd, recording secretary; Julia Shimabukuro, corresponding secretary, and Maxine Tyau, treasurer. Warren Toyama was selected as Hawaii's delegate to the NFB Des Moines convention.

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PETITION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA FEDERATION OF THE BLIND FOR INTELLECTUALLY HONEST RECORD KEEPING

BY THE OFFICE FOR THE BLIND TO THE END THAT THE BLIND MAY RECEIVE REASONABLY EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE SERVICES.

TO HIS EXCELLENCY, RAYMOND P. SHAFER, GOVERNOR OF PENNSYLVANIA:

The Petition of the Pennsylvania Federation of the Blind respectfully shows that:

WHEREAS, the Petitioner is the largest organization of the blind of this Commonwealth with four thousand and upwards blind dues -paying members and was chartered by the Court of Common Pleas of Delaware County in 1936; its offices are located at 20 North Washington Street, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and the president is Frank Lugiano; its officers and directors are blind and serve without compensation; its stated corporate purposes are "to promote the social and economic advancement of the blind by the blind. . . ." ; its chief activities have been and are to bring to the attention of the legislative and executive branches of State and Federal government the needs of the blind and, from time to time, to bring test cases in the courts to enforce or clarify the rights, privileges and duties of the blind;

AND WHEREAS, notwithstanding large and generous appropriations made regularly by the Pennsylvania Legislature and very substantial grants to it by the Federal government, the Office for the Blind, in point of fact, has rendered only meager and ineffective services to benefit the blind of the Commonwealth;

AND WHEREAS, it long has been and still is the practice of the said Office for the Blind to file grossly exaggerated reports of services rendered and, when convenient, use has been made of distortions and omissions to support such unfair, improper and misleading statistics;

AND WHEREAS, such misleading assertions of facts and figures have confused and misled officials and enabled the staff to persist in its inefficient and neglectful manner without pressure for improvement; worse still, realization of the fact that false and misleading figures and statistics were accepted in lieu of accomplishing benefits for the blind has discouraged the many sincere industrious members of the staff and other employees;

(To illustrate the foregoing, one instant case out of possible scores might be cited:

Some seven or eight years ago, in response to a protest of the Federation over the heavy expenditures made for the purchase and installation of vending stands for the blind and the meager income realized by the blind operators, a conference was convened by the then Secretary of Welfare. At the conference, Norman Yoder handed to the Secretary what purported to be an itemized list of the operators, giving the names, locations, income and computing the average income. The Secretary was triumphant for this reflected income three times larger than the average alleged by the Federation. However, a little cross -questioning forced Yoder to concede that he had included only the one-third most prosperous operators and had excluded the two -thirds, --the most poorly paid blind. The Secretary could not conceal resentment over the Federation's having unmasked the trickery.)

AND WHEREAS, your Petitioner is convinced that there was no conceivable way for Secretary of Public Welfare Thomas W. Georges,

Jr. to learn of the discrepancy between the rosy reports of accomplishment by the Office for the Blind and the dismal facts of meager accomplishments for the blind as the staff of the Department has invariably supported Yoder and, again and again, has frustrated the endeavors of the Federation to make the true facts public; private agencies have been utterly at the mercy of Yoder, who had full discretion in granting or withholding funds for construction and regular payments for alleged trainees; individual blind vending stand operators held their stands at sufferance, and the blind seeking help knew it could be granted or withheld at his discretion. The Federation makes no claim to superior virtue, but it is not and never has been beholden to the Office for the Blind for funds, and its officers have nothing to hope for or fear from Yoder;

AND WHEREAS, the true state of affairs can be learned only by audit,--not one restricted solely to ascertaining whether requisitions have been submitted in triplicate, etc.,--but by an audit to learn directly from the individual blind whether or not, in point of fact, they received the claimed benefits. If an investigation is not to be a cruel fiasco, it must be made by persons not embarrassed by having heretofore knowingly acquiesced in the spurious reports and who are obligated to shield themselves from criticism;

AND WHEREAS, it is the contention of the Federation that the blind, within reason, should be able to depend on the Governor to take prompt, vigorous measures to bring about intellectually honest record keeping to the end that the staff and employees will know that honest reports of limited success will lead to favorable evaluations, while false and dishonest reporting will subject them to disciplinary action;

WHEREFORE, the Pennsylvania Federation of the Blind respectfully requests that Your Excellency will:

1. Issue preemptory orders that in the future only accurate and truthful reports be kept by the Office for the Blind based upon meaningful definitions of what in reality constitutes "rehabilitation" and "job placement" etc.

2. Require an audit involving the direct communication with the blind alleged to have been benefited, to determine what benefit they have, in fact, received.

3. Grant a general amnesty to members of the staff and employees of the Department of Public Welfare and the Office for the Blind to the end that they may feel free to disclose the truth, notwithstanding their having heretofore knowingly acquiesced in the intellectually dishonest reporting.

(The Federation is not interested in retaliation or punitive action, but is deeply concerned that taxpayers' money appropriated by the Legislature to promote the welfare of the blind be spent in such a manner as to yield the best results reasonably to be expected in this difficult work.)

4. Direct the Secretary of Public Welfare to make it abundantly clear that he expects truthful reports and that he will not suffer submission of false and deceitful reports calculated only to delude him into believing public funds are being efficiently spent.

RESPECTFULLY SUBMITTED,

PENNSYLVANIA FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

By William Taylor, Jr. Attorney

10 South Avenue Media, Pennsylvania Lowell 6-7710

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HADLEY HAS ROOM

The Hadley School for the Blind, which tutors blind adults and teenagers all over the world by mail in Braille without charge, is pleased to announce that 300 openings are available for U. S. students in the following areas:

1. Braille--including Talking Braille (a recorded course that teaches the reading of English Braille), Braille Writing, Braille Review, and Grade 3 Braille.

2. Grade school courses--including Spelling, English, History, and Arithmetic.

3. A complete high-school curriculum with accredited diploma.

4. Vocational courses--including Typing, Salesmanship, Insurance Selling, Commercial Law, Business English, Medical Terminology (for medical transcribers), and Home Management.

5. Avocational courses--including Verse Writing, Story Writing, foreign languages, Bible courses.

6. College courses for qualified students with a high-school diploma or its equivalent.

For further information, including a Braille catalog of courses, write to the Hadley School for the Blind, 700 Elm Street, Winnetka, Illinois 60093.

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BLIND STUDENTS GET A BAD DEAL

by Raymond R. Roberson

Since Miss Elizabeth Ferris has been Director of the Educational Rehabilitation Services for disabled students at Wayne State University, blind students have been plagued with the problem of not getting enough readers. Miss Ferris states that she can provide volunteers who will read classroom assignments orally to the blind students or will read classroom material into tape recorders for blind students to play during their study periods. Ferris further states that if any of the volunteer readers cannot read difficult material; such as foreign languages, statistics, or mathematics, she will arrange for the blind students to have a paid reader, who is trained in these respective areas. The writer has talked with blind students who were taking a foreign language, statistics or mathematics. These students said they did not get a paid reader, but struggled along with volunteers. Another student acquired a reader for French only through her own initiative. The Educational Rehabilitation Office promised the blind student that this reader would be paid. The reader never received his money.

Harold Payne, Wayne County Supervisor for the State Division of Services for the Blind, informed this writer that there are federal funds available for paid readers through Public Law 89-333, the Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Act. Under this act, paid readers are available to any blind student for any academic subjects that the student may be enrolled in while attending a college or university. Mr. Payne added that a blind student can use paid readers to supplement volunteer reading services. However, continued Mr. Payne, Elizabeth Ferris told our state office that she can provide adequate reading services by using volunteers. Harold Payne, D.S.B. Wayne County Supervisor concluded that the Division of Services for the Blind does not want to duplicate services already available in the community.

This writer had a conference with Elizabeth Ferris, who confirmed Mr. Payne's statement by commenting that her Educational Rehabilitation Services program could not only provide volunteers for reading during the day, Monday through Friday 8:30 A.M. to 4:30 P.M., but could assign volunteer readers to blind students week day evenings and weekends. From this writer's own experience as a blind student and from what other blind students have told him confidentially, because of feared reprisals and intimidations, it is obvious that Miss Ferris' observations were far from the truth. It also appears obvious that Miss Ferris cares more about maintaining community prestige for her department than for the needs of blind students and that the blind are, in effect, being exploited by the Educational Rehabilitation Services.

Out of the total number of 100 volunteer -readers, who promise to give at least two hours a week, only 25 percent show up. The volunteers that show up are subject to taking one, two, or even three weeks time off out of an eleven week quarter of classes, in order to fulfill previously arranged commitments. Volunteers cancelling reading appointments makes it difficult for blind students to prepare for classroom assignments. It is an exception, not the rule, that volunteers will read evenings. They are usually married and have children. Because they have family responsibilities or fear being molested at night, the volunteers will not remain in the university area for evening reading. It is also an exception for volunteers to read on weekends because of family duties or recreational activities. Volunteer readers can never duplicate the services of paid readers because volunteers give their services free when they want to,
and at the time, or times, when they choose, with no special obligation to blind students. The paid readers are in an employee status with the blind students as employer. The paid readers have the responsibilities of providing adequate services for which they are paid.

Volunteer readers at Wayne are not as reliable as paid readers. Therefore, immediate action should be taken to insure that every blind student would have access to paid readers as a supplement to volunteer reader services. Blind students at colleges and universities around the United States receive paid readers as a supplement to volunteer reader services from the Federal Office of Vocational Rehabilitation in Washington, D. C. with matching state funds.

A proposed Council of Disabled Students was organized at the suggestion of Elizabeth Ferris, for the purpose of attempting to solve the problems of handicapped students. If a particular problem cannot be solved by the proposed council, it will be referred to a student committee or university official. This proposed council of handicapped students is seeking representation on the W.S.U. Student Faculty Council, by electing its representatives to the S. F. C.

The formation of this proposed council means two things; Any complaints about the bureaucratic actions of Elizabeth Ferris will be referred to the proposed council, where they would be most likely to die in committee. There are a number of reforms which the proposed council could attempt, but in this writer's opinion, it will be an ineffective committee doing only what the Ferris Bureaucracy permits. If the council were to take action against the Ferris Bureaucracy, its members would risk reprisals or intimidations.

This reporter has already faced reprisals and intimidations simply because he took the step of advertising for readers in the campus newspaper. The first time he did so he was criticized by an official of the office. The second time he was threatened with withdrawal of volunteer readers on the pretext of lateness or absences which allegedly occurred, if they occurred at all, as far back as last spring. The curtailment of such readers represents, of course, a severe setback for any student and I wonder how many other students have been threatened by the Ferris Bureaucracy in this way.

Despite such threats I will continue to affirm that volunteer readers must be supplemented by paid readers so that the blind students of Wayne will have the same opportunities as blind students at any other university.

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LONG-TIME JFK AIDE ADDRESSES TALKING BOOK DISCUSSERS

by John Nagle

Mrs. Evelyn Lincoln, who for twelve years served as personal secretary to Senator and President John F. Kennedy, spoke about her Kennedy experiences to the members of the Talking Book Discussion Group, at the Davis Memorial Library, Bethesda, Maryland, February 13.

Spell-bound, aware they were sharing in a very personal and profoundly moving experience, the audience listened as Mrs. Lincoln recalled various episodes of her life with John F. Kennedy. As she talked, her voice reflected inner feelings of pleasure, grief, exasperation--and always complete loyalty to her boss, complete dedication to the causes and concerns John F. Kennedy espoused and served during his years in the United States Senate and the Presidency.

Organized a couple of years ago and sponsored by the Maryland Association for the Visually Handicapped, the book discussers are some two dozen people, who meet monthly to talk about a book they have all read. The only criterion for choice of books is that they be available either on records or tape. Most of the Free State book discussers are blind.

Mrs. Lincoln is but the latest of several distinguished authors who have appeared at meetings of the Maryland book discussers to talk about their works and respond to interested and searching questions. Congressman Richard Boiling, Missouri, author of "A House Out of Order", Mrs. Allen Proxmire, wife of the senior senator from Wisconsin, and author of "One Foot in Washington", Dr. Julius Segal, world-famed authority on sleep and author of a definitive treatise on the subject, and Dr. Rudolph E. Purliese, associate professor in the drama department, University of Maryland --each discussed his literary creation or, in the case of Dr. Purliese, considered the literary creations of William Shakespeare and Arthur Miller.

Few book discussers miss a meeting, and they always do their "homework"--read the assigned book set for discussion.

One member when asked why the group had functioned so successfully seemed to express the view of all blind members when he said: "So often, a blind person will read a book on records or tape, or in braille, and be much aroused and stimulated by what he has read, but then have no one with whom to share his thoughts and reactions. Now, because we do have an outlet for our views about a book and its author, we enjoy reading much more than we did before. "

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THE TEST CASE AT THE BAR

by Fred P. Graham

(Reprinted from The New York Times, Jan. 21, 1968)

WASHINGTON--There was a time when litigating in the Supreme Court was largely an individual matter. Landmark decisions grew out of disputes between people or between individuals and the state.

But in recent years, Court decisions have wrought such significant changes in American life that one wag has remarked that ours has become a Government not of men but of lawyers, and constitutional decision-making has become too important to continue as the hit-or-miss byproduct of the settling of private disputes.

As the Supreme Court nears the mid-point of its 1967-1968 term, it has become apparent that special interest groups are now succeeding in organizing the flow of much of the civil rights, civil liberties and criminal litigation that reaches the Supreme Court, and in using it to promote their causes.

This could be seen in several of last week's most important actions in the Supreme Court.

The Justices struck down the Government's procedure for keeping suspected Communists out of the merchant fleet. This assured a seaman's license for Herbert Schneider of Seattle, the appellant, but it was also a victory for the American Civil Liberties Union, which had sponsored the litigation as part of its campaign against the McCarthy era's loyalty-security laws.

In another action, the Court agreed to decide if officials of previously segregated Southern school systems must take affirmative action to eliminate identifiable Negro schools, although school systems in the North are not constitutionally required to reduce racial imbalance.

This could mean better education for Negro children in Jackson, Tenn., and Gould, Ark., where segregation is being challenged. But to the N.A.A.C.P. Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., which sponsored the suits, it could be a key step toward a constitutional doctrine that would require Northern school systems to also act against racial imbalance.

The Supreme Court also agreed to decide if Vivian Thompson, a 19-year-old unwed mother of two children, must be given welfare benefits by the state of Connecticut, although she has not lived there for the one-year residency period required by state law.

This appeal represents the first case brought by a neighborhood law office of the Office of Economic Opportunity to reach the high Court, and if Miss Thompson wins, it will mean that O. E. O. lawyers can quickly strike down the residency requirements that exist in 40 other states.

The Justices also announced that they will rule on the constitutionality of the New York law that requires local school officials to loan books to students or parochial schools.

This was a test case brought by the New York Civil Liberties Union. Earlier in the term, the Court agreed to review a related appeal that was sponsored by a coalition of four New York religious, educational and civil liberties groups, and the two cases could result in a hardening of the constitutional line between church and state.

The same results of carefully planned litigating can be seen in other key appeals already awaiting arguments before the Supreme Court. They include a suit to outlaw racial discrimination in housing (National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing), a challenge to the law against draft card burning (A.C.L.U.), a suit to tighten police identification procedures (N.A.A.C.P. Fund), and a case to establish the right of illegitimate children to inherit property (A.C.L.U.).

Welfare litigation was virtually unknown five years ago, but there are so many test cases in the mill now that Professor Richard Cloward of the New York School of Social Work estimates that the nation's welfare costs would double and perhaps triple if the clients won them all and the resulting precedents were enforced.

The N.A.A.C.P. Fund set out two years ago on a litigating campaign against the death penalty, especially for rape. It already has more than 100 cases working their way toward the Supreme Court and has blocked all executions in California and Florida.

Given the frequent need for rapid change in these times and the built-in inertia of the Federal system, this development is beneficial and possibly inevitable.

But it has the dubious result of thrusting the judiciary even farther into the forefront of legal policy-making--to the detriment of those chronic losers, the state legislatures.

Moreover, it works only for those who assert individual rights. There is no way to bring along a test case seeking to limit the prerogatives of welfare clients or increase the use of capital punishment.

Nevertheless, the successes of the libertarian groups inspired the formation last summer of a prosecution -oriented group called Americans for Effective Law Enforcement, and it is busily filing friend-of-court briefs before the Supreme Court.

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RIGHT TO HEARING BEFORE AID TERMINATION--TEST SUIT

by Peter Kihss

(Reprinted from The New York Times, Jan. 30, 1968)

A suit was started in Federal Court by six New York City welfare recipients who are seeking to establish a constitutional right to a hearing before relief payments are cut off.

Five of the plaintiffs said their benefit payments had been cut off on such grounds as moving out of a hotel, which allegedly was "inhabited by drug addicts and drunkards, " mismanagement of funds and disputes over adequacy of information.

The sixth was a woman facing removal from the relief rolls reportedly because she is refusing to join in a suit by the city Department of Social Services against her estranged husband, who was said to be voluntarily contributing to her support.

The plaintiffs were represented by 10 lawyers. These were drawn from legal teams for Mobilization for Youth, an antipoverty agency, with Harold J. Rothwax heading counsel; the Legal Aid Society, with Mary B. Tarcher as chief lawyer; the Roger Baldwin Foundation of the American Civil Liberties Union, with Martin Garbus as director-counsel; and the Columbia University Center on Social Welfare Policy and Law, with Brian Glick and Henry A. Freedman as counsel.

Mr. Garbus said that about three million relief recipients throughout the nation are cut off welfare rolls each year without a prior hearing. His organization is supporting a series of suits nationwide to define, in effect, a welfare "bill of rights."

The suit here, which is against the state and city Commissioners of Social Services and the State Board of Social Welfare, charges that the plaintiffs were being deprived of due process guaranteed by the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.

Involved were home relief grants, which are paid for by the state and city without Federal aid, and the Federally aided programs of aid to dependent children, the aged, blind and disabled.

The complaint charged that "the Social Security Act, as interpreted by regulations of the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare requires that a 'state plan' provide for granting an opportunity for a fair hearing before the state agency to any individual aggrieved by an action of a local Department of Social Services."

State and city officials declined comment on the court move, but they indicated recent changes in regulations at both state and city levels had provided for notice to relief recipients when they faced termination of benefits. Those cut off have been able to file appeals and get hearings.

Dr. George A. Wiley, director of the Poverty/Rights Action Center, which is organizing welfare clients and poor people nationally, said last night that a pending suit in Federal Court in Mississippi also challenged lack of prior hearing. He said this had elicited a Health, Education and Welfare Department statement denying any Federal barrier to such a prior hearing.

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ALABAMA SETBACK ON WELFARE ISSUE

(Reprinted from The New York Times, Feb. 1968)

WASHINGTON--Justice Hugo L. Black of the Supreme Court directed Alabama to restore 15,000 to 20,000 children to its welfare rolls.

The action assures the continuance of welfare assistance to the children while the Court considers the constitutionality of the state's "substitute father" regulation.

The regulation bars aid to dependent children if there is a man--a "substitute father"--living in the home or if he meets the mother outside the home for sexual relations.

It was declared unconstitutional Nov. 8 by a Federal court in Montgomery, Ala., and the 15,000 to 20,000 children covered by the regulation were ordered restored to welfare rolls.

On Nov. 27, Justice Black barred the payments because the state would have been unable to recover from beneficiaries the state contributions to the program--about $53,820 a month--if Alabama won reversal in the Supreme Court.

However, the new Federal Social Security legislation that went into effect Jan. 2 puts a ceiling on the number of dependent children for whom Federal assistance in state welfare programs is available.

Although the ceiling will not go into effect until July 1, Justice Black said, calculations will be based on the number of children on the rolls the first three months of this year.

Thus, he said, unless the children are restored now, total payments for all dependent children in Alabama may be reduced even if the Supreme Court eventually finds the regulation invalid.

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A FEDERATIONIST SPEAKS FROM THE HEART

Letter from Marie Jensen Stauter

Dear Chick:

Enclosed is a carbon of my reply to Ann Landers after a letter was published in her column (Sunday, Jan. 14) from a blind man lamenting that he had been asked to leave two different cities because of his persistent begging. His defense was that he had been blind since he was eight years old and since no one wanted to hire a blind man he had to do something to support his wife and children. Her answer was to contact the American Foundation for the Blind and the state welfare agencies--they would take care of him.

Ann Landers
c/o The Denver Post
Denver, Colorado 80202

Dear Ann Landers:

To augment your answer to the blind man I would like to call your attention to the National Federation of the Blind, its goals and achievements briefly described in the enclosed brochure.

My first husband lost his sight after we were an established family with a home and four children. The thought of living a life such as your correspondent described was, to me, one of the greatest horrors we faced. However, he was able to continue supporting us for the remaining eleven years of his life, not adding to our state's welfare rolls nor becoming a beggar.

The American Foundation for the Blind which you recommended had some fine services to offer, but it was living on the principles of the NFB (which we joined and worked hard for) that dispelled the horrors and helped him to the satisfaction of a life well lived.

Although I am sighted I have kept up my active support of the NFB. The man I am now married to (also sighted) has joined me in this support after meeting many fine blind people in our area who prefer to give a day's work for their wages--even if it isn't as lucrative as a tin cup.

If you are interested in learning more, I suggest you write the NFB headquarters (address on the enclosed brochure) or if you prefer, I will assemble the information for you at your request.

Sincerely,

Marie Stauter

(formerly Mrs. Clifford E. Jensen)

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WHITE CANE SAFETY DAY IN THE "SUNSHINE" STATE FIRST CELEBRATION IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

by T.M. Fuery

"The White Cane Around the World" is a significant theme and one well worthy to be the title of a session in the International Federation of the Blind worldwide convention. In addition, it seems to provide a challenge to those of us who are conscious of the outstanding importance of the White Cane as the symbol throughout the world, of the mobile blind person to tell something of what is being done, in our parts of the globe, to promote knowledge of the symbol and tell the people of its meaning. With this idea in mind 1 shall try to tell BRAILLE MONITOR readers a little about our efforts here in Queensland, 'the Sunshine State' of Australia. Incidentally, Queensland is the State in Australia nearest to California, the closest part of the U.S.A. to us across the broad Pacific Ocean, the Equator, and the International Date Line.

The wide expanse of the island continent of Australia, only slightly smaller in area than the U.S.A., is divided into six States. The largest of these States, Western Australia, spreading across nearly one third of the continent, is the only State having White Cane Legislation similar to that operating in the American States.

The organized blind people of Queensland are, perhaps, second to none amongst our Australian fellows in our keen desire for suitable White Cane Legislation, and in our appreciation in general of the value of the White Cane. We have been working assiduously for a long time to have such a law introduced in our State. Some two years ago, "The Queensland White Cane Committee for the Protection of Blind Pedestrians" was formed with representation of almost all local organizations of the blind, and agencies working for the blind, on its panel. The objectives of this committee are--to achieve a suitable White Cane Law for the State,--and to educate the people of Queensland to respect the user of the cane, and to understand its significance.

A strong sub-committee is devoting itself to the attainment of the first part of our objective, while a publicity sub-committee is under--taking the responsibility of achieving the second portion.

It is good to be able to say that, in this publicity work we receive the fullest support from the Queensland Road Safety Council, and have the wholehearted cooperation of the press and radio, as well as from the Service Organizations.

It stands as a testimony to this cooperation that White Cane Safety Day, 15th October, was celebrated in Queensland for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, in 1967.

The Committee is justifiably elated at this achievement, but is conscious too of the need to press on to try to earn a greater success this year. We have learned well the need for early and thorough planning in preparation for White Cane Safety Day. We hope for an early commencement with this year's arrangements.

The feelings of the members of the Committee are well expressed in the following statement, issued for the occasion by the Honorable G. F.R. Nicklin, Premier of Queensland.

THE PRESS STATEMENT

By the Hon. G. F. R. NICKLIN, PREMIER OF QUEENSLAND

The Premier, (Mr. Nicklin) today commended to all Queenslanders their participation in the observance of White Cane Safety Day, on Sunday, October 15th. Mr. Nicklin said the White Cane has become the symbol of blind people the world over since the formation of the International Federation of the Blind in New York three years ago, but much headway towards its general recognition in this State had been achieved over many years, under the influence of the Queensland White Cane Committee.

One of the foremost objectives of the International Federation and National and State Leaders in all countries was to have October 15th of each year proclaimed as White Cane Safety Day, with the object of assuring freedom of movement to those deprived of their sight.

The blind could only enjoy freedom with confidence if there fellow citizens learned to treat them with consideration.

Mr. Nicklin said this would easily be accomplished if those with eyes learned to recognise the White Cane from afar and conceded their less privileged fellow citizens the right to proceed without hinderance. Mr. Nicklin said the observance merited the cooperation of all civic and service organizations, and of all individuals so that blind people in our society might continue to enjoy the greatest possible measure of personal independence.

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NFB STUDENT DIVISION--TO BE OR NOT TO BE

Not to Be--Letter from Geerat Vermey
To Be--Letter from Jacobus tenBroek
To Be--Letter from Jim Gashel

G. J. Vermey
1-A Lovell Court
Nutley, New Jersey 07110

Dec. 29, 1967

The Editor
The Braille Monitor
2652 Shasta Road
Berkeley, California 94708

To the Editor:

Just this morning I received in the mail a letter in which the aims and concerns of the student branch of the NFB were spelled out in some detail. Many problems which students and professionals might encounter, such as obtaining readers and books, fighting prejudice, and gaining acceptance into the academic environment, are discussed. In short, the student and professional organization seeks to combat all these difficulties.

Although the NFB itself has performed many much-needed tasks with respect to the enlightenment and disposition of the blind, I cannot concur in the opinion that an organization of blind students and professionals can bring about similar improvements for the blind in the academic world. As a senior in the Department of Biology at an eastern university, I have had to face many fundamental problems, most of which I have solved without the aid of any organization. Most of these problems were directly related to my special field, and can therefore hardly be considered difficulties which many blind persons at universities would face. For example, my work has led me to improvise many simple tools with which I do my observing.

In my experience 1 have found that the task of finding qualified readers is best accomplished through one's own initiative. It is hardly difficult to ask around in one's dormitory or eating place, or, if necessary, to put up a sign somewhere on campus. Very often, townspeople are only too happy to volunteer their services. Information about textbooks may be obtained from state agencies, the Recording for the Blind, and similar agencies. Particular problems should be taken up with one's instructor.

Many problems are functions of the particular university which a person attends, his department, or his professor. Through experience, one learns how to deal with a given situation, such as the laboratory part of a science course. In short, there can be no uniform rule for the solution of any given problem, since that problem is in general a very specialized and personal one. Therefore, most problems can be overcome by the individual himself.

Some will claim that an organization for blind professionals and students could provide information about sources for books or other technical materials, or hints for solving problems which are met by nearly every one. This function is, however, already being performed in satisfactory fashion by publications such as "Braille Book Review". Others will claim that such an organization could write letters in behalf of persons refused admission as a result of prejudice, as was recently done in the case of a gentleman refused admission at Stanford University. It is my opinion, however, that this could be much more effectively accomplished by the person himself, in conjunction with his instructor or adviser. The latter person would, in general, be much more familiar with the blind person and could therefore more deeply appreciate what can be done in spite of blindness in a particular field, than could some representative of an organization constituted by blind students and professionals in every field imaginable.

I have not written this letter merely to criticize the NFB's student organization; my main purpose here is to emphasize that there is no need for such an organization, that, in fact, difficulties are best overcome through one's own initiative.

Sincerely,

Geerat J. Vermey

4th January 1968

Mr. Geerat J. Vermey
1-A Lovell Court
Nutley, New Jersey 07110

Dear Geerat:

In your letter of December 29, 1967, you make a powerful argument against civilization. Your thesis seems to be that individuals should be self-reliant to the point of rediscovering for themselves all the knowledge that has been accumulated through the past as well as to make a contribution to that which may be accumulated in the future.

Along with you, I applaud self-reliance. We should have a good deal more of it--each of us and all of us. Doubtless many people call on aid from others in areas in which they can do just as well by themselves without such aid if they but put forth a little initiative and imagination.

The straight fact of the matter is, however, that civilization will not surrender to all these arguments of individualism. It has been possible for man to accumulate information and collectively to transmit the corpus to succeeding generations. Indeed we would still be in the Stone Age were this not the case. If it is true for man in general that individual discoveries may be collected and transmitted and need not be rediscovered by each individual throughout all time, why is it not equally true for that part of mankind which is made up of blind persons? Almost everyone of the examples you mention seems to me a powerful argument for an opposite conclusion. You say, for instance, that you, as a senior student in biology, have had to invent many techniques and tools to conduct your work. Do you really suppose that a few hours of conversation with Dillworth Wooley, an internationally famous biologist, could not supply you with many ideas about how to do your work which took him years and years to find and invent and which you propose to take still further years to re-find and re-invent? An association of blind college students and professionals would have put you in contact with Dillworth Wooley, if, as is so often the case, you did not happen to hear about him or have the initiative to see him.

You talk about the academic advisor of a blind student knowing far more about what he can do than the whole collectivity of blind college students and professionals. In all my life I have never heard a falsehood more palpable. Unhappily, academic advisors of blind college students often give them perfectly atrocious advice and most often act on a stereotype of blindness which bears no relationship to the reality. If you doubt this, you should spend a few minutes talking with the blind students in the student association.

You point to the episode with the Stanford History Department and suggest that the blind student's advisor could be of greatest help to him. In this case, the student's advisor showed no interest whatsoever in seeking to open this channel of opportunity. Moreover, I haven't the slightest doubt that my letters to the Stanford History Department, coming as they did from a blind scholar in a related field of long standing and good reputation, had far more impact than the letters from any other person.

Notwithstanding my complete and total disagreement with what you say, I am happy to have your letter and your explanation of your attitude. Certainly none of us will seek unduly to pressure you into becoming a member. You're a free adult, capable of making your own decisions and living your own life. On the other hand, have you considered what sort of contribution you, yourself, might make to such an organization? You could, for example, let other blind biology students know some of the techniques and devices you have evolved. You could, moreover, give advice to blind students who have not yet discovered for themselves the best way for finding readers and for getting their materials placed on tape or in braille. From your letter it is obvious that you have found it far easier to do many of these things than most of our blind college students. I would be individualistic of you in the extreme to decline to proffer your knowledge of techniques and facilities to those who have not yet acquired your degree of information or your various techniques.

Cordial regards,

Jacobus tenBroek

* * * *

2422 Olive St., Apt. 6W
Cedar Falls, Iowa

January 24, 1968

Dear Mr. Vermey:

About a week ago, I received a copy of your December 29th letter to the Editor of the BRAILLE MONITOR in which you put forth the notion that the NFB Student Division is not needed. First, let me say that as a junior in the department of speech at a midwestern university, I, like you, have had to face many fundamental problems. Like you, I have solved most of them without the aid of an organization of blind college students. For example, I find my own readers with methods similar to those you describe. Also, I have developed my own methods of doing research in the library as well as methods of doing a host of other tasks necessary for success in speech. Indeed, most students are probably like you and me, and that is probably commendable. However, as Dr.tenBroek indicated, each person solving every problem for himself is not necessarily the wisest course of action.

Inevitably in such an arrangement some students will have certain problems in handling situations, and they do. In such cases, the Division provides an opportunity for informal discussion about common problems. To be more specific, there are several blind scientists in the organization, some of whom are students and others who are professionally employed. To assume that they have not encountered situations similar, if not exactly like yours is to limit your sources of information for possible techniques. Also, of course, you must consider your role in helping other students who are not endowed with a mind sufficiently creative to develop techniques. In any case, no evidence exists for concluding that students in the Division cannot help each other with individual problems. In fact, there is much evidence to the contrary. Personally, I have talked with students in speech or related fields and found our exchanges interesting. Other students report similar satisfaction. Moreover, sighted students compare their study methods--if them, why not us?

Your mention of library services particularly interests me because I currently receive my books from the best library in the business of lending books to the blind. As you may know, the Iowa Commission for the Blind Library was started and has prospered largely because of the organized blind both of Iowa and of the nation. If this is not an example of the positive value the organized blind can have for students in the academic world, I do not know what one is. Why shouldn't students lead the fight for improved library services both nationally and in every state?

In this connection, I am happy to report that many of the agencies you listed in your letter have recently cooperated in, and expressed a desire to further an effort of the Student Division to better inform blind college students about available services. Thanks to their help and interest, the Division is now completing a Handbook of Techniques and Services for Blind College Students. These agencies, i.e., Recording for the Blind, Library of Congress, Division for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Science for the Blind, etc., seem to recognize that the most efficient way to reach students is through other students.

As Dr. tenBroek has already indicated, your opinion about the best way to combat discrimination on the campus has no basis. In point of fact, untold numbers of blind students have been disuaded from entering laboratory courses solely because their advisors, knowing nothing about blindness, thought the students were incapable of success. You surely know that many students have been denied admission by deans, department heads, and instructors. In short, under present conditions students are not sufficiently free to study v/hat they have a genuine right to learn.

Often the discrimination is so subtle that it is not labeled as such either by the student or anyone else. As in the Stanford case, students are rejected because it is "the kindest path" to follow. Obviously, this is unjustified discrimination none the less, and the ancient methods of combating it do not work often enough.

Perhaps you would like to hear about two cases in Iowa. In the spring of 1965 and the fall of 1966, two girls were forced to undergo extensive questioning when applying to student teach from the University of Iowa College of Education. According to college officials, this procedure was followed because they were interested in sending out high quality student teachers. Apparently they had some reason to believe that these girls were not wholly capable, even though their grades were good. In both cases, instructors or advisors who were thought to be sympathetic were either unable or unwilling to end the actions, and the organized blind, in the form of a statewide organization of blind students, had to step in. In both instances, the organized blind were successful. Many other discriminatory cases can be found, but in general, we are learning the lesson that the most effective action is united action.

You may also be interested to know that the University Association of the Blind in Iowa is making great strides in equal employment opportunities for blind teachers. In fact, next week I will present our views, along with a resolution calling for the equal employment of the blind, to the policy-making arm of the Iowa State Education Association. This is a big step forward, and it was accomplished by students working together. It is likely that I would not be speaking to the ISEA if we had not worked together.

I have presented these examples not to boast about blind students in Iowa, but rather to show evidence for a conclusion opposite to the one you have reached. If it is not convincing, write me and I will be happy to provide you with more.

Finally, as you indicate in your letter, all blind persons have benefited from the efforts of the organized blind. Certainly students should be grateful to the NFB for leading the fight for rehabilitation funds and services as well as library services. The battle is not yet won, and it will not be until we have the freedom to study whatever we want and the materials for studying it. Much of the responsibility for achieving this goal is in our hands --yours and mine. If we do not take positive action for the good of all, we will continue to be forced to justify our place in college.

I recognize that your letter was written in the spirit of cooperation, and with an honest desire toward doing what is right for the blind. Similarly, I have not written to criticize you, but rather to show you another side of the coin. I think you have already made a contribution to the NFB Student Division, and if you wish, we all would welcome your efforts as an active member.

Cordially,

Jim Gashel, President
NFB Student Division

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TEXAS CONVENTION

Letter from Bonnie Cross

Dear Dr. tenBroek:

As secretary of the new Blue Bonnet State Federation of the Blind, I am reporting on our organization and growth.

On Saturday, December 9, 1967, at the Driskill Hotel in Austin, Texas, a meeting of some 35 Texas blind persons was held, steered by Kenneth Jernigan, first vice president of the NFB. After he had acquainted those who were not familiar with the NFB with its goals and purposes, we proceeded to draft a constitution which was approved by a majority.

Election of officers was held in the afternoon with the following persons filling the respective positions: Don Steelman, president; Glenn Crosby, first vice president; John Sledd, second vice president; Leo Carnline, treasurer; and Bonnie Cross, secretary. It was voted to have an executive board consisting of nine members--the five above officers and four other members were elected as follows: Clement Sloan, John Maples, Gary Patterson, and Paul Richardson.

Members were signed up and state dues were paid. It was decided that our next statewide meeting would be held the third weekend in October, 1968. The meeting was adjourned and a session of the board was held. At the session it was emphasized by our state president that local organizations were necessary and indispensible. John Sledd from Houston was to begin work immediately in that city. The blind in Houston now have 13 members of the state organization. This gives us a membership, which is incompletely compiled at this time, of 47 or 48.

In Austin a local group of University of Texas students has been formed. On January 5, a meeting of some six students was held. Louis Luralde was named temporary chairman of the group. Our next meeting is scheduled for February 9, where we hope to have at least 15 students present. There are some 40 known blind students on the campus.

Don Steelman, state president, has been hard at work. The local group of students now has an office in the YMYW across from the campus. He has been negotiating a deal with Lamb's Candy for selling candy with literature.

Organization has been slow in Texas, but we feel that adequate publicity and statement of our purposes and policy will help greatly. However, there is much to contend with and it must be handled carefully and with tact. We request your cooperation and support in our efforts. We are pleased to be a part of the National Federation of the Blind.

National dues will be forwarded to you as soon as possible. After our board meeting of February 10th, I will again report to you on the state of affairs in Texas.

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THE SELECTION OF CLIENTS BY SOCIAL WELFARE AGENCIES THE CASE OF THE BLIND

by Robert A. Scott
Princeton University

(Reprinted gratis with the kind permission of the author, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, Vol. 14, No. 3, Winter, 1967, and The Society for the Study of Social Problems.)

The purpose of social welfare is to promote the social betterment of a class or group of people who are defined as disadvantaged, handicapped, or deprived. A set of common problems are attributed to such persons based upon the nature of the trait or quality which sets them apart from the rest of society. Programs of social welfare are then planned to meet the needs which arise out of these problems.

It is believed that the form and content of such programs should be determined by the needs of the client. As his needs change, the programs themselves must change; conversely, the welfare of the client should be the primary factor to consider in making any policy decisions about changes in such programs.

In reality, other factors also exert a determining influence on social welfare programs. These factors are at least as important for setting policy as the clients' welfare and at times may even supersede it. Many such factors have been identified by other investigators. Two are especially important. First, welfare services are characteristically distributed in our society through private philanthropy or government at its federal, state, and local levels. These programs are ordinarily incorporated in large-scale bureaucratic structures. As such, they are subject to the pressures and forces common to all complex bureaucracies. The preservation of the organization itself is a vital factor in setting program policy; and standardization based upon the criteria of efficiency, production, and costs is often applied to services which are intended to meet highly personal human needs.

Second, welfare programs must rely upon the public for their support, whether through legislative appropriation or private fund raising efforts. The availability of services depends, at least in part, upon the kinds of support which the benefactors of welfare are willing to provide. When the benefactors are the body politic, funds will ordinarily be made available for only those programs which the legislators believe are politically tenable to support. When the benefactors come from the private sector of society, the kinds of programs they are willing to support depend upon their personal conception of the nature of the problems of disadvantaged groups, and what they imagine constitutes a desirable and moral solution. In either case, such conceptions are generally responsive to broad cultural themes and values, especially those of youth, work, hope, contentment, and personal fulfillment.

At times, the personal welfare of the client, the needs of the bureaucratic structures through which services are supplied, and the benefactors' definition of the problems of the disadvantaged persons will coincide. Ordinarily these factors will coincide when the client possesses valued cultural attributes (e. g. , youth, intelligence) and when valued cultural goals (e.g., employment, independence) are realistically attained for him. More often, however, these forces do not coincide; they may even conflict. Consequently, the public, whether through legislative bodies or private donations, may be unwilling to support programs for individuals with personal characteristics which are culturally devalued, although such individuals may be the majority of the disadvantaged group. From the point of view of organizational maintenance, it may be untenable to undertake extensive service programs for persons who, by virtue of their disability and other characteristics, may be unable to make a productive contribution to the society, even though they represent a majority of those who need service programs.

Social welfare programs are, therefore, set within and responsive to a variety of organizational and community pressures, which are highly determinative of program policy and implementation. By contrast, the problems of the recipient group ordinarily are caused by factors which are entirely unrelated to those which work upon the welfare agencies. The causes of the specific problems, and therefore the needs of a handicapped person, are not the same factors which determine what kinds of welfare services are offered to them. Clients' needs and the kinds of available welfare services run in two separate orbits, which may coincide only at certain points. It cannot be assumed, therefore, that the services which are offered apply to all persons who belong to the disadvantaged group, nor can it be assumed that the persons who receive services are necessarily benefited by them.

These facts suggest a number of questions for research about the relationships between social welfare service programs, and the welfare problems of persons to whom the services are directed. First, it is necessary to determine the amount of congruence between services required by a disadvantaged group and those available to them. Second, it is necessary to determine the amount of congruence between persons who are in need of services and those who in fact receive them through existing structures. Finally, it is necessary to determine the consequences for a disadvantaged person of receiving services in existing welfare programs.

The purpose of this paper is to provide data related to the latter two questions, by examining one type of social welfare program: services for the blind. I will compare existing services in this field to the population of blind persons, in order to identify what, if any, discrepancies exist in the present distribution of services. This will be done by describing the demographic properties of the blind population of the United States at the present time; and the corresponding distribution and properties of agencies which serve it. From these data, I will also examine Some of the consequences for an individual, both for himself and in relation to the community, of receiving welfare services through existing agencies.

While the remainder of this discussion will specifically deal with agencies for the blind, my remarks apply with equal cogency to many types of welfare agencies, and especially to those which provide social services to persons possessing stigmatized and unimprovable deviant qualities.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF THE BLIND

Approximately 955, 000 persons in the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States under the age of 80 are blind. There are a number of significant facts about the blind population. First, a majority of them are elderly. Sixty-six per cent are between the ages of 55 and 80; another 15 per cent are in the age group of 45-54; 17 per cent of all blind persons are in the age group of 18-44; and only about 2 per cent are children under 18. According to these data, two thirds of all blind persons are in age groups where retirement is either pending or a reality, and only a small minority of blind persons are in age groups where either employment or education is realistic.

Second, blindness is much more common in women than in men. Seven out of ten cases of blindness occur in women, and in all age groups there are more blind women than blind men, although the sex difference is greatest in the older age groups. Taking the factors of age and sex together, one half of all cases of blindness are among women 55 years of age and older; another 20 per cent of the cases of blindness occur among women in the age group of 18-54. Elderly men account for 18 per cent of all cases, and only 12 per cent of the cases of blindness occur among men 18-54.

Third, blindness is comparatively rare among children. There are estimated to be only about 27,000 blind children in the United States at the present time. The blindness rate among children is only 3.5 per 1,000 of the population. In contrast, the rate for elderly persons is about 33 per 1,000 of the population.

Finally, the term "blindness" refers both to those who are completely without vision and to those who have severe visual impairments but who can see. Only a small number of blind persons are in fact totally blind; a majority of them have some measurable visual acuity. The available data suggest that there is a direct relationship between the amount of visual loss and age. The older a blind person is, the more serious his visual loss is likely to be.

The adequacy and effectiveness of welfare programs can be judged in many ways. One such measure, which will be used in this paper, concerns their completeness. By this I mean the degree to which welfare services are provided for all or most segments of the population in need. From this point of view, service programs for the blind may be regarded as adequate insofar as they reflect, in a general way, the composition of the blind population; correspondingly, they may be regarded as inadequate insofar as they apply only to special segments of the blind population.

It is recognized that this point of view is not commonly accepted among workers for the blind. They have argued that it is more worthwhile to supply services to those blind persons for whom there is the greatest expectation of success. Accordingly, it is held that resources are more wisely devoted to the education and training of blind children than to the care of elderly blind adults; and that it is more logical to aid the employable blind than those who are not employable. This argument is based on the assumption that resources for supporting service programs are limited, and that it is therefore necessary to establish these priorities. In reality, this assumption is generally incorrect in view of the fact that enormous sums of money are expended annually for services to the blind. The argument also contains an erroneous implication: that there is a correspondence between the way in which an individual experiences problems of blindness and the priority which his problems are assigned by the criteria of real or imagined economic and social factors. Because there are economic and social reasons why the problems of blind children might receive priority in service programs, we cannot assume that the older blind person experiences his problems as less serious.

If services for the blind roughly reflect the age and sex distribution of the blind population, then we can expect to find a major portion of the financial and manpower resources of this field invested in programs designed to meet the needs of those who are not expected to be self-supporting, and more particularly of the elderly. Conversely, we would expect that only a small portion of those resources would be invested in programs for educating and training children and employable adults. An analysis of services for the blind in this country reveals that the situation is exactly the opposite.

I made a study of the programs of all direct service agencies listed in a substantially complete directory of agencies for the blind in this country. Seven hundred and ninety-eight separate agencies were identified, 274 of which are private and 520 governmental. Only 9 per cent (71) of these agencies are concerned exclusively with elderly blind persons. By contrast, 67 per cent (529) of the agencies have programs intended primarily for children and employable adults. The remaining 23 per cent (187) are "mixed" agencies, which offer services to blind persons of all ages. The remaining one per cent (11) do not offer direct
services to the blind.

An analysis was made of programs in the 71 agencies and organizations which serve elderly blind persons exclusively. There are 21 domiciles which house and care for about 1,000 elderly blind persons. The remainder of these organizations are state offices responsible for administering the federal-state program of aid to the needy blind. In the mixed agencies, programs for the elderly are almost exclusively recreational, ranging from organized recreational programs to drop-in daytime clubs.

One hundred and thirty-four separate agencies serve blind children exclusively, and 395 agencies have programs primarily concerned with vocational rehabilitation and employment. Although mixed agencies do offer some recreational services to elderly blind persons, the primary emphasis of their programs is unmistakably on children and employable adults. Of the 187 mixed agencies, only a few have a separate division for the elderly blind; by contrast there are almost none which do not have a children's division or a division for employable adults.

These data show a clear bias in work for the blind in favor of children and employable adults and against elderly blind persons. About 90 per cent of agencies in work for the blind place exclusive or primary emphasis upon serving less than one third of the blind population; and only 9 per cent of the agencies are seriously concerning themselves with the bulk of blind persons.

Another important fact is not apparent from these data. Existing programs are not geared to serve all blind persons in a given age group. Numerous services are available for the child who is educable, but there are almost no services for the multiply handicapped child. There are many services for the blind person who is thought to be employable, but few for the one who is thought to be untrainable or for whom employment is an unrealistic goal. Recreation programs for elderly blind persons are located in the agency itself, so that only those older blind persons who are mobile and independent enough to travel can take advantage of them. In effect, programs are geared to serve selected blind persons, and usually those who enjoy the highest probability for success; conversely, most service programs are ill-equipped to assist those for whom success is unlikely.

This systematic bias of work for the blind in favor of young blind children and employable blind adults, and the corresponding neglect of older blind persons, is reflected in another way--in the literature of work for the blind. An analysis was made of all articles which appeared in the New Outlook for the Blind (the principal professional journal of that field) from 1907 to 1963. This study showed that out of 1,069 articles, 36 percent dealt with children, 31 percent with rehabilitation, 15 per cent with braille reading, 17 percent with specific services such as mobility, 21 percent with employment, and only 2 per cent with geriatric problems. In short, 70 percent of the blind population (the elderly) received only 2 percent of the attention of writers in the major professional journal in work for the blind; whereas less than 30 percent of the population (children and employable adults) were discussed in 98 per cent of the analyzed articles.

The reasons for the proliferation of services for a limited segment of the blind population are numerous and complex. I will try to discuss the most significant ones here. First, the same concepts which guided the pioneers of work for the blind 125 years ago make up a large part of contemporary theory. The demographic characteristics of the blind population then differed in several important ways from the present population. The number of persons in the general population who survived childhood and lived to old age was low, and the number of elderly blind persons was therefore correspondingly small. A major cause of blindness in the adult population at that time was industrial accidents. Ordinarily the eyes were the only organs involved, so that adult blind persons were healthy working people whose only handicap was blindness. Substantial numbers of children were blinded at birth because of diseases which specifically affected the eyes.

Because a majority of the blind in the late nineteenth century were children and adults of working age, the concepts in this field stressed education and employment. Through the years, these concepts have not changed in response to changing social, economic, and public health conditions. In addition, workers for the blind have implicitly assumed that these problems of education and employment are inherent to the condition of blindness. They have mistaken these concepts for the problem of blindness itself. The blind to whom the concepts cannot be easily applied are viewed by workers as marginal to the "real work" in services for the blind. This work is believed to be educational and vocational; services for elderly, unemployable, or uneducable blind individuals are regarded as marginal activities. Education and employment are viewed as the only alternative solutions to the problems of the blind. If a person cannot benefit from either service, his problems are defined as unsolvable, and his case is closed. Consequently, elderly blind persons, the multiply handicapped, and the unemployable are considered apart from the "real problems" of blindness, because workers for the blind continue to employ archaic concepts in their service approach.

This tendency to employ archaic concepts can be viewed as a specific instance of a more general tendency by workers for the blind to resist any innovation or change in service programs. In the history of this field, there has been a characteristic and stubborn resistance to the adoption of any mechanical aids, educational devices, or concepts which in any way deviate from the status quo. This tendency is itself a function of a complex set of factors, the nature of which can be only briefly delineated in this article. Essentially work for the blind is a low-prestige profession, one of that category of occupations called "dirty work. " Because the stigma associated with blindness may inadvertently rub off on workers for the blind, this field is unable to attract the top persons in such fields as social work, psychiatry, psychology, education, ophthalmology, and rehabilitation. In fact, in work for the blind, there is an unusual opportunity for individuals with very little formal training to attain positions of great power and responsibility.

This phenomenon has had many consequences for the field, one of which is a tendency to resist change. Many leaders in this field have power which derives from the agencies they control, and from their acquired expertise in certain specific service programs such as braille, mobility, rehabilitation, employment, or education. They lack generic professional training; consequently, it is difficult for them to move from one type of service program for the blind to another, or from services for the blind to services for other types of handicapped persons. Their expertise is highly specialized and is acquired by hard experience. Because of these limitations, little is transferable from traditional services to new ones which are proposed. Consequently, when changes are attempted in existing programs and agencies, such persons are faced with a major loss in power, status, and income. It would be impossible for them to secure comparable positions outside agencies for the blind because assignment to such positions would be based upon formal credentials such as education, rather than upon their specialized skills and acquired status in the field. The person with only a high school education who holds a powerful position in an agency for the blind stands to lose a great deal if that agency changes in any substantial way. Therefore, workers for the blind have traditionally had more intense commitment to the agencies they have built than to the persons whom they serve. Concomitantly, they have tried to maintain the traditional base upon which their power rests and to rationalize these efforts by traditional concepts and theories of the field.

Another cause of client selectivity in service programs for the blind is the fact that agencies are dependent upon the public for financial support. All but a few private agencies rely upon fund-raising appeals to finance their programs, and public agencies are entirely dependent upon annual appropriations from state legislatures and from Congress. In either case, agencies for the blind are in stiff competition with one another, and with hundreds of other charities, for a share of the public's philanthropic dollars.

In this competitive situation, the success of fund-raising campaigns depends upon strong emotional appeals on behalf of the needy. In their fund-raising campaigns, agencies for the blind exploit a certain number of cultural stereotypes in our society. These stereotypes concern blindness, youth, work, and hope. The images of blind persons which are projected in these campaigns are either those of educable children, or of young, employable adults, who can be helped to overcome a serious handicap to become materially productive. These appeals, therefore, leave the unmistakable but erroneous impression that blind people are young, intelligent persons who can be educated and employed. The public has come to expect results which are measurable in these terms. This consequence intensifies the agencies' search for the few blind people who in fact have these personal attributes.

At the same time, agencies are extremely reluctant to begin programs for other groups of blind persons unless there is good reason to believe that these programs will be supported by the public. It is assumed that appeals for funds to help persons from whom only modest gains can be expected, such as elderly blind persons and multiply handicapped children or adults, will not succeed in offsetting the costs of such programs. It has been argued by the agencies that funds obtained through appeals on behalf of blind children and employable adults can be partly diverted to support programs for other groups of blind persons. However, programs for children and employable adults involve enormous capital investments. These investments require increasing sums of money annually for maintenance and growth purposes. One consequence, therefore, of successful fund raising has been that more and more money is needed simply to keep programs going.

I have compared the distribution of services for the blind in this country to the demographic characteristics of the blind population, and I have tried to indicate some of the reasons there is such a discrepancy between them. Now I want to consider another question--the avowed purpose of all programs for the blind to help the individual blind person to function as independently as he can. The question therefore arises, "What is the actual impact of agency programs upon those blind persons who do receive services?"

Since there are only about 950,000 blind persons in the entire country, the number of visually impaired individuals living in any particular geographical area is usually quite small. It is estimated that there are only about 40,000 to 50,000 blind persons in all of New York City, only about 10,000 in Philadelphia, and only about 14,000 blind persons in the Boston metropolitan area. Yet, there are over 700 separate agencies and organizations for the blind in this country, a majority of which are situated in large urban areas. New York City has 50 separate organizations for the blind, 38 of which offer direct services; Philadelphia has 14 major direct agencies; and there are 13 major agencies in the greater metropolitan area of Boston. Since a majority of these agencies offer services only to children and/or employable adults, there is obviously a very high ratio of agencies to clients. In New York City, for example, three major agencies and six smaller ones offer direct social and educational services to an estimated 1,000 blind children living in the area. Even if we assume that none of these children are multiply handicapped (which we cannot), the agency-client ratio is very large indeed. Twenty-two different organizations and agencies provide direct rehabilitation and vocational services to an estimated 13, 000 blind persons who are of working age. This figure is inflated somewhat when we consider that between 50 and 60 percent of blind persons 18-54 years of age are women, for whom employment is not always a realistic or appropriate objective. Eleven other organizations specialize in the production and distribution of braille books and recordings for the blind. In addition, a number of state and federal services are available to the blind of New York City.

The disproportionately large number of agencies offering services has many consequences for blind persons, agencies for the blind, and for the community which supports them. One consequence is an intense and often highly spirited competition for clients among agencies for the blind. In some instances, this competition has become so keen that outside parties have had to intervene to protect the welfare of those involved. The pirating of clients is not unknown, and great conflict between agencies ordinarily occurs in urban areas which have not been previously assigned to the competing agencies.

The intense and sometimes ruthless competition between these agencies for clients who fit their programs affects the agency's relationship to its clients. When an agency has the opportunity to provide services to a blind person who is suitable for its program, it is reluctant to let him go. The chances of finding a replacement for the client who leaves are not always good, and without a substantial number of clients on hand, the agency may find it difficult to justify its expenditures to the supporting public. Clients are encouraged to organize their lives around the agency. Employment is secured for them in the agency's sheltered workshop, free recreational services are provided by the agency on an indefinite basis, and residential homes are maintained for them. Gradually, a greater and greater portion of the client's contact with the larger community becomes mediated, and often determined by the agency, until the blind person is literally sequestered from the community. At this point, the agency completely negates its original objective, which is to help the blind persons to become independent.

DISCUSSION

My analysis indicates that programs of services for the blind are often more responsive to the organizational needs of agencies through which services are offered, than they are to the needs of blind persons. Moreover, by sequestering certain blind persons from the community, agencies for the blind are actually contributing to the very problems which they purport to be solving. The sociological concept which most appropriately applies to this phenomena is "displacement of organizational goals." This concept describes a situation in which an organization "substitutes for its legitimate goals some other goals for which it was not created, for which resources are not allocated, and for which it is not known to serve."

This phenomenon, which has been observed in a variety of organizational settings, has been attributed to a number of factors, including the selection of organizational means and policies which preclude implementation of the goals, the effects of bureaucracy on the personality and motivation of those who work in it. elimination of the problems for which the organization was originally established, and the requirement of the bureaucratic structure for resources and manpower. The findings of a larger study of work for the blind, of which the data of this paper are but one part, suggest that each of these factors plays a part in accounting for goal displacement in this field. In addition, another factor is suggested: the absence of any clear criteria by which to determine if the agency is or is not implementing its objectives.

It is generally agreed that the purpose of agencies for the blind is to help blind persons to maximize their ability to perform independently. Rehabilitation, which is a core service in any agency, seeks to restore the blind person "to the fullest physical, mental, social, vocational, and economic usefulness of which he is capable. " The phrase "of which he is capable" is a crucial modifier, since there is no consensus among workers for the blind regarding what a blind person can or cannot do. In practice, this definition is often used tautologically, since any level of performance which a blind person happens to attain is regarded as the one "of which he is capable. " It is difficult, and at times impossible, to know if an agency for the blind is actually attaining its goals.

Using the definitions often employed by workers for the blind, every client they serve is a successful case. By other criteria, such as amount of independent employment or degree of participation in the larger community, the conclusions with respect to the implementation of goals are more modest. In addition, when a blind person performs in a manner which everyone agrees is his maximum level of independence, it is difficult to demonstrate concretely that his independence is a result of the services which he has received. By the same token, when he is not functioning at a level believed to be his maximum, it is not known if this is because services have been inadequate, or because he is a victim of the erroneous beliefs of the larger society about blindness and its effects on human functioning. There is, therefore, a great amount of uncertainty concerning whether an agency is or is not attaining its goals. Criteria of measurement are nebulous, and so many factors might explain success or failure that it is impossible to demonstrate conclusively that a given agency has in fact implemented its goals.

A preoccupation with organizational means is one of the responses to the uncertainty which is generated by this situation. Over the years an intense interest has developed in the refinement of administrative procedures of service programs. This interest has been accompanied by a growing disinterest in the more fundamental questions concerning the necessity for a particular service, or its impact upon the client. This preoccupation with administrative procedures provides workers with a feeling of certainty and accomplishment which would not otherwise exist. Since most workers for the blind are not professionally trained, and their competency to help the blind is therefore continually being challenged, we can see that this uncertainty regarding goal attainment is intensified. As a defense against this situation, workers bury themselves in the administrative details of their jobs. This preoccupation ultimately leads to the displacement of the organizations goals.

Ironically, the tendency toward the displacement of goals is not entirely dysfunctional when viewed from the perspective of the general public. There is a general resistance among most "normals" to becoming involved with stigmatized persons such as the blind, and avoidance is the characteristic initial response. The blind have always complained that they are segregated from the rest of society, and that they are assigned a marginal and unsatisfying social role. The tendency of agencies for the blind to sequester certain clients (i.e. , those for whom there is the greatest probability of integration into the larger community) is consistent with the desire of the public to avoid blind persons. This response, of course, is not unique in welfare services for the blind; it applies with equal cogency to other groups of persons who are defined as disabled, handicapped, or otherwise socially undesirable. The very fact that agencies for the blind exist creates a repository into which the blind may be placed by the larger community. Consequently, the fact that goals are displaced may have unfortunate consequences for particular blind persons, but not necessarily for society at large.

Finally, it should be clear that there is no nationally or regionally coordinated effort to provide services for blind persons. Since agencies must compete with one another for funds and clients, they do not ordinarily coordinate their activities with respect to the problems of the entire population in need of them. Nor, for that matter, do they even possess a clear image of the parameters of that population. A deliberately coordinated national effort is clearly indicated as one important step to remedy the present unnecessary duplication of effort among agencies which are committed to the same general goals.

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NFB STUDENT DIVISION NEWS

by Judy Young

One of the main efforts of the Student Division since the NFB convention in Los Angeles has been to compile and edit a "Handbook for Blind College Students." Libraries and rehabilitation agencies throughout the country, as well as many Federation leaders, gave us a great deal of valuable information and assistance in the project. The primary purpose of the "Handbook" is to suggest a variety of methods and techniques that will help students to deal more successfully with some of the common problems facing blind persons in college. Besides "Tips on Techniques," the book includes discussions on the utilization of library and rehabilitation services; available sources for having books transcribed in Braille, on tape or in large type; and the need for and positive effect of organizations of blind students. Appendices in the "Handbook" include lists of regional libraries and the areas they serve, agencies in each state from which talking book machines can be borrowed, recognized Braille presses, and some companies that will enlarge print books.

Each person whose name appears in the current Directory of Blind Students will receive a copy of the "Handbook" in the near future. However, the Student Division will be glad to send copies to anyone who would like them. We encourage directors or employees of rehabilitation agencies, for example, to distribute the "Handbook" to their students, as far as this is possible. No one should hesitate to request as many issues as can be used. All such requests should be sent to: Judy Young, P.O. Box 465, Dunkerton, Iowa 50626,

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THE NETHERLANDS SOCIETY FOR THE BLIND IN 1966

From the official annual report we extract:

1. This report, on the twentieth year after the establishment of our society, has led us to cast a look back, in order to get a survey of history; to that, what was desirable in 1947, and to what has been achieved by now. Circumstances have changed, and so the society had to adapt to them. The "battle" as it had to be fought before 1950, is over and among the other organisations in the field of blindness, our young society was in the foremost ranks, not only for the benefit of the blind, but also for that of handicapped in general.

Since those "days of yore" some very important Acts have been effectuated in this country, of which we give a list here; the two Acts last mentioned are to be realised in the course of 1968.

a. Public Act on Old-Age Pension

b. Public Act on Pension for Widows and Orphans

c. Public Assistance Act

d. Unemployability Act

e. General Heavy Medical Expense Insurance Act

f. Act on Social Employment

Sometimes it appeared to be a disadvantage that in these Acts the blind no longer are regarded as a separate group, but that more and more they are incorporated in arrangements for the handicapped in general. Consequently, our work has become less spectacular, though not less important; this is proved by the interest the Government is showing in our activities and opinions so that a regular and fruitful contact could be maintained.

Of course, tasks were taken up we cannot yet report of, while we also know that new tasks are waiting, especially in the field of visually handicapped old-aged persons, and regarding the employment possibilities for blind workers, for whom new jobs will have to be found, now that automatisation takes away some of the old ones.

2. Our general meeting was held at Utrecht, on December 14. All member-organisations were represented, 4 new ones were admitted to the society, so that the total number now amounts to 46. For the larger part, the meeting had a domestic character. However, an important debate was held concerning the white cane. The new year would teach soon that this debate had been very important indeed.

3. Our foreign representative and several other interested persons attended the meeting of the European Regional Committee of WCWB at Geneva, Switzerland, on October 29 and 30. An item tabled by us, on possibilities for centralisation or cooperation in the making of devices, had good attention and plans were made for a conference in Sweden by March 1967. Many official and unofficial contacts were made or renewed.

4. Of the interior committees, the Library Committee again showed its great value as meeting centre for the libraries for the blind. A system, preventing the reading on tape of the same book in more than one library, was completed. The Queen Juliana Fund opened the possibility to provide a tape-reader with a recorder, should he not get one through the Public Assistance Act or not be able to pay for it himself, or to find other funds. From now on, it is also possible for tape-readers, to get plays, recorded during the performance, on tape, by the help of a stage organisation, and through the blind's libraries.

The Propaganda Committee this year also aimed to raise funds for a part of the social work among the newly blinded, and to raise funds for a new rehabilitation centre. Results were not as satisfactory as they were in previous years, so it was decided that we should look for new methods. A new committee was established, in order to look for and to give an opinion about new devices.

5. The national government issued a new traffic code, in which is mentioned that "a blind person provided with a blind's cane should get free passage." Though not entirely to our desire, we think that this paragraph is the beginning of a real legal protection of blind pedestrians. Experts from our country and from Belgium met on November 22, and formulated an instruction for blind pedestrians, adapted to the code.

6. Our annual study conference was held on November 3 and 4. The future of braille, blind's welfare in Sweden, traffic, and the influence of the organisations of the blind, were subjects for the lectures. For the second one, Mrs. K. Lundstrom of the Swedish Ministry of Health held a most informative speech. The conference was attended to by 225 persons,

7. Our devices department delivered 489 tape recorders, which is 28 more than the year before, and 245 braillewriters, which is 46 more than in 1965. The other devices were delivered in quantities, in the aggregate equal to those of 1965.

The Netherlands Society for the Blind is the central master organisation of almost all organisations of and for the blind in the Netherlands. The Society has no individuals as members, but those are organisations working from the blind themselves, or in their benefit.

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IBM OFFERS ELECTRIC TYPEWRITER THAT PRINTS BRAILLE

The International Business Machines Corporation introduced a new electric typewriter that types in Braille. It is said to be the only powered typewriter for individual use in Braille, the international language for the blind. Anyone who knows how to type can operate the new machine. The person who can see does not need to know Braille since the keyboard is similar to those on standard typewriters The Braille character. . . is an arrangement of raised dots indicating a letter or other symbol. The keyboard on the new IBM Braille typewriter functions basically the same as those on a standard keyboard. However, instead of printing the various characters normal to the eye, they print the Braille cells. K a mistake is made, each raised dot must be erased by flattening it manually. With the new IBM machine, corrections are made with an "erase" lever which, when struck, flattens the incorrect cell. The typist then strikes the correct character. The machine is priced at $490, the same as a standard electric typewriter. It will be sold to schools for $375 and to Government agencies for $441. Initial deliveries will be made around June 1.

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BILKED BLIND MAN BARS YOUTH ARREST

by Alfred E. Lewis
Washington Post
Staff Writer

Jan. 19, 1968

An 18-year-old youth handed Clyde Kelsey a bill in payment for a pack of cigarettes at the snack bar Kelsey operates as a lobby concession at the D.C. Municipal Center.

"This is a $5 bill," the youth told Kelsey, who is 60 years old and blind. Routinely, Kelsey flashed the bill towards his sighted assistant for confirmation, but the assistant was busy too with the noon rush hour at the little stand. So Kelsey put the bill aside and gave the youth the change for a $5 bill.

The youth joined a friend at the other side of the lobby, next to another concession operated as a shoeshine stand by Al Fowler, 35, known to all his policeman customers as "Slim. " Fowler said he overheard the youth's boast to his friend that he had gotten $4, some change and a pack of cigarettes for his $1 bill from the blind man.

As Slim hurried over to Kelsey's stand to verify the cigarette transaction, the 18-year-old bolted through lines of policemen reporting into headquarters at 300 Indiana Ave. N.W. Slim pursued the youth, shouting, "thief!"

The pursuit picked up a police cadet and a few policemen and it led across Judiciary Square and through the Court of General Sessions into the 500 block of G Street N.W., where the youth gave up.

He was turned over to First Precinct Det. Ray Pierson who was processing him on a larceny-by-trick charge when he dropped by Kelsey's stand to advise him of the capture and the recovery of the money and cigarettes.

Ascertaining that the youth had no previous police record, Kelsey suggested that Pierson lecture him instead of arresting him.

"A police record," Kelsey told the detective, "should never be started, and I'm not going to pass up this chance to keep one from being started."

Pierson's lecture lasted 10 minutes.

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WHITE CANE IN BLACK AFRICA

Letter from Isabelle Grant

Dear Chick:

The rain is coming down in sheets, dwarfing anything I have even experienced during our worst floods in California. But this is a tropical rain, so I suppose typical. Yesterday on a boat ride up the Zambesi, the oohs and aahs of the tourists were enough to tell me of the elephants coming down to water at the edge of the river, the group of five hippos peacefully lined up at the edge, alligators breaking the surface of the water and then diving down, and the iguanas seemingly visible from the small boat, basking on the patches of sand between the bush and the river. This has been a rare experience, and I would not attempt to describe the Falls at this time. They could not be described by any words that I could muster up.

I had the privilege of having tea with Cyril and Mary Forrest. Cyril is the author of the enclosed pamphlet, a student of tribal life, and particularly of the Matabele tribe located here. He has compiled all his lore and formed this fantastic village, which I visited in every one of its mud huts, made of any hill dirt now become as hard as cement, and the dung covered floors, with the dung beaten into the dirt below. I thought that you might consider my suggestion to have this pamphlet brailled and included in a coming issue of the MONITOR, or as a supplement, for I am sure that our folks would be interested in this most unusual section of the world and its peoples. I had Cyril write me the enclosed note giving us permission, and including a greeting to blind persons, our readers over the world. Going from hut to hut, handling the spears, shields, beer jars, kaffir corn porridge bowls, and speaking with several of the Matabele and Shona tribesmen through an interpreter were just too much to keep to myself.

The tribesmen were much more interested in the fact that I, as a blind woman, was out traveling alone. They were entranced by my folding cane. Their blind remain in the huts, or sit and beg, or receive food to keep themselves alive, from their fellow tribesmen. The blind children are just there, and nothing is done about them Be it said, however, that first steps are being taken to take notice of these children, and where the parents allow it, to get them into an integrated class if there is one in the vicinity, I understand that about forty blind children are in this kind of set-up through the efforts of representatives here of the Royal Commonwealth Society-London. I interviewed Mr. Martin, who is in charge of the program in Bulawayo, under John Wilson and the Royal Commonwealth Society. The job is so enormous, the bush so impassable, the parents themselves illiterate, and communication difficult, that progress is necessarily slow. My, we have a long way to go, but step one is to find out where we are.

The deluge, the noise of the Falls, and the thunder make this quite a morning. In the afternoon, I take the plane for Salisbury, on my way to Malawi.

Affectionately, Isabelle

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GREETINGS FROM MARY AND CYRIL FORREST

It is with the greatest pleasure that I give you permission to braille the brochure on the Craft Village at Victoria Falls with personal greetings from my wife and myself to all the blind of the world through the kindness of Dr. Isabelle Grant.

Mary and Cyril Forrest
January 22, 1968

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CRAFT VILLAGE, VICTORIA FALLS

Villages such as this only came into being in the last quarter of the 19th century, as prior to then, the Matabele people were warriors. Settled family units were unknown because the Matabele lived by plunder and their raiding parties struck terror in the hearts of other tribes as far east as Mozambique and north to Barotseland. The King of the Barotses actually asked Queen Victoria of Britain for protection against those warring hordes.

It is no wonder therefore that Lobengula,* the last king of the Mata- bele, was able to relax his laws and permit some of his senior soldiers to break away, take wives, and settle down in villages. This village is *We are grateful to Kumalo, an aged Matabele and one of the very few direct descendants of this Royal line, for his guidance on authentic details in the construction of this village. typical of those original ones and remains unchanged to the present day. Every effort has been made to keep the village entirely authentic in design and construction. This is really the home of one man, his three wives and their children.

HUT NO. 1

This is always the most respectable of all huts in the village. Usually more care is taken in its siting and building as the head of the family lives here and he is the undisputed leader at all times. It is the only hut with a "verandah", where the man sits, usually alone, or with a visitor from another village, and discusses and drinks beer, attended by one of his three wives.

Polygamy was of course practised and still is. This particular man has three wives [Huts Nos. 2, 3, and 4]. Each wife takes turns at attending the husband for periods varying from one week to two weeks. No wife knows the time-table, as even this decision is made by the husband. The chosen wife is instructed to go to the hut and make up his bed. This is usually early in the day, and the outgoing wife, realising that her period of attendance is terminated, thoroughly sweeps and cleans the hut. It is also the outgoing wife's responsibility to go to the cattle kraal (paddock) and collect fresh dung. This she mixes with water to a fine paste and spreads it thinly over the floor. Often she creates designs in this "polish" with her fingers. Thus the hut remains "fresh" for her successor.

HUTS NOS. 2, 3, and 4

These are the sleeping quarters of the three wives and are identical. As the man takes more wives, he builds more huts in the same line (four or even five wives is not uncommon even today amongst the wealthier people). It will be noted at this stage that all the doors in a Matabele village face the setting sun, whilst all the windows face eastwards, although the rule about windows is not strictly adhered to in most villages today [see example in this village]. Even the gates to cattle and sheep kraals follow this pattern and face the west. We are unable to establish when this ruling came into being or why. The suggestion that the sun's rays shining through the windows served as an alarm clock each morning is hardly feasible, as the windows are set too high in the walls.

HUTS NOS. 5, 6 and 7

These are the kitchens, and here it will be noticed that Wife No. 1 has some priority, as her kitchen [Hut No. 7] is much larger than the others. Each kitchen has two windows, possibly to disperse the smell of cooking. Each wife's kitchen is directly in front of her sleeping hut.

Although each wife cooks the meals for herself and her own children in her own kitchen, the food is carried always to the large kitchen of the first wife, to be eaten. Everyone eats in this kitchen [Hut No. 7] except the husband who eats alone in his hut, or on his verandah, and his food is cooked and served by whichever of his wives is attending him at that particular time. When a beast is slaughtered, the meat is taken to this large kitchen of the first wife, and distributed from there.

It is interesting to note that when a man takes a new wife, she is not permitted to attend the husband in any way, until she has first passed a probationary training period with the first wife, who is usually an older woman. During this "apprenticeship", which sometimes lasts as long as three months, she is taught how to cook properly and all the husband's likes and dislikes. When the first wife considers the apprenticeship is at an end, she discreetly informs the husband, who then builds the new wife a kitchen of her own and from that time she is firmly established in the household. Responsibility for the new wife's cooking not being up to standard rests with the first wife, although rebukes of this nature are rare.

HUTS NOS. 8 and 9

These are the children's huts. No. 8 represents the hut of the male offspring and No. 9 that of the female offspring of all three wives. These small constructions are used as sleeping accommodation only. The children, of course, all play together, and are considered full brothers and sisters. In inclement weather, the girls assemble for indoor games in the kitchen of the second wife [Hut No. 6], and the boys in the kitchen of the third wife [Hut No. 5], It is a rigid custom that after each meal, and particularly the evening meal, the children go to their parents to give thanks.

The eldest son is given his very own hut on reaching manhood, but not so with any other children. Additional boys' or girls' huts are only built if and when the family increases in size, but these additional huts are never built any larger than the original ones.

HUT NO. 10--The Visitor's Hut

The Matabele, even today, are particularly hospitable to their own tribesmen, and even go so far as to construct a special hut for visitors. It is the responsibility of the young girls to keep this hut clean. If they are not old enough, then the youngest wife has this task. Overall supervision and responsibility, however, rests with the oldest or No. 1 wife.

Moral standards are high amongst most primitive African tribes, and in the primitive state, the Matabele are no exception. Although the visitor's hut is quite a large construction, when a large number of visitors arrive of both sexes, the boys move out of their hut into the visitors' hut with the men, leaving their accommodation for the female visitors. If the female visitors outnumber the males, it is the girls who move in with the visitors, giving their hut to the male visitors.

The one exception to the rule of the husband eating alone is when he is visited by one of his older brothers, who is then invited to join him.

Meals for visitors are served on two dishes, one for the males and one for the females. All eat from the same dish without cutlery.

HUTS NOS. 11, 12 and 13

These are the kraals for the animals, which are driven in each night. As mentioned earlier, the gates face westwards. These animal pens are always built at the western side of the homestead, as the prevailing wind is from the east and the animal smells are to a large extent taken away from the village.

Where a village is built on a sloping ground, as is seen here, the smaller enclosure for calves is always built uphill. When cattle are penned for a long time, or in the rainy season, the cattle kraal becomes very muddy, and the younger cattle are at least somewhat protected by being separated from the larger ones by being uphill.

The sheep and goat kraal [Hut no. 13] is almost invariably built on the side of the cattle kraal to save labour and one "wall", and it is made with upright poles, unlike the cattle kraal. Hyenas, which are not at all dangerous to cattle, except perhaps a young or sick calf lost in the veld, do not think twice about taking a young goat or a lamb, and the sheep and goat kraal is constructed thus for protection at night.

HUTS NOS. 14, 15 and 16

Even today, despite the influence of the white man, very little stress is laid on the keeping of domestic fowl by the Matabele. The constructions are rather primitive and are made only to give the hens somewhere to roost at night and to protect them from rain. In most villages, there is one communal chicken coop, and each wife marks her chickens by cutting off a particular claw joint (first, second or third, as the case may be). Having separate chicken coops for each wife does, however, now exist to a large extent, and it will be noted that the coops decrease in size from Wife No. 1 to Wife No. 3, similar to the grain storage bins. Arrangements for nest boxes are very seldom made and the hens usually lay their eggs and hatch their chickens under the grain storage bins. Occasionally a hen is given as a present to one of the wives by her parents, or, with the permission of the husband, who really is overall owner of everything, she may be permitted to exchange some of her crops for a hen or two with the people in neighbouring villages.

GRAIN BINS NOS. 17, 18 and 19

Like the chicken coops, it will be noted that these also decrease in size from the first wife onwards, signifying the wealth of the particular wife. Under normal circumstances, as the first wife has been longer established, it is likely that she has more children old enough to help with the planting and harvesting of crops. Similarly, she has had more years of breeding chickens and requires a larger coop.

Each grain bin is divided into sections for maize (the staple diet), ropoco, munga, groundnuts, etc. The only entrance is a trap door on the roof and the wives lift in the children, who scoop out for her whatever is required to prepare a meal; after which they are lifted out again, and the trap door is closed.

ALLOCATION OF DUTIES IN VILLAGE CONSTRUCTION

When a hut needs to be renovated or rebuilt altogether, or in earlier times when a man decided to move his village to another site, all his family were required to help. The man and his older sons cut the poles for the walls and roof and erect the building. The younger sons herd the cattle by day and put them in at night. The wives and daughters cut the grass for thatching and comb it in readiness for the men to thatch. The man finds the fibre from the bark of trees to bind the structure together, and for the roof and door.

The wives and daughters carry the soil of an anthill to the site in baskets, and mix this with water to plaster the walls and floor. The walls are always plastered inside and for a short distance down on the outside under the eaves of the thatch. In later years the base of the outside of the walls is also plastered and occasionally, but very rarely, the whole of the outside of the walls.

TAKING A WIFE

The system of "lobola" {payment to a woman's parents) has changed considerably in the past half century. Originally when a man took a wife, no specific amount of money was fixed by his parents-in-law until after the birth of children (usually after the birth of the second child). In cases where the parents-in-law were reasonably wealthy, it was not uncommon for lobola to be paid when the eldest child was about 12 years old and, in fact, sometimes 15 years old. Nevertheless, the custom was always rigidly adhered to and when the man was long in paying, or simply made no attempt to pay, he was reminded of his obligations by a visit from his mother-in-law, who asked her daughter for permission to take the eldest child home with her for a short visit. The fact that the child was kept with its grandparents for several weeks was a subtle reminder to the husband. If he still made no attempt, even at explanation, the second child was taken and so on. The children then worked for the grandfather, herding cattle. If, however, the man wished to pay or wished to explain why he could not pay, he chose a close friend to go and discuss the matter with his father-in-law. No direct discussion on the subject ever took place between the two men, as that was considered in bad taste.

The present-day system is quite different. When a young man wishes to marry, a price of cattle and possessions is fixed by the parents for their daughter. Usually the financial standing of the suitor has been gauged and the price is normally just within his capabilities--if he is considered a suitable young man for their daughter. Even today, despite the influence of the white man, throughout the territory the system of lobola is as strong as before, and is mostly reckoned in cattle and cash. An average price for a bride is 10 cattle and £.15 in cash, amounting in total to between £l50 and £200 (U. S. $425.00 and U. S. $575.00).

Frequently the marriage is permitted to take place if only a deposit of the cash and half the number of cattle has been paid. Every attempt must be made to pay over the remaining cattle as soon as possible and certainly not later than five years after the marriage.

If lobola is paid and the woman does not bear children, her younger sister or niece is told to go and live with her and bear children to the man. This girl now becomes another wife. In such cases no lobola is paid for this woman and both are kept as wives.

PREGNANCY AND THE BIRTH OF CHILDREN

Immediately a wife knows she is pregnant, she informs the husband, who kills a goat to provide the wife with its skin as maternity wear. This skin is known as "ingcayo".

In maternity wear, the wife does not move about in public. She stays close to her kitchen and sleeping quarters and does no hard work. Pregnant women are very highly respected and are kept free from annoyance of any kind.

Shortly before the delivery of the baby, the wife sends her husband to call her mother, or if her mother is dead, some other older female relative to act as midwife. After birth, the child's umbilical cord is tied and smeared with anthill soil for some days. The mother of a newly born child does not move about at all until the umbilical cord drops off.

During this time she only leaves her hut under cover of darkness, and even then completely covers her head and body with a large "kaross" or blanket. Afterwards, however, she moves about freely in public and she and the baby are then the centre of attraction.

It is the grandmother's privilege to name the child, and well-wishers now pour into the home from surrounding villages, bringing presents of maize and other grains, chickens and sun-dried meat. In the evening the child is taken outside in its mother's arms and shown the moon, and the mother and grandmother utter remarks such as, "behold your comrade". If the child is born during moonless nights, this ceremony is postponed until the next quarter of the moon.

At this stage another goat is killed to provide meat and a soup called "umhluzi" is prepared from the internal organs for the mother to drink. A cradle is made for the baby from the skin of this second goat. No cradle is ever made for a child before it is born, as this practice is thought to bring evil to the youngster.

CARE OF THE SICK AND THE DEAD

When a person becomes seriously ill, all the relatives meet together to call on the spirits, in whose power everything rests, to relieve the pain and suffering. In the case of an elderly person who has suffered long from an apparently incurable disease, the spirits are requested to take him and receive their child in safety. A black ox is slaughtered, its gall mixed with its urine, and the mixture is sprinkled on the sick person's body as an act of farewell to someone they now wish to be rested.

The corpse is never taken out through the door, but an opening is made in the wall of the hut and the corpse is borne through that to the grave. Branches and leaves of a tree called "umphafa" are placed on top of the grave as a mark of respect.

SHARING OF INHERITANCE

On the death of the head of a family, the full responsibilities fall on the eldest son. A full year after the death, all the near and distant relatives meet to share the deceased's property. Most is taken by the eldest son, who is now called by his father's name, and, if he so wishes, he may take his father's younger wives to be his own.

The eldest son is now undisputed head of the family and the family continue to live as a unit until the younger brothers and sisters marry and move away. Lobola earned at the marriage of the girls is sometimes used to obtain wives for the brothers. If the deceased has a brother still alive, in the case of any dispute over the distribution of property, this uncle can be called in as mediator. This necessity, however, is rare, and occasions when a tribal chief has to be called in to settle such disputes are rarer still.

WIFE'S POSSESSIONS

Shortly after taking a wife the husband gives her a cow which is called "isengelo" (literally translated meaning "for milk"). The future progeny of such animals forms the inheritance for her children, as all the man's possessions go to his eldest son. The same practice obtains with the sheep, goats and fowls given to the wives by their husband or their relatives, or purchased by the wives in exchange for grain with the husband's permission.

In rare cases where a man has no sons, he herds the cattle himself or hires someone to work for him. A common form of wages for this work is to give a young heifer to the employee for four or five years' labour.

WEALTH

A man's wealth is determined by the number of cattle he possesses, and although the system of barter has almost entirely disappeared, the present-day people are still inclined to look on cattle as riches and reckon values by their equivalent in cattle.

As lobola is paid by cattle, and as this particular man, after having taken three wives, still has kraals large enough for approximately 20 cattle and 30 sheep and goats, we can consider him to have above-average wealth.

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HEW REVEALS FIVE WELFARE PRIORITIES

(Reprinted from the Oakland Tribune, Feb. 19, 1968)

WASHINGTON (UPI)--The Department of Health, Education and Welfare announced a list of "national priorities" for welfare and public assistance programs.

Mary E. Switzer, the federal social and rehabilitation administrator, announced the five priorities at a national meeting of state officials in the fields of welfare, medical care, child health, vocational rehabilitation and aging.

Miss Switzer said the priorities were drawn up following passage of Social Security Act amendments by Congress late last year. HEW officials planned to confer with the state officials during a three -day conference to work out details of implementing the priorities.

The five priorities, which officials said had equal value:

--Increasing the number of people rehabilitated by state and local public assistance and vocational rehabilitation agencies, with particular emphasis on the socially disadvantaged.

--Expanded programs for older people to prevent and alleviate financial and social dependency.

--High quality day care programs for children to enable other family members to seek training and employment.

--Increased programs for the early identification, diagnosis and treatment of children with handicapping conditions, thus preventing more serious problems later in life.

--Nationwide availability of family planning programs.

Administration officials said the states must either allocate more money for welfare aid to dependent children or face possible across-the-board reductions in all federal welfare assistance.

HEW, citing the "freeze" on Aid to Dependent Children which Congress imposed last year, told state welfare administrators in a directive that the states must plan on spending more to make up for the federal reduction or prepare for slashes in all forms of welfare assistance.

This was the gist of a draft of new federal regulations covering the changes in welfare laws under last year's amendments to the Social Security Act.

The new law, effective July 1, places a ceiling on the number of dependent children eligible for federal aid in any individual state.

The draft told the states they could follow one of two courses in meeting the problem: Make up the difference with state money for children no longer covered, or cut benefit payments for everybody to provide money for the children dropped from the federal rolls.

In no case, HEW said, could a state simply stop benefit payments for the children no longer eligible for the federal benefits.

If a state chooses to devise some method to avoid increases in its own welfare costs, the department said, it could reduce the benefit payments for all dependent children on welfare.

One reason for congressional action in freezing welfare Aid to Dependent Children came to light when it was disclosed that a "dramatic" increase in the number of families on relief was partly responsible for a $1. 1 billion mistake in estimating federal welfare payments by government experts.

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BLIND TOUR TO EUROPE--FRANKLIN TRAVEL, INC.

TOTAL COST: $999.00 (based on double occupancy)

NOTE: EACH FIVE TOUR MEMBERS WILL HAVE ONE GUIDE FOR SIGHTSEEING AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES .

MON. JULY 29--PHILADELPHIA

Leave Philadelphia International Airport at 8:10 PM aboard Air France Flight 038 for the overnight trans -Atlantic Jet flight to Europe.

TUE. JULY 30--PARIS/ LONDON

Arrive Paris at 8:2 AM and connect immediately with your 1-hour flight to London. Our representative will meet you upon arrival and will provide assistance in transferring by private motorcoach directly to HOTEL PRESIDENT.

Balance of morning and afternoon at leisure.

Theatre tickets will be provided this evening for one of the outstanding performances on the famous London stage.

WED. JULY 31--LONDON

On this morning's tour of London you will visit the Houses of Parliament, where you will learn how law is made in the United Kingdom, and Westminster Abbey, built in the Xlllth century and is the crowning and burial place of the Kings of England for centuries past. A large number of historical treasures are contained here, including the sword, helmet, and saddle of Henry V. Listen to the chimes of Big Ben as your motorcoach continues down the Mall via Hyde Park and New Scotland Yard to Buckingham Palace, the Royal Residence, where you will thrill to the pageantry of the Changing of the Guard.

In the afternoon a lecture will be given by a member of the American Embassy on the political and economic position of Britain today.

THU. AUGUST 1--LONDON

Morning at leisure.

The first visit on this afternoon's tour will be the magnificent St. Paul's Cathedral. You will feel the majesty of this great cathedral, as you walk through the spacious aisles. Funeral services of Sir Winston Churchill took place here. Continue along Fleet Street and Cheapside past Bow Church and the Bank of England to the famous Tower of London, where the notorious history of England will seem to come alive.

FRI. AUGUST 2--LONDON

Today embark on a memorable tour to Stratford-on-Avon. First stop on this history-crammed tour is Oxford University. Drive down "the High" one of the most impressive streets in the world housing one beautiful college after another. Continue to Stratford for a visit of Shakespeare's birthplace and Anne Hathaway's Cottage. The highlight of the day will be attendance of a Shakespeare production at Memorial Theatre in Stratford.

SAT. AUGUST 3--LONDON

Full day at leisure. There will be ample time today for shopping, relaxing, a ride on the Underground or a cruise on the river Thames.

SUN. AUGUST 4--LONDON

Day at leisure for church services and independent activities. Guides will be available throughout the day.

In the evening tickets will be provided for another of London's popular stage plays.

MON. AUGUST 5--LONDON/ ZURICH/ LUCERNE

Transfer to the airport and leave London at 10:15 AM via Swissair Flight 901 to Zurich. Our representative will meet you upon arrival and assist you to your waiting motorcoach for the short drive to Lucerne HOTEL EUROPA.

TUE. AUGUST 6--LUCERNE

Today's exciting excursion begins with a smooth 1-hour cruise across Lake Lucerne to Alpnachstad at the foot of Mt. Pilatus. Then--up into the sky--by rackpinion railway to Pilatus Kulm, 1-1/3 miles above sea level. You will be exhilarated by the freshness of the mountain air and perhaps be able to hear the tinkle of cow bells on the animals grazing on the mountainside.

WED. AUGUST 7--LUCERNE

This morning's tour includes visiting the "Lion of Lucerne"--a sculpture carved in honor of the Swiss who made a last attempt to save Marie Antoinette, and the medieval town walls--remains of fortifications of the 14th and 15th centuries. Walk across the old wooden Chapel Bridge and the Spreuer Bridge, both decorated with interesting paintings. As you walk through the narrow streets gaily decorated with the flags of the many cantons, you will know you are in the heart of Switzerland.

Afternoon at leisure. A shopping expedition might be fun--Lucerne abounds with cuckoo clocks and native Swiss handicrafts. Perhaps you may want to relax for the afternoon beside one of the city's many lovely gardens.

THU. AUGUST 8--LUCERNE/ ZURICH/ROME

Leave Lucerne by motorcoach this morning for the drive to Zurich. Upon arrival proceed to the airport and leave Zurich at 12:35 PM via Swissair Flight 604 to Rome. Arrive at 3:00 PM. Transfer to HOTEL BOSTON.

This evening enjoy dinner at the lovely Casini delle Rose located in the heart of Borghese Park.

FRI. AUGUST 9--ROME

Brief morning visit to Vatican City. Visit the famed Sistine Chapel and several important galleries. An Audience with Pope Paul will be requested following the tour.

Afternoon at leisure. Guides available for those who won't want to miss a visit to the Spanish Steps.

Tickets will be requested for this evening's performance at the most famous open-air Opera in the world--the Baths of Caracalla.

SAT, AUGUST 10 --ROME Morning at leisure.

This afternoon your tour takes you first to Capitol Hill (City Hall). Then to the old Roman Forum to become acquainted with the Imperial Fora, Marcellus Theatre. Temple of Jupiter, Temple of Vesta, etc. Visit the Colosseum and imagine the excitement of Roman gladiators and spectators filing this huge arena to capacity. Your last stop will be the Church of St. Peter in Chains, with the famous statue of Moses by Michelangelo.

This evening embark on a tour to the nearby town of Tivoli for a visit of Villa d' Este. Walk through the lavish gardens with their many fountains, grottoes and pavillions all profusely lighted.

SUN. AUGUST 11--ROME

Morning at leisure. Opportunity to attend church services with guides.

In the afternoon visit the Borghese Gallery and Museum, housing many grand paintings and sculptures, including the famous statue of Diana by Bernini; the fountains of Rome (throw a coin in Trevi Fountain and make a wish! ); the fashionable Via Veneto--Rome's most elegant street lined with small sidewalk cafes; drive past the Tiber River and Palatine Hill, where Romulus and Remus were cared for by the shewolf. Continue to St. Peter's Basilica for a visit of this awe inspiring Cathedral, with the famous Pieta by Michelangelo.

Tonight, for a most unforgettable experience, attend the fascinating "Sound and Light" performance which is held in the Forum.

MON. AUGUST 12--ROME/SORRENTO

Leave your hotel this morning and travel along the old Appian Way and the new "autostrada del Sole" to Pompei for a visit of the world famous excavation of this buried Roman City. After lunch, drive along the celebrated "Amalfi Drive" to Sorrento, the romantic town of orange and lemon groves. Proceed to HOTEL EUROPA.

Balance of afternoon at leisure--perhaps a swim before dinner. TUE. AUGUST 13 - -SORRENTO/ROME

Morning free for leisurely swim in the Mediterranean. Enjoy a relaxing lunch at the hotel before time to leave for Rome in the afternoon. Proceed to HOTEL BOSTON.

WED. AUGUST 14--ROME/PARIS

Transfer to the airport to leave Rome at 11:20 AM via Air France Flight 633 to arrive Paris at 12:20 PM. Upon arrival, transfer to HOTEL GRAND.

THU. AUGUST 15--PARIS

This morning's tour takes in Modern Paris and includes driving down the famous Champs Elysees--stop at the Arch of Triumph to pause before the Eternal Flame, in memory of France's Unknown Soldier. On to Les Invalides, site of Napoleon's Tomb, and then to the imposing Eiffel Tower. Continue to the artist district called "the Montmartre" for a visit of the beautiful white Church of the Sacred Heart.

Afternoon at leisure. Why not stroll along the Seine--listen to the shuffling of feet and hear the unmistakable and delightful sounds of the French language as you walk past the open-air bookstalls along the way.

Tonight it's off to the Folies Bergere, for elaborate entertainment in the French fashion.'

FRI. AUGUST 16--PARIS

Morning at leisure. A good opportunity for a walk along the colorful Boulevard des Capucines lined with many sidewalk cafes. Stop for a brief respite and a brisk cup of tea.

In the afternoon motor to Concorde Square, site of the terror-provoking guillotine during the French Revolution. Walk through the fragrant Tuileries Gardens framing the Louvre and you will have a clear picture of the vastness of this great art museum. Continue via Bastille Square and Palais Royal to Notre Dame for a visit through this handsome Gothic Cathedral.

SAT. AUGUST 17--PARIS

Morning at leisure. Last chance to get in some shopping before leaving for home. Perfumes are amazingly inexpensive. Handbags and umbrellas are excellent. Lingerie, blouses, gloves and laces are all less expensive than at home.

This afternoon embark on a tour to Versailles, magnificent castle of Louis XIV. At times, as many as 10, 000 courtiers lived in this monumental edifice. As you walk through the Gallery of Mirrors, the Royal Palace and the elaborately manicured parks and gardens fragrant with many kinds of flowers, you can well imagine the elegant grandeur enjoyed by the nobility of the French Renaissance.

Tonight, enjoy a superb dinner and marvelous entertainment at the world-famous Moulin Rouge,

SUN. AUGUST 18--PARIS

Day at leisure. Opportunity to attend church services in the morning. There are many ways one can get the feel and sound of Paris: ride the Metro's new rubber -tired trains, exit at the Arc de Triomph and then continue on foot along the Champs Elysees. . . or return to the Seine and take a boat ride for one or two hours. . . stop at a sidewalk cafe for afternoon refreshment. . , or simply enjoy a lazy Sunday afternoon strolling through the Luxembourg Gardens.

MON. AUGUST 19--PARIS /PHILADELPHIA

Morning at leisure until time to transfer to the airport and leave Paris at 1:00 PM aboard Air France Jet Flight 039 for the non-stop trans-Atlantic flight to Philadelphia, arriving at 4:05 PM.

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TOUR CONDITIONS

LAND ARRANGEMENTS: From LONDON around to PARIS, in accordance with the routing of this itinerary.

TRANSPORTATION: Air : All air transportation will be provided by FRANKLIN TRAVEL, INC. Air fare is based on the group inclusive tour of 15 or more persons traveling together for the complete itinerary. Motorcoach : Private deluxe motorcoach will be used wherever motorcoach transportation is indicated.

HOTELS: Twin-bedded rooms--each with private bath--will be provided throughout at hotels indicated or at hotels of similar quality. Single rooms available at supplemental cost of $3. 50 per night, except at Paris, where single supplement is $5.50.

MEALS: Plain (continental) breakfasts and table d'hote lunches and dinners (full-pension) will be provided throughout except on days at leisure in LONDON and PARIS, when breakfasts and dinners ONLY are included.

TIPS &c TAXES: Service charges as imposed by hotels and taxes assessed by local administrations and other governmental authorities are included on all services rendered, except airport taxes, wherever levied.

TRANSFERS: Transfers of tour members and two average-sized suitcases per person will be provided throughout by private motorcoach between airports and hotels and vice-versa.

SIGHTSEEING: By private deluxe motorcoach as indicated in the itinerary, including the services of local English-speaking guides and entrance fees to places of interest visited with such guides.

TOUR ESCORT: A representative of Franklin Travel, Inc. will travel with the group throughout from departure Philadelphia to arrival Philadelphia. A competent English-speaking Tour Escort will meet the group upon arrival London and remain with them throughout Europe. In addition, a qualified guide will be provided for every five (5) persons in each city.

DEPOSIT: A 25% air deposit is required at the time of booking. Tour members must book more than 30 days prior to departure date.

CANCELLATIONS: The 25% air deposit is non- refundable if tour members cancel less than 30 days prior to departure. If a cancelled tour member can be replaced with another new tour member more than 15 days prior to departure, the 2 5% deposit will be refunded.

NOT INCLUDED: Meals not noted above; items not on table d'hote menus; excess baggage charges; passport fees; special gratuities; airport taxes; laundry, beverages, and other items of a personal nature.

RATES: All rates and fares quoted are based on the present value of foreign currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar and on tarrifs now in effect for all hotels, transportation and sightseeing as of this date. All are subject to confirmation and/or adjustment at the time final payment is made.

For information write to Franklin Travel, Inc. 344 Suburban Station Building, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103.

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BLIND TOUR TO EUROPE--K.L.M.

This is an invitation for you to join a tour, which has been planned to make travel meaningful for blind and partially sighted persons.

The group will be small in order to afford individual attention and assistance. Opportunities will be provided for first hand experiences, in major cities of Europe. It will also be possible to observe agencies for the blind in other countries.

The tour will be conducted by Miss Ruth Kaarlela, who has had ten years of experience in working with visually handicapped children and adults, and who has traveled extensively throughout the world,

July 14--Assemble at J.F.K. International Airport for K.L.M. late afternoon Jet flight to Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

July 15 --Arrive in Amsterdam in the morning, the city known as "the Venice of the North". Your private motorcoach will be waiting here and transfer you to your hotel. In the afternoon you will enjoy a motor-launch ride through Amsterdam's canals and pass by the house of "Anne Frank". You will also travel through the beautiful quaint old quarters and countless colorful picturesque canals and bridges.

July 16 --Today you will travel to The Hague and visit "Madurdam", a miniature city 1/25 the size of a typical Dutch town. Fascinating about this miniature city is that the traffic actually moves in the streets, while trains run on a complicated railroad network, ships sail in and out of the harbor, and a big airfield is included. The Hague, is the seat of the Government and part-time residence of the queen. Although a very large city. The Hague is pictured as "Europe's largest village". Return to Amsterdam for overnight.

July 17--Today we will travel through the Dutch scenic countryside and cross the German border where we will continue via Dusseldorf to Cologne, the ancient cathedral city founded by the Romans in 32 B. C.

July 18--This morning our motorcoach will take us from Cologne to Boppard where we will board our Rhine steamer and travel along the scenic Rhine river, with its majestic castles, rising to greet us as we round each bend, past the Lorelei, and lush green fields of vineyards to Rudesheim, a famous resort town on the Rhine. Overnight in Rudesheim.

July 19--After breakfast a short drive will bring us to "The Student Prince City" of Heidelberg. Heidelberg is the oldest University town in Germany and is also known for its historic stone bridges and spectacular 700 year old castle.

July 20--Today we drive to Rothenburg, the "fairy tale city", with its ancient towers and ramparts intact, and fountains alight with scarlet geraniums.

July 21--This morning our motorcoach will take us to Munich, heart of the artistic and intellectual center of Germany. This evening we have the opportunity to visit a famous "Brauhaus" and listen to typical German folk singing and music.

July 22--This morning we will depart for Vienna, situated on the Danube River. This city possesses numerous architectural masterpieces, a large portion of them in the "Baroque" style, introduced into Austria at the beginning of the 18th century.

July 23--Morning sightseeing of Vienna--afternoon at leisure.

July 24--This morning we will depart for Salzburg, "the city of Mozart", lying on both banks of the river Salzack, at the foot of the majestic mountains, this capital of its province, is among the most beautiful in Europe.

July 25--Our morning sightseeing includes the old town, the Cathedral, Mozart's birthplace, the Festspiel Haus, and the famous sights where the movie, "The Sound of Music" was filmed. Afternoon and evening at leisure.

July 26--This morning we leave Salzburg for a short drive to Innsbruck, one of the loveliest Alpine cities with its chain of towery mountains and snowcapped peaks.

July 27--Departure from Innsbruck over the Alberg Pass will take you to Lucerne, famous for its Wooden Chapel Bridge built 1333, the Medieval Walls and the Lions Monument.

July 28--Morning will be at leisure for relaxing. This afternoon we will take an exciting side -trip to Mt. Pilatus, 7, 000 foot triangular crag rising directly south of Lucerne, reached by a cogwheel mountain train. Return to Lucerne for dinner at the famous "Stadtkeller" restaurant featuring Swiss folk music, dancing and yodeling.

July 29--Today you will depart for Paris, the most magnificent city in the world. Overnight in Paris.

July 30--Morning sightseeing of the city will include the Opera, Madeleine Church, Concorde Square, Champs -Elysees, Eiffel Tower and the Arch of Triumph. The afternoon is free for shopping or visiting one of the richest museums in the world, "The Louvre".

July 31--Day at leisure for relaxing in Paris.

August 1--This morning we will fly from Paris to London. The capital of the United Kingdom, covering 639 square miles, is also the greatest commercial, industrial and manufacturing center of the Kingdom; it is the railway center of Britain. Its airport, Heathrow, is one of the busiest in the world. The city's historical and cultural claims are equally impressive. The remainder of the day will be at leisure.

August 2--This morning you will leave for a sight-seeing tour of London, including such places as Buckingham Palace, Westminster Cathedral, Houses of Parliament, "Big Ben", Piccadilly Circus and many more. Afternoon at leisure for independent arrangements, followed by a theatrical performance in London.

August 3--We will depart from London and arrive in Shannon, where you will be taken by motorcoach on a beautiful trip through the rolling hills and wooded valleys of Ireland. You will drink tea at a thatched cottage and visit a typical Irish village, visit the ruins of the 12th century Quin Abbey and have an unforgettable Mediaeval Banquet in Bunratty Castle. Your afternoon will be free in Shannon for tax-free shopping.

August 4--Y0U will have this morning to finish up your last-minute shopping and take it easy before boarding our trans -Atlantic K. L. M. Jet to New York.

Air Transportation: Economy class Jet by K. L. M. Royal Dutch Airlines, individual airfare based on 14-21 day IT-Group tour basing fare, subject to participation of a minimum of 15 persons on entire flight itinerary, deposit of 25% of air fare must be paid no later than 30 days prior to commencement of travel. Such deposit is subject to forfeiture if cancellation is made thereafter.

General Information: Tour Price of $825. 00 includes:

Transportation--Trans-Atlantic economy class on K. L. M. from New York to Europe and return to New York. Deluxe motorcoach throughout the land portion.

Hotels--Superior tourist hotels with warm and cold running water based on twin bedded accommodations. Private bath room 50%. Single accommodations at an extra cost of $50.00 and subject to availability and confirmation.

Meals--Continental breakfast--table d'hote dinner and table d'hote lunch throughout the tour.

Sightseeing--As specified in the itinerary with English speaking guides and entrance fees.

Transfers--On all arrivals and departures between airports and hotels.

Tips & Taxes--All tips and taxes normally appearing on hotel and restaurant bills.

Baggage--44 lbs. will be carried free on Economy flights. The tour operator takes reasonable care to provide for handling ordinary baggage through customary and available facilities but at owner's risk and without liability on the part of the operator for damage, loss or pilferage. Baggage insurance available through Campus Travel Service.

Membership--In an honest endeavor to ensure congenial membership, the Tour Operator reserves the right to refuse the application and/or expel from any tour members whose conduct is incompatible with the interest of the party.

Cancellations--Should it become necessary to cancel your tour membership prior to departure, refund will be made up to 6 weeks prior to departure. After this date there are certain out-of-pocket expenses which may have to be taken into consideration in making refund.

Seeing-Eye-Dogs--Due to the quarantine restrictions in most European countries, seeing eye dogs cannot be accepted on this trip.

TOUR PRICE DOES NOT INCLUDE--Expenses of passport and visa's (Bearers of U.S. passports do not require visa's for this tour. All other nationalities are requested to check with Campus Travel Service.) Laundry, wines, liquors, mineral waters, after dinner coffee or tea or food not on the menus of the included meals; additional baggage; airport taxes; tips to guides and drivers, baggage or other personal insurance, all items not listed above as being included in the inclusive tour price.

For information write or call Miss R. Kaarlela, 5206 Angling Rd. , Kalamazoo, Michigan, Phone 344-6392 or Campus Travel Service, 2704 West Michigan Ave. , Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007, Phone 349-2689.

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NEW YORK STATE LEGISLATIVE PROGRAM

by Bill Dwyer

To remove the stigma of welfare from the program for the blind in New York, The Empire State Association of the Blind is sponsoring legislation to transfer the N. Y. S. Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped from the Department of Social Services to the Executive Department. This move will place the head of the Commission in a position to consult directly with the Governor and members of the Legislature instead of deputy commissioners etc. as in the procedure now. Another provision of this bill, written by E.S.A.B., is to have an advisory board of five commissioners, two of whom must be blind and at least one of the two must be a member of a statewide organization of blind persons. This is Senate bill No. 3484, introduced by Hon. John E. Flynn.

S-204, A-747 is a bill authorizing the Commission to hire two special representatives whose duty it will be to seek out new locations for vending stands in State owned and leased buildings. This bill also includes the appropriation needed.

S-132Z, A-1962 is a bill which would transfer the authority now enjoyed by O. G. S. to decide the location of vending stands and the products which may be sold from same, to the N. Y. S. Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped.

S-1522, A-3180 is a bill intended to induce employers to hire blind persons by allowing the employer an additional tax exemption equalling the amount of salary paid to a blind employee.

A-1990, S-1521 and A-2179 is a bill which would be added to our present White Cane Law and is copied from the "Model". This bill allows blind persons with dogs and other handicapped persons the same rights to use the various public buildings, etc.

S-1821, A-2542 is a bill which is also taken from the "Model" and provides that buildings, stair, walkways, etc. shall be constructed so they are easily accessible for the blind and handicapped. Our bill covering this part of the "Model" was not quite as explicit so we with- drew ours to lend our support to this one.

S-1004, A-1580 is a bill which would have New York State through the Executive Department set up an information center for the handicapped. All services that are available to blind or handicapped persons, state operated or otherwise, and all facilities made available to blind or handicapped would be recorded at this center. There would be offices in cities throughout the state and any blind or handicapped person desiring any service at all could get information immediately from one of these centers, It is felt that at present there are so many various services available that there are some who need a particular service and cannot even find out if such a service is available.

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A WEEK TO REMEMBER

by Anthony Mannino

Certainly, you have heard it before--that the white cane is a symbol of self-reliance and independence. At the same time it serves as a vital guide in mobility, and an important implement of safety deserving the respect of other people. To further this respect and to focus the public's attention upon the total significance of the white cane, the National Federation of the Blind established "White Cane Week." This comes each year from May 15 through May 21. Setting aside this week has provided an opportunity to unite the effort of all National Federation of the Blind affiliates in a single frame of time. The result has been very gratifying as many of the state affiliates joined in the campaign to publicize the white cane, the Federation and the state organization. Like everything else, we have had our boom years and our quiet years, but always they have been years of positive endeavor. This year is no exception.

Most of our NFB affiliates answered an early call to action last October. They prepared for their campaign by planning ahead so that they might submit their intentions to the White Cane Week Committee by January 1. Even Hawaii, our very newest member state, rushed to get their order under the wire.

The discussions at the White Cane Committee meetings during the National Federation of the Blind convention have produced suggestions which we have been able to incorporate into our plans and materials. These new ideas have not only been very helpful to us, but have also made the work a little easier for all. Each of them has been given careful consideration so that we might not miss a good bet to improve our program. We shall continue to welcome this kind of participation from other members involved in the White Cane Week Campaign,

Now, again, May 15 is fast approaching and the White Cane Week projects of the many affiliates will be pushed into gear. Appeal letters and publicity literature will be mailed; spot announcements, radio and T. V. interviews will pour into the homes of your community; newspaper articles will appear in local print; speakers will take the message of the Federation to other organizations; social functions will be sponsored for the cause; the achievenments of blind persons will be hailed. In all of this, the white cane will be featured and praised for its contribution to the cause of independence for the blind.

This year we have another opportunity to continue pressing for the adoption of our "Model White Cane Law," searching out job opportunities for blind persons and assuring economic security for all. Every affiliate and every chapter should take advantage of White Cane Week to promote the work of the organized blind movement. We should try to reach the people who have not yet heard of our organization, its achievements, and the people who have worked so hard to bring them about. It is not too late to join us if you have not already done so. A word to The White Cane Committee Office of the National Federation of the Blind at 205 South Western Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90004, will bring a quick response with anything you may need.

If you are wondering about the fund raising potential of White Cane Week, we must remind you that this is one of the huge fringe benefits. Of course, we need funds to operate and to finance our services. But we must let the public know why we need funds, what we have done, what we are doing, and what we intend to do to help blind persons find their way into the main stream of society. A job well done is always surely rewarded. Let the public know of the value and functions of your organization, and they rarely hesitate to join you in your crusade. We stress the fact that blind people are making their mark in our Nation, participating in the various professions, vocations and civic activities --and that through their determined effort they are taking their place in the life of the community. White Cane Week is the vehicle for the message. Let's make good use of it!

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MONITOR MINIATURES

While Isabelle Grant, currently our Minister Plenipotentiary to all of Africa, is assiduously carrying out her duties in that office, the Student Division of the National Federation of the Blind is carrying on Isabelle's overseas braille book program. Any of you who have unwanted braille books or know where you can secure some should send them to Mr. Creig Slayton, 2312 Muscatine Avenue, Iowa City, Iowa, 52240, Chairman, Overseas Book Project.

RECORDED BOOK SOCIETY TO PROVIDE OUTSTANDING BOOKS FOR BLIND AND OTHER HANDICAPPED PERSONS.

Book-of-the-Month Club, Inc., in cooperation with Recording for the Blind, Inc., announces new monthly service.

A new monthly service that will provide outstanding books on long-playing records for the blind, partially blind and other handicapped persons, was announced recently.

Called the Recorded Book Society, this service has been set up by Book-of-the-Month Club, Inc., in cooperation with Recording for the Blind, Inc. which will serve in an advisory capacity in the choice of the books and in their recording.

The first four issues from the Recorded Book Society, currently available are "The Confessions of Nat Turner" by William Styron, "Twenty Letters to a Friend" by Svetlana Alliluyeva, "Everything But Money" by Sam Levenson, and "Profiles in Courage" by John F. Kennedy.

Persons enrolled in the Recorded Book Society will receive each month an advance description of a current selection plus a number of "alternates." Most of these will be newly published books, but there will also be included "valuable library standbys" which the handicapped subscriber may have overlooked in his reading days.

The subscriber may choose to receive the main selection, an alternate, or none.

There will be no membership fee or requirement to buy a specified number of book albums during the year to maintain the subscription.

The number of records in each album will vary depending on the length of the book being read, but the average album will probably consist of five 16 2/3 RPM discs (providing a listening time of about 10 hours).

The Recorded Book Society albums are read for recording by professionals in the theatrical and broadcasting fields.

For the convenience of blind subscribers, Recorded Books may be obtained with Braille identification on the outside of the record box, with similar identification on the records indicating the order in which they are to be played.

As an introductory offer, any of the four recorded books in the first group will be sent for two weeks' listening as a "trial subscription" which may be ended by returning the album before the two-week period has elapsed.

The Recorded Book Society is located at 345 Hudson Street, in New York City.

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William H. Crowe, 62 years old, of 405 North Sagamore Lane, will retire as executive vice-president of the Kansas City Association for the Blind.

*****

An organization meeting was held on December 6, 1967 of the Missoula chapter of the Montana Association of the Blind. Six active members of MAB and ten new ones were in attendance. Officers elected are: President--Bill Kost; vice-president--Bob Stephani; secretary--Margie Kost.

*******

At the January meeting of the Worcester Chapter, Associated Blind of Massachusetts, which had to be postponed several times because of bad weather, the following officers were installed:

President--Edward B. Murphy; first vice-president--Miss Rosamond M. Critchley; second vice-president--James A. Duffy; recording secretary- Miss Eva Gilbert; corresponding secretary--Mrs. Dorothy Bailey; financial secretary--Miss Mary Bedrosian; treasurer--Irving MacShawson; sergeant-at-arms--Michael Geneva; members-at-large--Miss Helen A. Antul and Miss Louise Callahan.

*****

Of the 430,000 blind persons in the United States, some 30, 000 are graduates of colleges and universities, according to a release by the American Foundation for the Blind.

BLIND COUNCIL CHIEF GETS SEEING EYE. Bruce Thomas, a native of Rohne County, Tennessee, graduated from the Tennessee School for the Blind. Not long afterward, he came to Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. He worked in machine shops and was active in union work. About twelve years ago, he entered the field of politics as Councilman in his ward. Twice he ran unsuccessfully for mayor and once unsuccessfully for state representative. He has successfully retained his seat in the City Council. Now he is president of the Falls City Council. A blind man in that capacity has problems, because he needs to recognize Council members in their proper order. His son, an electronic engineer in Cleveland, Ohio, built a device to help his father. On the arm of the chair of each Councilman is a button that clicks as he presses on it. At the same time, the button activates a plastic unit in a wooden block placed on the table in front of Thomas. Being familiar with the seating of the Councilmen, his fingers on the plastic units easily identify the Councilman wanting the floor, Thomas has his slate and stylus between him and the wooden block for quick notes.

Representative Cecil R. King (D-17th District) devoted, long-time friend of the blind in Congress has announced that he will not seek reelection.

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Ray McGeorge has been appointed to the Workshops and Rehabilitation Facilities Advisory Committee. He is the only representative of the blind on this 14-man committee which will formulate Colorado's plans to meet the 1975 deadline set by the 89th Congress for federal financing of rehab.

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Vince and Marion Burke, Syracuse, N.Y. are moving to Hollywood, Florida the first of May. They are buying the home of Sam and Gert Sitt. Sam and Gert are moving to California.

The Northwest Montana Chapter is to be the host for the annual convention of the Montana Association for the Blind, Inc., to be held in Bozeman, in conjunction with the Summer School for the Adult Blind, July 12, 13, and 14, 1968.

*****

This is to announce that Howard C. Carroll, Director of the Indiana Agency for the Blind is retiring from that position as of April 15, 1968. His successor has not yet been named and applications for the position are still being accepted by the Special Institutions Division of the Indiana State Board of Health, located at 1330 West Michigan St., Indianapolis, Indiana 46207, care of Mr. William D. Murchie.

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