VOICE OF THE NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND
The National Federation of the Blind is not an organization speaking for the Blind-it is the Blind speaking for themselves
Printed at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708
Published monthly in braille and distributed free to the blind by the National Federation of the Blind. President: Kenneth Jernigan, 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, 50309.
Inkprint edition produced and distributed by the National Federation of the Blind.
EDITOR: Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue, Sacramento, California, 95822.
Associate Editor: Hazel tenBroek, 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708.
News items should be sent to the Editor.
Address changes should be sent to 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708.
OPEN LETTER TO MONITOR READERS
by Kenneth Jernigan
PERRY SUNDQUIST ACCEPTS
BECKWITH "SUPERVISED" OUT OF VENDING STAND
Federation Reacts to Chicanery as New Hampshire Strides firmly Backwards
George Murphy "Terminates" Beckwith
Blind Worker is Fired
BLIND SUPPORT MISSOURI OMBUDSMAN BILL
by John Nagle
CALIFORNIA TRIES FOR COMMISSION AGAIN
BLIND NAVAJO PREACHER
OHIO COUNCIL HOLDS SEMINAR
JOHN WILSON COMMENTS
BLIND PROFESSOR CAMOT BE JUROR
BLIND MAN CREATED OWN INDEPENDENCE
PRIZES PRIZES PRIZES
by Manuel Urena
HOUSE HEARINGS ON ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS
by John Nagle
BLIND RIDER MUST LOSE HORSE
MORE VENDING STAND DISCRIMINATION
UNIQUE OMAHA PROJECT
Letter from Jack Swager
COLLEGE, A REWARDING CHALLENGE
by Jana Lee Sims
CITY CAN TAKE ASSETS OF RELIEF CLIENTS
LASER POTENTIAL INDUSTRIAL DANGER
BALLAD OF A BLIND, DEAF BOY
by Donna Clayton
STUDENT DIVISION MEMBER HONORED
by Judy Young
COURT SUSPENDS CALIFORNIA RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS
NFB STUDENT DIVISION NEWS
WHITE CANE BILL IN CALIFORNIA
SCSB MEMBER ACHIEVES DISTINCTION
by Clyde Ross
TWIN VISION PROGRESS REPORT 1968
HOUSE HEARINGS ON VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AMENDMENTS
by John Nagle
BLIND TEACHERS--THEIR PROBLEMS AND PROGRESS IN CERTIFICATION AND EMPLOYMENT--[CONCLUDED]
by Sally Jones
by Kenneth Jernigan
It is with sad heart that I write this letter. As most of you know, our beloved leader, Dr. tenBroek, died on March 27. He had known since last summer that the cancer operation had not been successful and that he had only a few months left to live.
During most of March he was in the hospital. As Federationists know, Dr. tenBroek's first inklings of cancer man shortly after the Louisville Convention in 1966. From the summer of 1966 to the time of his death he never complained or stopped his work. In fact, his energy, warmth, and vigorous personality were so much in evidence at the Los Angeles Convention last summer that most who were present hoped that he could be with us for years to come. Such was not to be the case.
He was compelled to give up his University teaching early last fall, but his Federation work continued undiminished. If anything, it increased. To the very end his thoughts and his labors were devoted to the Federation-- the organization he had founded, built, and loved.
I saw him for a few days late in September and again in February. We talked for long hours about the Federation and its future. I pledged to him that I would do all within my power to carry forward the work of the movement. I know that all Federationists will feel a similar desire and responsibility. The greatest tribute we can pay to Dr. tenBroek is to redouble our efforts to improve opportunities for the blind and strengthen the fabric of our organization.
In assuming the responsibilities of the presidency of the Federation I will need the help and strength of all of you. The task ahead will not be easy. I can only say that I will do the best that I can.
I have asked Perry Sundquist to assume the duties of editing the MONITOR. I know that he will do an outstanding job. Perry was one of Dr. tenBroek's closest associates and oldest friends. He has always been one of the staunchest and most steadfast members of the organized blind movement. In his capacity as Chief of the Division for the Blind of the California Department of Social Welfare he has promoted enlightened programs and has become one of the real authorities in the field of welfare law and regulation. I believe that he is ideally suited by knowledge, temperament, and philosophy to be editor of the MONITOR; but, again, he will need your help and your support.
The MONITOR will continue to be assembled and printed in the Berkeley office and Mrs. tenBroek will handle the details of the operation. She will also work with me in a number of areas. During Dr. tenBroek's illness her courage and steadfastness were truly tenBroekian. Over the years Dr. tenBroek had been the principal focus of her life, and toward the end she was constantly at his bedside. Yet she found the time and the strength to carry forward the work of the Berkeley office and impart strength to those around her.
Your communications to the new MONITOR editor should be sent to: Mr. Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue, Sacramento, California, 95822.
This issue of the MONITOR will carry the account of Dr. tenBroek's death which appeared in the Daily Cal, published on the Berkeley Campus of the University of California. Next month's MONITOR will primarily be a memorial issue. It will deal more fully with Dr. tenBroek's accomplishments and contributions, inadequate though any such attempt is bound to be. There will also be a memorial tribute during the afternoon session of the first day of the Des Moines Convention.
In the meantime I can only say to you once again that our organization has suffered irreparable loss and that I personally am bereft of my closest friend and associate--the man who has been to me over the years spiritual guide, brother, and mentor. To the best of my ability I will per- form the duties and meet the responsibilities of the office which I now hold.
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(Reprinted from The Daily Californian, March 28, 1968)
Jacobus tenBroek, 56, a political science professor here and an internationally known legal scholar and welfare authority, died of cancer Wednesday, March 27 at San Francisco's Presbyterian Hospital. He was the author of three influential books and more than 50 articles in the fields of welfare, government and law, establishing a reputation as one of the nation's leading authorities on matters of constitutional law.
During his quarter-century on the Berkeley campus, tenBroek became known as a champion of academic freedom and was especially influential in the 1950 loyalty oath controversy and the 1964 Free Speech Movement involving students and faculty. His reputation as a teacher has drawn such tributes as the statement of a student group that his class "provides an experience that everyone should have. He has a sharp, analytical mind that will profit anyone that comes in contact with it.”
Dr. Clark Kerr, former University President, lauded tenBroek. "I think it was not his blindness, but rather his profound respect for his students and for the art of teaching that impelled him to listen--really listen--to what his students had to say and to communicate so attentively to each of them as individuals.
"They and I will miss him deeply."
Chancellor Roger W. Heyns also commented on tenBroek's Socratic ability: "He will be remembered as a scholar who considered teaching as the highest duty and privilege.
"A man who inspired students and colleagues, he was a tough and honest opponent of those who would compromise liberty or ignore the plight of the poor."
Prominent in social welfare and civil rights causes, tenBroek was a chief organizer of the Welfare Rights Organization in California--and was chairman of its first "convention of the poor" in 1966 at Fontana, California.
In 1949 he organized and led a coalition of citizen groups in a successful campaign to amend the California Constitution removing objectionable welfare provisions which had been earlier passed by referendum.
In the course of his academic career, tenBroek received two honorary degrees, Doctor of Letters and Doctor of Laws, was twice recipient of Guggenheim fellowships, was a Brandeis Research Fellow at Harvard and was a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Palo Alto.
He served as consultant and advisor to numerous governmental commissions and committees, including the President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Special Education, and the California Governor's Study Commission on Public Welfare.
Many of his ringing public addresses and statements--delivered from braille notes--have been inserted into the Congressional Record, published in college textbooks and reprinted in journals such as Vital Speeches.
Jacobus tenBroek was born in 1911, the son of a prairie homesteader in Alberta, Canada. He was partially blinded as a result of a bow-and-arrow accident at the age of seven, and lost his remaining sight Seven years later.
He man to the United States in 1919 and became a U.S. citizen in 1927.
In 1934 he joined with his teacher, Newel Perry, and others to organize the California Council of the Blind, an organization run by blind people themselves which became the prototype of the national movement of the organized blind formed by tenBroek in 1940.
tenBroek founded and was president of the National Federation of the Blind, president of the International Federation of the Blind, a U.S. delegate to the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind, and president of the American Brotherhood for the Blind.
Educated at the University of California and Harvard University, he earned five degrees, three in law. He taught at the University of Chicago before joining the Berkeley faculty of the University of California in 1942. In subsequent years he became professor and chairman of the department of speech, and in 1963 was appointed professor of political science.
He is survived by his wife, Hazel of 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley; son Jacobus tenBroek, Jr., with the U.S. Army stationed at the San Francisco Presidio; daughter Mrs. Anna Hammond of El Cerrito, and son Nicolas tenBroek, student at Berkeley High School.
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Mr. Kenneth Jernigan
National Federation of the Blind
It is with a deep sense of humility that I accept the assignment as Editor of the BRAILLE MONITOR. No one, least of all I, can feel otherwise in trying to follow the eloquent voice that has been stilled.
In a very real sense, the pages of the MONITOR must continue to truly reflect the voice of the blind speaking for themselves. This can only be done through the active and continuous cooperation of our State affiliates and members of the National Federation of the Blind.
As Editor I request the President of each State affiliate to designate an appropriate member of his organization to be responsible for communicating items for the MONITOR by the first of each month. If there is no news or items which seem important in any one month, please just say so in a letter.
All of us in the NFB must carry on the work which Jacobus tenBroek so brilliantly initiated and advanced. This is the highest possible memorial we can build for this great man.
Cordially and sincerely,
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Federation Reacts to Chicanery as New Hampshire Strides Firmly Backwards.
The administration of the Randolph-Sheppard Vending Stand Act by the Division of Welfare, Department of Health and Welfare, of the State of New Hampshire provides an example of the confusion and discrimination which can result when a state agency disregards federal law and attempts to distort a beneficial rehabilitation program into a "we know what's best for you so don't ask any questions" charity operation.
Confusion in New Hampshire came to light when Alfred Beckwith, president of the New Hampshire Federation of the Blind, was handed, without any prior warning, a letter from George E. Murphy, Director of the state Division of Welfare, accusing Beckwith of being "insubordinate, resistive, and uncooperative.” For these vague reasons Beckwith was "fired" as manager of the snack bar at the New Hampshire State House. No other explanation was given to Beckwith and, indeed, none was available since neither Beckwith nor any of the other vending stand operators in the State of New Hampshire have received copies of the state regulations under which they operate their businesses. Nor have any operators been given written agreements, or licenses, or copies of permits--all of which are required by the federal regulations to be furnished to vending stand operators. For over seven years Beckwith has successfully operated vending stands in various public buildings; but never with the protections to which he is clearly entitled by law.
Had Beckwith remained as the operator of the highly successful and popular cafeteria in the State Department of Motor Vehicles building there would have been no controversy and the total disregard of the purposes of the Randolph-Sheppard Act would have gone unchallenged. But about seven months ago Beckwith returned to the snack bar in the basement of the State House where he was under the eye, literally, of Carl Camp, Director of Blind Services in the State of New Hampshire. In "supervising" the operation of the snack bar Beckwith's "superiors" determined that some eleven vending machines should be moved from a position in the hallway opposite the snack bar counter, and placed in an adjacent basement cavern. Beckwith quite rightfully objected, since the machines are profitable only if they are readily available to the public and handy to the snack bar itself. The removal of the vending machines was the culmination of a series of harassments suffered by Beckwith. A rearranged ventilation fan now blows warm exhaust air into his storage space, already amply heated by a network of steam and hot water pipes. Although Beckwith refers to this area as "Miami Beach" the temperature remains a pleasant 95° fahrenheit throughout even the chilly New Hampshire winter, and cans of comestibles are beginning to swell ominously. Instead of sympathy or assistance the state agency has accused Beckwith of being "resistive" because he objects.
Alfred Beckwith by law should be an independent businessman and his career to date has amply demonstrated his independence and ability. But the New Hampshire agency knows what is best for Beckwith and has summarily terminated his business (and his means of livelihood) without even a public hearing. When these fine legal points were presented to the Division of Welfare by Charles Sheridan, Jr., Beckwith's Concord attorney, the response was that Beckwith was "still fired" but perhaps he would be given a public hearing at some indefinite future date, if he insisted.
Beckwith does insist, as do all federationists, that New Hampshire rejoin the United States of America and abide by federal laws and regulations. The NFB attorney has conferred with Beckwith's attorney and every assistance in prosecuting the case has been offered. We cannot tolerate gross disregard of the letter and spirit of the vending stand program by any state agency. We hope that the New Hampshire functionaries will read their laws and rules and voluntarily amend their precipitous
actions before it is too late to save the vending stand program in New Hampshire.
George Murphy "Terminates" Beckwith
Mr. Alfred Beckwith, Manager
State House Snack Bar State House
Concord, New Hampshire 03301
Dear Mr. Beckwith:
Over the past 3 months, it has been brought to my attention that you have refused to accept direction from your superiors and that you have, in refusing to conform, been insubordinate. It is my understanding that you are of the opinion that as manager of the stand that you are an independent operator and need not accept direction from anyone.
It is my further understanding that as of March 27 you again became resistive and objected to the movement of the various vending machines into new space and attempted to utilize an alleged statement by Mr. Richard Peale, Director of the Division of Purchase and Property, and there was no mandate to move the equipment. Mr. Peale did not give the order to move as this move was directed by Mr. Arthur Fowler, Business Supervisor.
In light of your attitude, you appear to be obstructive, resistive and uncooperative and your continuation in the position of snack bar manager would appear to be detrimental to the program in this Division. Accordingly, I herewith advise that you are terminated from your position as snack bar manager at the close of business on April 5, 1968.
An inventory will be made effective as of that date and pay adjustments due you will be made following a review of the inventory and appropriate accounting activity.
Very truly yours,
George E. Murphy Director, Dept. of Health and Welfare Division of Welfare
Blind Worker Fired
(Reprinted from The Concord Daily Monitor, April 4, 1968)
Albred Beckwith, the legally blind manager of the State House Snack Bar, has been fired for insubordination.
Beckwith was notified March 29 by Director of Welfare George E. Murphy that he was being fired because he refused to move some vending machines from the basement corridor into the newly-enlarged cafeteria eating area.
In a letter to Beckwith from Murphy--posted by the snack bar coffee pot by Beckweth--Murphy said:
"Over the past three months, it has been brought to my attention that you have refused to accept direction from your superiors and that you have, in refusing to conform, been insubordinate.
"It is my understanding that you are of the opinion that as manager of the stand that you are an independent operator and need not accept direction from anyone.”
Beckwith said that he refused to move his vending machines because he would lose sales.
"I don't get the volume in the eating area that I get in the corridor," he said.
"It is all a matter of interpretation.”
The issue between Beckwith and the state is a matter of space.
State Business Manager Arthur Fowler said that once the nursing station was moved into new quarters and the basement eating area had been enlarged, it was agreed that 11 pieces of vending equipment should be moved out of the corridors to cut down congestion.
"This policy has been in effect since 1963,” said Fowler.
But Beckwith says that he has control of the stand.
"I am ready to fight this all the way,” he said.
"I am not a state employee, I am licensed by the Division of Welfare.
"The federal law controlling the stands says they are for the benefit of the blind, 'in order that they may have gainful employment and to become self-supporting.'"
Beckwith also charged that he has not had a hearing, "If this is not settled, I will make it a national issue,” said Beckwith.
Beckwith, who is president of the N. H. Federation of the Blind, says he has the support of the National Federation.
But Director of Blind Services Carl Camp--also blind--says that Beckwith will get a fair hearing.
"There is no question of jurisdiction,” said Camp. ”We have the statutory responsibility to run the vending stand program for the blind.”
Murphy in his letter to Beckwith said Beckwith's attitude was "obstructive, resistive and uncooperative.”
"Your continuation in the position of snack bar manager would appear detrimental to the program in this division. Accordingly I herewith advise that you are terminated from your position as snack bar manager at the close of business on April 5, 1968.”
Camp said the firing order still stands.
Beckwith has retained a lawyer, Charles Sheridan, of Subway, Hollis, Godfrey and Soden. Sheridan said, ”We are investigating to see what rights he has.
"The big problem seems to be that the state has gone too fast in this rather technical area. We would like to slow down the apparatus (Beckwith's firing) so we can discuss the problem,” said Sheridan.
Beckwith makes from $5,000 to $6,000 a year profit from his operation of the snack bar.
"The Division of Health is a licensing agency. They can supervise my operation, but not interfere. We have a right under federal law to maintain our own business,” said Beckwith.
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by John Nagle
S. 3123, a bill to establish the Office of Administrative Ombudsman in Missouri as a two-year pilot project, was the subject of public hearings conducted by the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, on March 27-28, in the Federal Court Building, St. Louis, Missouri.
Senator Edward V. Long, sponsor of the Ombudsman for Missouri bill and Chairman of the Judiciary Subcommittee with jurisdiction over the proposed legislation, stated, in part, at the opening of the hearings, "[O]mbudsman literally means 'one who represents'. But the office and institution of ombudsman means much more. It has been described by many as a combination red-tape cutter, complaint bureau, and citizens' defender against bureaucracy.”
"S. 3123,” Chairman Long declared, "by establishing the Office of Administrative Ombudsman for Missouri, would test out this means of facilitating the people's dealings with federal governmental agencies. It would test out, in America, a democratic concept and institution which has already worked and worked well in the Scandanavian countries, in Great Britain, and in other British Commonwealth nations.”
Appearing in behalf of the Progressive Blind of Missouri, as well as the spokesman for the National Federation of the Blind, John Nagle, the Federation's Washington office chief, presented a forceful statement in support of S. 3123.
"We believe it is essential,” stated Nagle, "that a high-level independent institution be created in the federal governmental structure that will serve as a resource to which American citizens may turn in their troubled and troublesome dealings with federal agencies--
"To receive complaints of actions and inactions, denials and delays;
"To investigate such complaints thoroughly and objectively; and then;
"To resolve the cause of the complaints in favor of complainants, or to comprehensively and clearly explain the justifiable reasons for the administrative actions and inactions; and, when deemed necessary;
"To recommend congressional enactments when statutes are determined inadequate to fulfill specified statutory purposes.”
Nagle described the nature of the complaints which the Administrative Ombudsman would be most likely to receive from blind persons and from other physically impaired persons, particularly emphasizing the value the Office of Administrative Ombudsman would have to these people as they endeavor to secure benefits and services from public and private programs established solely for the purpose of assisting and serving them.
"As blind people,” concluded Nagle, "far too often, when we seek benefits and services from programs established by Congress solely for our help and assistance, we become mired in the quicksands of governmental bigness, and lost in the endless maze of bureaucratic structure.
"We need the aid of an Administrative Ombudsman to save us from the quicksands, to guide us safely through the bureaucratic maze.”
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Assemblyman Eugene A. Chappie (R-Cool) introduced a controversial "Blind Commission" bill, which would consolidate all service and rehabilitation programs for the blind, now scattered among the Departments of Rehabilitation, Education and Social Welfare, in a single agency.
"The time is overdue for facing and acting upon the flaws in the present administrative system for providing services to our blind citizens,” said Chappie.”For the last four years I have witnessed the paradox of some of the nation's best--on paper at least--programs for the rehabilitation of the blind creating more and more dissension and strife.
"During the last ten years it has become commonplace for blind persons to achieve or regain full, and even exceptional, status as working, contributing members of a society designed for sighted people. And yet within some of the state-supported blind services, the old paternalism, the enforcement of dependency, continues.
"With no discernible improvements having come under the new administrators of these programs, and with no major new program thrusts having been detailed,” continued Chappie,”1 have come to the reluctant conclusion that internal changes are severely hampered by the persistence of outmoded philosophies and programmatic approaches. I respect the sincere concern of the administration that sweeping changes may bring some hardships, to some blind people as well as to some bureaucrats, but on the whole, it seems evident that major progress will come only from bold innovations.
"Most of the blind people I have talked with over the years in connection with rehabilitation programs have expressed not only their willingness, but their eagerness to take a chance. They have spoken of the resentment they feel when their handicap is used as an excuse to go slow.
"I frankly feel that the time for more study is past, and that the time for action has come. That is why I am introducing this bill to create a Commission for the Blind.”
The Chappie bill establishes a five-man policy commission, including three members who are blind, to administer the orientation centers for the blind, opportunity work centers for the blind, the home teacher counselor program, the California Industries for the Blind, and various other state programs.
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UPI--SANOSTEE, N. M., April 7, 1968. Geronimo Martin, 50, is a man of the cloth--a preacher--but the cloth is denim and his collar is provided by a sheepskin coat.
The Christian Reform minister, a Navajo, carries his message to the scattered Indian hogans in northwestern New Mexico any way he can--by pickup truck, car or from his pulpit on Sundays.
Martin has not allowed his one handicap to slow his work. He is blind. He also is New Mexico's citizen of the year.
Six days a week Martin makes his rounds to the widely dispersed hogans in the desert country. His wife and friends provide the transportation.
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(From the OCB Bulletin--No. 6806)
Approximately sixty people attended the OCB 1968 Seminar. An observer noted that no one left the meetings. Robert B, Canary, Assistant Director, Ohio Department of Public Welfare, was generous with his time and patient in his explanations of welfare routine. C. F. (Fritz) Berens, State Supervisor, Bureau of Services for the Blind, made the rehabilitation session interesting with his humor, wit, and direct answers to direct questions. As a result of information brought out in the rehab session, Loretta Loshek has received her tuition for the spring quarter at the Youngstown University, plus a tape recorder and a typewriter. All of us learned much. Some of the discussions will lead to the preparation of a legislative program. Some of the ideas will appear in resolutions that will be submitted to the OCB Convention. Some of the ideas will be sent to the National Federation of the Blind for its consideration. Some topics will be referred to the OCB Executive Board for its consideration. In the three sessions, 30 topics were discussed. The agenda was made up of topics mailed to the OCB PRC previous to Feb. 15th--the Seminar coming up on Feb. 24th and 25th. Every person there made notes to carry back to his own affiliate. The next OCB Seminar will be in 1970. The next OCB Convention is in Canton in October of 1968. We limited each affiliate to three participants in the OCB Seminar. Only the hotel walls will limit the number attending the OCB Convention.
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27 March 1968
I always read the braille MONITOR with interest, and was particularly glad to see in your February issue the article by Ian McCausland on "The Valley of the Blind.” I have visited the Luapula Valley in Zambia on a nun-iber of occasions, and lest your readers should think the statistics are exaggerated, may I say that I am satisfied that in 1960 when the first survey was made, one child in every 30 and one adult in every 40 in that Valley was blind.
However, there is a brighter side to this story. As part of the Prevention of Blindness Campaign, associated with World Health Day, 1962, our Society sent two mobile teams into that Valley, and in 4 years they visited and re-visited every school, house and community. In the first year our records show that some 40 children went blind in the valley. In the final year, 1966, only 2 children went blind.
This could have been a coincidence, but we are optimistic enough to think that the message that weaning children need vitamin foods, has now penetrated into the practise of the village mothers. President Kaunda has taken a special interest in this area, and substantial government funds have now been provided to enable a continuous programme of nutritional education to be carried on in that area.
There still are countries of the blind in Africa, some of them yet unrecorded, but this one in the Luapula Valley looks like being on its way out, and the experience could be of interest internationally.
I do not know if you will have space for this in the MONITOR, if you would I would be delighted, but if not, I was sure you would be interested.
Incidentally, Isabella Grant visited Zambia in the course of her present marathon tour of Africa. She has written most interesting letters to me at each point on her tour, and I know that when she gets back to the States she will have a vivid picture to present.
With every good wish,
John F. Wilson
Director Royal Commonwealth Society for the Blind London
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(Reprinted from The New York Times, April 4, 1968)
The Court of Appeals ruled that a blind man, even though he was a college professor and the holder of two graduate degrees, was not qualified to be a juror.
The state's highest court unanimously upheld lower court rulings that Edwin R. Lewinson, an assistant professor of history and political science at Seton Hall University in South Orange, N. J., did not qualify to sit on a jury when he applied to become a juror in Brooklyn, where he lives, in May, 1965.
The lower court decisions noted that Mr. Lewinson, who received masters' and doctors' degrees at Columbia University, did not qualify as a juror because he was unable to fill out a questionnaire, as required by the state's Judiciary Law. The law requires that jurors be "in possession of their natural faculties" not "infirm or decrepit" and unable to read and write English "understandably.”
Mr. Lewinson, the author of a biography of John Purroy Mitchell, the Mayor of New York City from 1914 to 1917, by failing to fill in the questionnaire did not answer questions as to whether he was mentally or physically unable to serve as a juror or whether his hearing or eyesight was "impaired.”
The rulings in the State Supreme Court and the Appellate Division held that Mr. Lewinson's disqualification by Robert J. Crews, the County Clerk in Brooklyn, was justified because Mr. Lewinson was not, in fact, able to perform such functions of a juror as examining evidence and exhibits in court and identifying persons involved in trials. The court rulings also held that Mr. Crews had the legal authority to disqualify Mr. Lewinson and that his action was not arbitrary.
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(Reprinted from The White Cane, March 1968)
Long before there were state and federal programs to permit and aid blind persons to operate vending stands inside government buildings, Robert Scott created a job for himself by selling Seattle Postmaster George Starr on the idea of letting him set up a table to sell magazines in the lobby of the Seattle Post Office in May 1935.
Scott reports that Mr. Starr was afraid that he might not be successful and would quit and that a succession of other blind persons would then seek to follow in his footsteps. Scott pronrused he wouldn't quit. He is still there.
The original stand consisted of a table, a chair, and a muffin tin. He borrowed $10 from his father to purchase his initial stock of magazines and reports that his first month's business totaled $72, Some days his gross sales were as low as 25c.
In 1937 the Rotary Club loaned him money for a counter which he could stand behind and some for a stock of candy and cigarettes in addition to his magazines. His first magazine rack was financed from profits.
The Washington State Association of the Blind salutes Mr. Scott for his early efforts to become independent and his continued effort to lead as normal a life as possible in spite of his handicap.
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by Manuel Urena
Once again it is almost time for our annual convention and to nobody's "sur-prize" the tempo and scope of activities are picking up. I can assure everyone that many "sur-prizes" are in store for those who make the trek to Des Moines this summer. Our president is vigorously moving forward to line up an unforgettable program for every session. In addition, the Iowa contingent is making plans to make this convention not only informative but one that will be long remembered for entertainment, excitement and re-dedication to Federationism.
As Chairman of the Prize Committee I wish to report the progress to date on prizes received from affiliates. At this writing not too many have arrived but if the prizes already received are any indication of what can be expected, then some lucky Federationists will have pleasant trips home!
Our good friend Kelly Smith goes to the head of the class for seeing to it that Alaska was the first state to send its gift. I'm sure that everyone will be happy to know that the Alaskans man through in good style- -skinning many seals--and there will be a goodly number of sealskin wallets to give away. Maryland man next and some fortunate convention goer will take away a handsome attache case. Your Chairman heard from our Kentucky affiliate, and they promised to bring with them their traditional and always welcome prize, a tape recorder. Iowa, too, checked in with its very popular gift, a portable typewriter. For those with aesthetic interest. New Mexico has sent in a very attractive vase. Finally, our newest affiliate, the Texas Blue Bonnet Federation of the Blind, has pledged to send their prize very soon.
At this time I would like to urge all the affiliates to send in their prizes as quickly as possible. As the time for the convention draws near most of us will begin to be fully occupied with last minute details, so the sooner we can get some of these things settled, the better all around.
I do not for one moment wish to leave the impression that there will only be gifts from the states--indeed not.' First of all. President Jernigan has assured me that he will have something very special that will appeal to all thirsty Federationists, if I know their tastes. In addition, the various chapters of the IAB are in the midst of a campaign with white elephant sales, box suppers, and so on, raising money for chapter contributions for the convention in July. And still there is more. Last November two statewide committees were appointed to approach Iowa merchants to secure gifts. Complete results are still not available, but already the enterprize has achieved enough results to be a valuable tool for future conventions. And still there is more. Many businesses and individuals have contributed cold, hard cash which I'm certain will make for bigger and better prizes and "sur-prizes.”
So don't let any grass grow under your feet! First, make sure your state is represented in our prize extravaganza. Second, save your money. And third, complete your plans to attend our Summer Spectacular. I can assure you that this convention will be a memorable one. Send your prizes to me, Manuel Urena, at 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, 50309.
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by John Nagle
On March 19, the Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds, Committee on Public Works, House of Representatives, conducted a daylong public hearing on S. 222, a Senate-passed bill "to insure that public buildings financed with federal funds are so designed and constructed as to be accessible to the physically handicapped.”
All witnesses who appeared endorsed the proposed architectural barriers legislation.
The chief sponsors of S. 222 in the Senate and House, Senator E. L. Bartlett, Alaska, and Congressman Charles E. Bennett, Florida, gave strong support to their identical measures. Congressman Clarence
D. Long, Maryland, and Congressman Joshua Eilberg, Pennsylvania, were also present and expressed supportive views. Five additional House members submitted written statements of endorsement.
The General Services Administration, Rehabilitation Services Administration. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the National Commission on Architectural Barriers, the President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped- -all were represented in the hearing by administrative officials who gave the support of their agencies to S. 222.
The Paralyzed Veterans of America, National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, and the American Institute of Architects also presented testimony through their elected officers in support of S. 222.
John Nagle, the NFB representative in Washington, who had appeared and presented a strong endorsing statement in the Senate hearings on S. 222, submitted an equally strong statement of Federation support in the House hearings.
The NFB testimony concluded:
"It long has been the established policy of the United States Government to encourage and enable physically disabled persons to participate fully in the social and economic life of the Nation, and to engage in remunerative and constructive employment.
"Toward this end, hundreds of millions of federal dollars are appropriated by Congress each year in order that physically disabled persons though disabled, may be trained and educated to enter into the regular occupations and professions of the community and live normal, worthwhile lives.
"But the continued existence of architectural barriers in buildings and facilities nullify these fine, sensible, and sound objectives, and many physically disabled persons, capable and educated, trained and qualified, must live dependent, unproductive lives because of their continued existence.”
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(Reprinted from the S. F. Sunday Examiner-Chronicle, April 21, 1968)
BRENTFORD (England)--The woman who has been called Britain's bravest horsewoman is to lose her most prized possession--the horse she's never seen.
Barbara Sargent, who has thrilled gymkhana crowds as she soared over four-and-a-half-foot fences on her 6-year-old mare, Salan, is totally blind.
Now she has to sell the "telepathic" horse, as she cannot afford the $10 a week to keep her. Said 44-year-old Miss Sargent, at her Brent-ford home: "Losing her will be like losing part of myself. I could swear she knows that I am blind.”
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April 9, 1968
Mr. Richard N. Corash
Attorney & Counsellor at Law
Twenty-Six Bay Street
Staten Island, New York 10301
Dear Mr. Corash:
Mr. John Nagle of our Washington Office has sent me a copy of your letter of March 11, 1968, concerning "Norman Decker and Empire State Association for the Blind v. New York State Commission for the Blind.” I am writing to you in a dual capacity. As President of the National Federation of the Blind I am vitally interested in this matter. The Federation will do whatever it can to eliminate discrimination against the blind in any field. We are particularly interested in any action which would strengthen or improve the vending stand program.
In my capacity as Director of the Iowa State Commission for the Blind I am also vitally interested in the implications of your letter. Are people with partial sight being placed in vending stands (or certain vending stands) to the exclusion of the totally blind? If this is so, it is in my opinion, unwise and unwarranted. We in Iowa operate an extensive vending stand program, ranging from small newsstands to very large cafeterias.
The totally blind function on terms of complete equality with the sighted or partially sighted in these operations. Among some government agencies there has been a persistent--and, I might say--outmoded theory that the totally blind cannot pour coffee, handle food in a sanitary manner or otherwise function efficiently in large vending or restaurant operations. According to our experience this is simply not the case. In the matter of pouring coffee, for instance, a simple electronic device which we have made, permits the blind person to measure the liquid accurately, safely, quickly, and cleanly. The device costs less than $20.00.
The whole problem is the belief on the part of some people (even some professionals in the field of work with the blind) that the blind cannot compete on terms of equality with others. I repeat that this is simply not the case.
I request that you send me a copy of the complaint and any other pertinent data. IS we can be of any help in this matter we do want to do so.
Very truly yours,
Kenneth Jernigan, Director Iowa Commission for the Blind
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Letter from Jack Swager
March 20, 1968
I'm writing you to bring you up to date of the happenings of Omaha and Omaha Association of the Blind project.
A number of years ago the members of our organization felt that there was a need in Omaha for a nice high-class apartment house where the blind could live even though they were on State Blind Assistance.
We made a survey to determine the needs and the feasibility of such a project, the results were overwhelming, that such a project was badly needed. We started to investigate possibilities of loans from Federal Sources. This was met with very little success. We found out that it would be just as easy to try and raise the necessary money on our own. We managed through many ways to raise a little better than $40,000. We found a piece of property which was suitable for our project. This was a two acre estate near downtown.
We purchased this property paid cash for it, we then found that our project had just begun. Through the changes of some of the laws in the Home Finance Agency in Washington we felt that we possibly had an opportunity to secure a sizeable loan.
After many months and many disappointments we were then told that we did not qualify for a loan to build the kind of a building we wanted to build, because the law stated that only those blind people over 62 years of age could reside in this kind of project. With this 62 year limit it did not and would not accommodate many of our people we were trying to help.
So after talking with our Senators and Congressmen and a few trips to Washington, we were able to break down a barrier not only for our project but for projects of similar nature throughout the United States, where many of the Blind Associations throughout the country might now be eligible to secure a loan from the Home Financing Agency under Title 21-D-3, because through our effort two words were added to this law making it possible for such organizations as ours to secure a loan. I might tell you the words added to Title 21-D-3 read 62 years of age or handicapped. We were able to secure a $425,000 loan, and rent subsidies for the duration of our loan.
We are real happy and proud to know that we were the first organization to receive such a loan under 21-D-3 in the United States.
We broke ground on Dec. 11, 1967 and our building is well on its way. Expect it to be ready for occupancy by November in 1968. There will be 43 apartments, private baths, air conditioning, a central dining room, for those who wish to have their meals in the dining room, there will be a music room, library, lounge and recreation room.
We feel that this project will be well received by all who want to live in a real nice high-class environment.
The name of our Home is Walter B. Roberts Manor. Mr. Roberts left us a large legacy in his will which now amounts to $150,000. I thought I would give you this information, as you might want to put it in the MONITOR, or something good for the convention.
Jack Swager, President
Omaha Association of the Blind
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by Jana Lee Sims
(UI Progress Report No. 2, 1968, Progressive Blind of Missouri)
It seems now to be a long look back to the day I first entered summer classes at Kansas City Junior College in 1962. It hardly seems possible that by this June I shall have half completed the requirements for the Master's degree in History at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Along the way, it has been an interesting and even thrilling challenge.
Upon graduating from high school in 1963, after careful planning with counselors and a trial experience at college work in the previous summer, I entered Kansas City Junior College and graduated in 1965. Then I transferred to University of Missouri at Kansas City, where I received my B. A. last June and am now in my first year of graduate work for the Master's degree. I went with the purpose of becoming a teacher of European history on the college level. This is still my goal, and I hope after gaining my Master's degree and teaching for a few years to attain my highest ambition, the doctorate.
Naturally, each blind student going through colleges has his own methods which he prefers. Hearing one another's methods can be helpful. One thing which helped me very much was my close collaboration with counselors and instructors on planning my program and selecting books. I also find a small portable tape recorder for my lectures invaluable, as I do not have to impose on someone else for notes and may take them down just as they are spoken. I attribute much of my improved grade average to this technique. I have only rarely used readers directly until this year. I have depended greatly on volunteers reading onto tape or brailling my work, and upon Recordings for the Blind, Inc. in New York. I am greatly indebted to these people. My instructors have been most cooperative in allowing me to type my exams or take them orally. Many of my fellow-students have cooperated in explaining what I could not see, especially in art or science classes. For instance, the boys in my botany lab gave me descriptions of specimens under the microscope.
The greatest difficulty has been in obtaining full book lists from instructors and having them recorded in time. Somehow it always works out, but it has often caused some last minute worries.
I am convinced any blind person with the intelligence and the will to do the work can make a success of college. I have only rarely met instructors, administrators, or students who were not cooperative and helpful, sometimes even contributing suggestions which have made my work easier. To all these people and especially to my parents who planned and worked devotedly with me, I owe deep thanks.
A closing suggestion I have is that a branch of the student section of the National Federation of the Blind ought to be established in Missouri. I think it would be mutually beneficial to students to exchange ideas.
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(Reprinted from The New York Times, March 2, 1968)
A Federal court upheld state and city welfare regulations that take certain assets from welfare recipients to compensate for relief payments they have received.
The Roger Baldwin Foundation of the American Civil Liberties Union had brought suit to have the regulation declared unconstitutional on the ground that they took assets from the welfare recipients without due process of law.
Real-estate, insurance assets and awards for injuries may be taken to repay aid given during the preceding 10 years. The lawsuit contended that this discouraged relief recipients from moving toward self-support.
The suit also said the repayment provisions were arbitrary, oppressive and irrational because the state "defeats its own stated objective of seeking to make welfare recipients productive and self-supporting.”
The court's majority 30-page opinion was written by Federal District Court Judge Marvin E. Frankel, with Judge Charles M. Metzner concurring. A strong dissent was written by Judge Irving R. Kaufman of the United States Court of Appeals.
Martin Garbus, director-counsel of the A.C.L.U. group, said an appeal would be taken to the United States Supreme Court.
Judge Frankel said:
"Whether or not it makes a constitutional difference, it is worth mentioning that none of the provisions plaintiffs attacked have any deterrent or discouraging effect upon the incentives of welfare recipients to improve their lot by seeking and engaging in productive employment.
"The purpose of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, unlike the more recent models promoting a welfare state, was to take government off the backs of people.
"The principle counsels that it is not for Federal judges to be 'liberal' or 'conservative' in advancing and in ordering measures which undoubtedly relate to basic matters of human decency and welfare.”
In disagreeing with the majority, Judge Kaufman said:
"I am of the view that by reason of the seriousness of the personal interest involved, the inelegance of the scheme designed, the ease of correcting it by more discriminating methods, and the insubstantiality of the interests served, the State of New York has not acted with adequate precision.”
Judge Kaufman said that he would hold that the state was constitutionally required to exempt a modest interest in real property or insurance and at least some part of damages recovered for personal injury.
The Constitution, he wrote, prohibits the state from placing "obstacles in the path of efforts to become independent of welfare bounty or to maintain the independence already achieved.” He said, ”The social benefit of public assistance would come to naught if this were not so.”
"If the property a welfare recipient is able to acquire by legitimate means is subject to attachment without regard to amount,” Judge Kaufman contended, ”the state thus fails to afford proper scope to one's right to be an independent individual, not compelled to rely on government for the right to exist.”
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(An HEW Release)
More than 10,000 industrial employees in the United States may be exposed to the dangerous beam of a laser light, which can cause eye damage and severe burns.
The exposure estimate is a projection from a recent laser survey in Massachusetts. The survey was conducted by the Public Health Service's National Center for Urban and Industrial Health in Cincinnati and the Commonwealth Health Department and Department of Labor and Industries.
The study did not reveal that any individual workers had been hurt by laser exposure, but it did indicate that 60 percent of laser workers in the scientific and controlling instrument industry faced potential risk.
The Massachusetts survey compiled information on the use of 267 lasers in 43 establishments in that State. Massachusetts was chosen for study because it is the location of about 10 percent of the Nation's laser operations and one of five States in which about half of the lasers in the country are being used.
A laser is a device which can concentrate and amplify light waves and emit them in a narrow, intense beam. Lasers are employed in industry for such uses as cutting stone and metal.
Other results of the Massachusetts survey included:
Only about one-half of the industry in Massachusetts required a medical examination for employees before their assignments as laser operators.
Only about 25 percent of the plants had specific requirements for visual safeguards in laser areas. Most of the companies did not require goggles or face shields, and about 25 percent of those goggles provided were considered inadequate protection from the laser energy emitted.
Only a few of the establishments visited used warning signals, such as signs, flashing lights or buzzers, to designate laser areas. In addition, 72 percent of the laser areas visited did not use interlocked doors to reduce access to laser areas during operation.
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by Donna Clayton, Sixth Grade
[Editor's Note: The following poem appeared in Robert Hurguth's column in the Chicago Daily News , April 5, 1968, as a tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King. ]
"My world is a dark and silent one.
"Things have no shape, color, or sound.
"You can say that I live in my own world" of darkness
"All of the time.
"I wonder if I'm really brown as a berry
"And if the sea is blue
"And if the little girls
"Sing and dance like buds.
"I wonder if the seas roar like lions
"When they bump against the stones,
"If the sunset is, I do not know.
"I am blind-black.”
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by Judy Young
The NFB Student Division is proud to announce that the efforts and achievements of one of its members have been publicly acclaimed and widely publicized. Each year the California Junior Chamber of Commerce honors five young men of that state for their professional excellence and outstanding contributions to the community. The men are selected from a group of one hundred candidates who are nominated by local chapters of the J. C. 's.
This year one of the five recognized Californians is Bob Acosta, Student Division member from Chatsworth, California. Bob graduated from California State College at Los Angeles and intends to complete his master's degree from the same college this summer. He has been a competent and successful teacher for several years and is presently employed at Chatsworth High School as a U.S. history teacher. Both his past record and current performance are leading the way toward increased employment opportunities for blind teachers in California and throughout the country. Bob's achievements don't end in the academic world, however. He is an active member of the California Council of the Blind, a strong Federationist, and a tireless leader of the Southern California student organization. His more recent efforts also include the founding of an organization of blind teachers.
"It is a personal honor,” Mr. Acosta says, ”but the real credit must go to the Federation and to every blind person in the nation.” He further stated that although the award was made to him, he accepted it in behalf of the blind everywhere, and would use it to continue the drive toward improving the image of the blind and furthering the Federation goals of security, equality, and opportunity.
Congratulations to you. Bob Acosta! You are a credit to the Student Division and to the blind everywhere!
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[Editor's Note: Last June three-judge U.S. district courts sitting in Connecticut and Delaware held unconstitutional the states' residence requirements for public assistance. These decisions are on appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. On April 19, 1968 another three-judge federal court sitting in California suspended that State's durational residence requirements for public assistance pending the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the Connecticut and Delaware cases. Following is the United Press account:]
SAN FRANCISCO (UPI)--A three-judge federal court eliminated the one-year residency requirement for welfare recipients in California at least temporarily. During arguments on the case earlier this month, Deputy Atty. Gen. Elizabeth Palmer said elimination of the residency provisions would cost the state an estimated $8 million a year.
The court ruled that state regulations holding up aid to dependent children and old age assistance payments until the applicant had been in the state a year raised "serious and substantial questions" regarding their constitutionality.
The court therefore issued a preliminary injunction "pending further action of this court,” which apparently hinged on similar cases to be argued before the U. S. Supreme Court (April 22).
The court considered four individual cases and ruled that they are "properly a class action,” thereby applying its ruling to all persons in similar circumstances.
The judges said the serious constitutional questions involved the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment and the constitutional right to travel freely.
The three-judge court consisted of O. D. Hamlin, Jr., of the Ninth Court of Appeals and U.S. Dist. Judges Albert C. Wollenberg and Alfonso J. Zirpoli.
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The NFB Student Division is trying to collect at least one copy of each issue of THE BRAILLE MONITOR, THE BLIND AMERICAN, and ALL STORY MAGAZINE. If you have old issues of these magazines, and if you are willing to contribute them toward the building of a complete collection, we would greatly appreciate it if you will send them to us. We need all regular issues and supplements that appeared prior to January, 1965. Mail these magazines to Ramona Willoughby, 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, 50309.
The Handbook for Blind College Students is now completed. One copy has been sent to each person whose name and address is listed in the Directory of Blind College Students and to each NFB Student Division member. The Library of Congress will distribute the Handbook to regional libraries and machine agencies. We have received requests from blind students, schools for the blind, and other interested persons, and these requests have also been filled. There is still a limited number of Handbooks available, and we will fill additional requests on a first-come-first-serve basis. If you would like to have one or more copies of the Handbook address your request to Judy Young, Dunkerton, Iowa. We are planning to write a revision to the Handbook as soon as possible. Therefore, if you have any suggestions to make regarding it, we would be glad to hear from you. Send these comments to Judy Young, also.
The NFB Student Division is planning several activities for students during the coming NFB Convention in Des Moines. On Monday, July 1, at 8:00 p.m., the Student Division will hold its annual business meeting. Later in the week President Jim Gashel, will report to the Convention on our activities during the past year and on our plans for the coming year.
On Saturday, July 6, all blind students and interested blind persons already employed in the professions are invited to participate in the Student Seminar. The primary thrust of the Seminar will be directed toward the building and activating of local organizations of blind students. Several regional and local organizations of blind students have already been formed across the country, and others are being planned. We hope to see these organizations become a vital force improving opportunities for blind students, and for the blind in general.
Following is an outline of the agenda for the Seminar;
Saturday, July 6, 9:00 a.m.: Discussion of future efforts and goals of the NFB.
Student Division: Chair. Jim Gashel, President.
10:00 a.m. Panel Discussion: Instances of Discrimination Against Blind Students and Professionals and Actions Taken, presented by those individuals who were discriminated against.
12:00 a.m. Lunch, Served at the Commission Grill.
1; 30 p. m. Panel Discussion: Structure and Objectives for the Groups of Blind Students possible projects and procedures; when such an organization should act, presented by local student leaders from several states.
3:30 p.m. Discussion of Students and Professionals in Federationism, led by NFB President, Kenneth Jernigan.
6:00 p.m. Cook-out on the Iowa Commission Building roof.
The entire Seminar will take place at the Iowa Commission for the Blind Building.
The Student Division Executive Committee will hold an open meeting, also at the Iowa Commission for the Blind Building, Sunday, July 7, at 9:30 a.m. This meeting will be open to all who care to attend.
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Assemblyman William T. Bagley (R-San Rafael) introduced legislation which he termed "in essence, a civil rights act for the blind and disabled.” Known as the Model White Cane Law, the measure is a product of study by the eminent University of California Professor, Jacobus tenBroek, himself blind. Bagley introduced similar legislation last session which passed the Assembly but was held in the Senate for interim study.
Bagley noted that "as Professor tenBroek has said, the policy of this act is to entitle the disabled to full participation in the life of the community, and to encourage and enable them to do so. The community at large can only benefit from such a bill, and I am confident that it will pass this Legislature as rapidly as possible.
"The bill defines various rights of blind and other physically dis- abled persons with respect to accommodations and public facilities, and specifies duties of other persons toward the disabled. It also provides that the Governor annually proclaim October 15 as White Cane Safety Day,” Bagley stated.
Several states already have enacted legislation of this type. Most other states are currently considering enactment.
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by Clyde Ross
In his senior year of high school at the age of 17, Donald G. Morrow was examining a model airplane. The propeller was spinning, and struck Don in the eye. The injury resulted in the loss of sight in both eyes. All of this was six weeks before Commencement. Don was not present at his high school graduation exercises.
Strong medicines used to combat infection weakened Don's physical condition so that it required a year and a half to recuperate. In the latter part of this period, Don worked in the Pennsylvania Association for the Blind broom shop in Pittsburgh. He had also learned braille by this time. With some help from Rehab, Don started to the University of Pittsburgh in 1946. In 1949, he received his B.S. degree. Then he went to work as an instructor in Industrial Training for the PAB. After 18 months Don accepted the position of case worker with the Welfare Department, working in Harrisburg and in Philadelphia. In 1952, Don became a Rehab Counselor for Services for the Blind in Harrisburg. In 1956, he advanced to Assistant Manager of the Rehab office in Pittsburgh. In 1958, Don started to night school at the University of Pittsburgh. In 1962, he received his M.A. degree in public administration. In the same year, he became District Manager of the Pittsburgh Rehab office. In preparing his thesis for his M.A. degree, he made a study that brought out how little welfare employees knew about their own operations. As the result, Don's thesis continued with a plan for orientation and in-service training programs for welfare personnel. In 1965, Don man to Akron as Coordinator of Rehabilitation and Personnel for Goodwill Industries. Don has succeeded in each step of his career.
April 1, 1968, Donald G. Morrow became the Director of the Lucas County Welfare Department in Toledo, Ohio--the first blind man to be employed as a County Welfare Director in the State of Ohio.
He has been active in many service and fraternal organizations. In 1965, Don and his wife and their four children moved to Akron. He became a member of the Summit County Society of the Blind and entered into our activities as much as his time permitted. The SCSB does not like to lose members of Don's caliber. March 25th, the Summit County Society of the Blind held a reception for Don and his wife, Phyllis, at which tune we presented him with a briefcase, Don is a credit to our blind people. All of his friends in Akron are wishing him and his family happiness and success in Toledo, Ohio.
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In March of each year volunteers and friends of the Twin Vision Publishing Division of the American Brotherhood for the Blind gather together not only for an evening of dimer and speeches, but most important, for an examination of the past year's progress and a look at the future. This year's progress report shows clearly that Twin Vision books now have become firmly established as a source of reading material for blind children and blind parents of sighted children throughout this country.
A simple but unique technique of combining identical text in print and braille on pages facing each other allows Twin Vision books to be read by blind and sighted together . Thus the blind child and his sighted parents can read beloved children's stories together. Moreover, the blind parent is not denied the privilege of reading story books with his sighted children. With Twin Vision books the eyes of the sighted and the hand of the blind see together.
The Twin Vision Publishing Division of the American Brotherhood for the Blind now serves all State Schools for the Blind and all Regional Braille Libraries of Congress throughout this nation. The Brotherhood has reached out to serve sixteen foreign countries; from Italy to Saigon, from Canada to Africa. Wherever they go, all Twin Vision materials are provided free of charge. To date approximately 28,000 children's books have been Twin Visioned and distributed--all by volunteer workers.
In 1965, when the demand for Twin Vision books from individuals became too great for our production facilities the Twin Vision Lending Library was established. Since that time subscribers have increased more than ten fold.
Twin Vision transcribers have prepared hundreds of individual titles, in addition to books from production runs, to furnish a wide selection of excellent reading material of interest through the Junior High School level. Many rewarding letters like the following have been received from mothers of blind children: "Let me say again how much we appreciate this service. Stacy has been able to make all his book reports this year from Twin Vision books"; and "I would like to start taking books for my child. She is ten years old. She is taking braille now but does have some sight so would like the books with braille and print.” The use of Twin Vision as a transition material for those losing their sight demonstrates another of its values.
Production of foreign language books in Twin Vision is being stepped up. Six titles have been prepared in Spanish, two in French, and two are being transcribed in German. The featured speaker at the recent Twin Vision dimer was a volunteer worker from a school for blind boys in Guadalajara, Mexico. She described how Twin Vision books in Spanish are helping the younger children to learn braille, while those in English are an incentive and help to the older boys learning this language.
The deaf-blind are comparatively isolated from current news of the world because of their double handicap. For them Hot Line To The Deaf-Blind is published every other week. Along with its steady increase in subscribers, Hot Line has been experiencing a sudden growth of new subscribers as a result of recent national publicity. The many letters of gratitude from readers, most of them written in braille, are a testimony to the value of this service.
This year Twin Vision began the publication in braille of its Great Document Series. The first was the Declaration of Independence, including raised illustrations of the first and present American flags. The second, The Constitution of the United States is nearly completed; it will include a raised illustration of the Liberty Bell. The third in this series will be the Gettysburg Address.
Research in the field of raised illustrations, sponsored by the American Brotherhood, has culminated in the publication of original books in Twin Vision with raised illustrations written especially for blind children. The supply of the first of these books, ”The Shape of Things -- ROCKETS AND SPACE SHIPS,” has long been exhausted except for lending library copies. Publication of "The Shape of Things — BIRDS" is a continuing effort. Three other titles are now in production: "The Shape of Things--COINS,” "Where Does An Apple Come From?" and "At The Table" prepared especially for slow learners.
Another original book in preparation is The White Cane Story. There has been no adequate single source of information on the history of the white cane. Extensive research, bits of information gleaned from many sources, and a great deal of help from blind persons themselves have made it possible, finally, to prepare such a book. The White Cane Story will be widely distributed, especially to those who are about to learn cane travel.
Braille calendars published by Twin Vision have increased in popularity every year. Calendars are distributed free of charge to all institutions and individuals requesting them.
The Twin Vision Publishing Division publishes braille material for the California Council of the Blind, and assisted the National Federation of the Blind during its recent convention in Los Angeles. Twin Vision materials have been supplied to blind children being helped by inmates of a state prison and by fraternal and social organizations throughout the country.
An ever-increasing number of institutions serving the blind as well as blind persons themselves are seeking out the services of Twin Vision. The story of Twin Vision is the story of an agency for the blind, of the blind and dedicated volunteers, who have taken the initiative to create materials and services not previously available to blind persons.
A highlight of the 1968 Annual Dimer was the presentation of Golden Book Awards by Jean Dyon Norris, Publishing Division Director, to Jean Scott Neel, author and raised illustration artist for all original Twin Vision books, and to Elaine Dosoretz, braille instructor, and her husband, Leo, a Twin Vision benefactor.
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by John Nagle
On March 27 and 28, and again on April 2 and 3, Chairman Dominick V. Daniels' Select Subcommittee on Education, Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives, held public hearings on two Vocational Rehabilitation amending bills.
H. R. 15827 was developed and sponsored by the National Rehabilitation Association, and H. R. 16134, by the Rehabilitation Services Administration, Department of HEW, and both were introduced by Congressman Daniels.
Although each bill generally differed from the other, they shared the common objective of endeavoring to make substantive and far-reaching changes in the existing Vocational Rehabilitation Law, to the disadvantage of physically and mentally impaired persons.
In a written statement submitted for the consideration of the subcommittee members, the National Federation of the Blind expressed its views on the two bills as follows:
As blind people, as people with a physical disability which detrimentally affects our opportunities for obtaining constructive and competitive employment and living worthwhile lives, we are among those for whom the federally-supported state programs of vocational rehabilitation were established and are maintained at great public expense.
The views we express to this committee on H. R. 15827 and H. R. 16134, are based upon our experience as blind people--as clients of vocational rehabilitation programs.
We of the NFB believe in vocational rehabilitation, for we know that it offers the only constructive and hopeful means of solving the social and economic problems of the Nation's physically and mentally impaired citizens--and this is particularly so when the impairment is blindness.
With this philosophic and practical orientation, the NFB has examined H. R. 15827 and H. R. 16134.
The NFB supports the provisions of Section 2 of H. R. 15827, which would extend the authorization of appropriations for Section 2 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act funding in the amount of $750 million for fiscal 1971 and $850 million for fiscal 1972. We believe that Section 2 of the VRA, under which direct vocational rehabilitation services are provided to disabled people, is the most important section of the Act.
As you well know, automation increasingly eliminates unskilled jobs in business and industry--the kinds of jobs the handicapped generally end up doing, even though their talents and aptitudes oftentimes merit them much more and qualifies them for much more. As these unskilled jobs disappear, vocational rehabilitation agencies are, finally, turning to the professions and skilled and semi-skilled occupations as offering possible employment opportunities.
As a result, the cost of preparing disabled people for employment has greatly risen, and such preparation now may require years, when, in the past, only days or weeks were needed to fit a disabled person for employment.
Administrators of these state programs have to consider and approve long-range educational and training plans for their clients. They must know that financing will be available during the full course of study or training.
We urge you to accept and approve the amount recommended in that section of the proposed legislation, for these amounts will permit program growth and expansion and are in accord with anticipated program needs.
But, Mr. Chairman, federal dollar authorizations and federal dollar appropriations for vocational rehabilitation services only have meaning in the lives of physically and mentally impaired men and women when the federal dollars are actually paid to the states for case service expenditures.
It is a fact that very few states take full advantage of federally-provided money for vocational rehabilitation services.
In fiscal year 1965 when one dollar of state money brought about two federal dollars, only 7 of the 54 states and territories claimed their full share of available federal money for vocational rehabilitation services.
In fiscal year 1966, the first year under the new VRA Amendments (P. L. 89-333), when one dollar of state money brought three federal dollars for use in providing services to handicapped people, only five jurisdictions claimed their full share of available federal money.
And in fiscal year 1967, again only five jurisdictions claimed their full share of available federal money for vocational rehabilitation services.
Mr. Chairman, why do the overwhelming majority of the states fail to take full advantage of available federal money for their vocational rehabilitation service programs?
We believe there are several reasons.
As demands for more and better state-provided services and higher salaries multiply, state government costs mount far more rapidly than there are state revenues to meet them; in the competition for state dollars to match federal dollars in the various federally-aided state programs, vocational rehabilitation agencies, too often, come off "second best" because of the failure to understand the importance and value of vocational rehabilitation programs; and the practice of state officials in using their limited state funds to match federal money in programs where the greatest return in federal money can be obtained.
Whatever the reasons, the full amount of congressionally-provided funds for rehabilitation services for handicapped people is not being used, and consequently is not available or reflected in expanded and improved living and livelihood opportunities for handicapped men and women.
The NFB thinks the most practical solution would be to change the financial matching formula in Section 2 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act from the present 75 percent federal, 2 5 percent state ratio, or three federal dollars for each state dollar, to 90 percent federal and 10 percent state, with nine federal dollars obtainable for each state dollar.
Thus, a state which now receives $75,000 federal money for $25,000 state money, would receive, under the revised formula, $225,000 federal money for the same $25,000 of state money.
The NFB believes this suggested change in the Vocational Rehabilitation Law is much needed and we urge its adoption by this committee and the Congress.
If this recommendation is too extreme at this time, then we ask and urge you to approve Section 5 (f) of H. R. 15827, which proposes to change the federal-state matching formula from the present 75 percent to 80 percent federal, and from 25 percent to 20 percent state.
Although this latter proposal would not be as satisfactory as the matching formula recommended above, it would still be a great and far-reaching improvement over existing law.
However, whether this committee adopts our proposed 90 percent- 10 percent formula for federal-state participation in the financial burdens of vocational rehabilitation programs, or whether you adopt the proposed 80 percent-20 percent formula contained in Section 5 (f) of H. R. 15827, we would urge you to include a provision requiring continuation of efforts by the states to use the same amount of state funds in their vocational rehabilitation programs as they are presently using. In this way, you will make sure that as federal money is increased, state money in vocational rehabilitation programs is not proportionally decreased.
Mr. Chairman, the NFB is opposed to Section 4 (a) of H. R. 15827, which would permit the waiver of the existing requirement that a single agency administer a state vocational rehabilitation plan in the state. If vocational rehabilitation agencies are allowed to surrender their separate agency status and merge with other state agencies, we believe the objectives of vocational rehabilitation programs will soon be dissipated and distorted as they are altered and adjusted to fit the needs of companion agencies. . . .
The NFB is opposed to Section 4 (a) of H. R. 15827. If state vocational rehabilitation agencies are allowed to share administrative responsibilities with other state agencies, evasion and the shifting of responsibility will be the result.
Under existing law, Mr. Chairman, a state vocational rehabilitation agency is distinct and identifiable, and thus is clearly and directly accountable for its administration of the program of vocationally-oriented rehabilitation services to handicapped persons--it is accountable to legislators, to laymen, and it is accountable to the handicapped people themselves.
Mr. Chairman, the NFB is opposed to Section 4 (c) of H. R. 15827, which would permit continuation of statewide studies of the needs of handicapped persons and how these may be most effectively met.
By authority of prior amendments to the VRA, studies of the needs of disabled people have been conducted by vocational rehabilitation agencies. The NFB believes there has been far too much studying of the needs of handicapped people by vocational rehabilitation agencies and far too little effort expended by such agencies in meeting our known needs.
As a matter of fact, Mr. Chairman, the National Federation of the Blind believes studies were never needed to determine the nature of the help disabled people need from vocational rehabilitation agencies.
We need a sensible and thorough understanding of the limitations of our impairing conditions, and an equally thorough and sensible understanding and appreciation of the potentialities for the achievement of a normal life and regular livelihood still available to us and attainable by us!
We need skilled and efficient training in the alternative techniques that have been devised and developed to permit us to function successfully in spite of our disabling conditions!
We need sufficient and quality education and training commensurate with our interests, talents, and aptitudes, to prepare us for constructive, competitive employment!
And, Mr. Chairman, once we have gotten the education and training, once we are prepared for employment, and qualified for employment, we need help, competent help, imaginative and determined help, to actually assist us to secure employment!
If administrators of vocational rehabilitation agencies are in doubt as to the needs of handicapped people, if our needs are not known to them, let them consult with their handicapped clients! We know our needs well for we live with them and are frustrated by them and, sometimes, are defeated by them! We need no costly and wasteful studies to ascertain our needs!
Mr. Chairman, the NFB is opposed to Section 5 (e) of H. R. 15827, which would eliminate separate definitions of "rehabilitation facilities" and "sheltered workshop" in existing law, and redefine "rehabilitation facilities" to include sheltered workshops.
It would be a contradiction of fact to describe sheltered workshops as rehabilitation facilities. Sheltered workshops are not rehabilitation facilities and to describe them as such, would only serve to cloak their true nature with respectability. We, blind people, can speak with much authority about sheltered workshops, for we have been condemned to work in them for centuries. We have been the victims of them for centuries!
The basic and underlying concept of the sheltered workshop is not rehabilitative, inducing and encouraging a spirit of hope and self-confidence. The sheltered workshop is segregative and exclusionary, and it induces a spirit of defeatism and encourages the development of a fear of the outside competitive and cooperative world. It instills a spirit of dependency and a wanting for continued shelter! Historically, the function of the sheltered workshop has been and is, to provide "busy" work to the handicapped, work not expected to result in financial gain, but work designed to keep the handicapped occupied, to keep them comfortable and content!
Sheltered workshops do not nor can they serve as rehabilitation training facilities. By its very nature, the sheltered workshop is removed from the mainstream life and activities of the community! It is a retreat from regular economic endeavor! It is a refuge from everyday competitive and cooperative living!
The very designation of the sheltered workshop as "sheltered" conclusively indicates its unfitness to be properly described as a rehabilitation facility! The very designation of sheltered workshops as "sheltered" clearly and conclusively indicates their unfitness to prepare disabled people for competitive employment and independent living, for self-dependent and contributory living]
The very designation of sheltered workshops as "sheltered" shockingly and irrefutably indicates the rash impropriety of describing this retrogressive and "sweatshop" institution as a rehabilitation facility!
Mr. Chairman, the National Federation of the Blind is opposed to Section 8 of H. R. 15827, which would authorize vocational rehabilitation agencies to provide vocational rehabilitation evaluation and work adjustment services to persons disadvantaged for employment by factors other than physical or mental impairment.
The NFB recognizes the need for the services proposed. We recognize that a person can be handicapped for employment even though he is physically and mentally fit, if he is inadequately educated or industrially unskilled; if he is non-white or he is socially or culturally deprived to the extent he is denied equality of opportunity by reason of such circumstances in his life; or if he is denied equality of opportunity by prejudicial public attitudes toward such circumstances in his life.
The NFB approves the separate financing proposed for the evaluation and work adjustment of disadvantaged persons provision. We believe this specifically designated funding would prevent the use of funds intended to meet the vocational rehabilitation needs of physically and mentally handicapped persons from being diverted to the use of disadvantaged people differently handicapped. We believe other safeguards must also be included in the proposal to make certain that inclusion of non-physically and non-mentally handicapped persons in the established vocational rehabilitation programs will not in any way diminish or detract from the effectiveness of such programs for handicapped persons] We believe the proposal should require the assignment of specifically designated personnel to administer the new evaluation service program.
Mr. Chairman, we believe that, if this separately designated personnel feature is not included in Section 8 of H. R. 15827, the vocational rehabilitation counsellor, pressured by the need to show the results of his work by the numbers of persons served, would find it much too advantageous to concentrate his attentions and labors upon the relatively simple and soluble problems of the socially and culturally and educationally disadvantaged, rather than the difficult and seemingly insoluble problems of the physically and mentally disabled. Also, this evaluation and work adjustment for the disadvantaged proposal should require separate and separately reported statistical data. There would then be no possibility of confusion as to the numbers of physically and mentally disabled persons served, and the numbers of otherwise disadvantaged persons served, by vocational rehabilitation agencies.
Mr. Chairman, the National Federation of the Blind is opposed to Section 9 of H. R. 16134, which would allow the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to use one percent of vocational rehabilitation appropriated funds for evaluation of vocational rehabilitation programs.
The blind members of the NFB believe vocational rehabilitation personnel should be fully employed, and all funds appropriated to provide handicapped persons with vocational rehabilitation aid and assistance should be fully employed, in meeting the vocational rehabilitation needs of physically and mentally handicapped persons. If such vocational rehabilitation program evaluations are made, they will be made by vocational rehabilitation personnel, themselves, who will be evaluating themselves and their own work.
We know, for it has always been so, that if such evaluations are made, the views and experiences of disabled clients and former clients of these agencies will not be sought and considered. Without drawing upon this substantial source of information, any evaluations of the programs could only provide inaccurate and misleading conclusions.
Mr. Chairman, the National Federation of the Blind is opposed to Section 10 (a) of H. R. 16134, which would revise the VRA purpose clause, so as to remove employment as the objective to be served by vocational rehabilitation programs, thereby completely changing existing vocational rehabilitation programs into rehabilitation programs.
The National Federation of the Blind stated at the commencement of this testimony: "We of the National Federation of the Blind believe in vocational rehabilitation, for we know it offers the only constructive and hopeful means of solving the social and economic problems of the Nation's physically and mentally impaired citizens. ..."
Our belief in vocational rehabilitation is based, Mr. Chairman, upon its vocationally directed, its employment purposed philosophy and provisions. Our belief in vocational rehabilitation is based upon its vocational orientation, its services-toward-employment purpose.
To remove employment as the statutorily specified purpose of vocational rehabilitation, we believe, would so change the emphasis of existing vocational rehabilitation programs that they would soon cease preparing their disabled clients for competitive employment. Rather they would increasingly concentrate their attention and efforts toward helping their disabled clients to function more comfortably as disabled persons. But they would live economically dependent upon others, they would be unfitted for competitive employment, and competitive and cooperative living.
Finally, Mr. Chairman, the National Federation of the Blind enthusiastically approves Section 10 (c) of H. R. 16134, which would authorize the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to contract with business and industry for on-the-job training programs for handicapped persons. The NFB has long contended before committees of Congress for the rejection of the concept and practice that only sheltered workshops are proper and fit places to provide job-training for handicapped people.
On April 14, 1965, in hearings conducted by the House Special Subcommittee on Education, we presented a resolution adopted at the 1964 national convention of the National Federation of the Blind, attended by nearly a thousand blind persons from every part of the Nation and from every segment of the Nation's social and economic life.
This resolution stated: "In the rehabilitation and training of disabled persons, emphasis should be placed upon methods alternative to the sheltered workshop as a rehabilitation training facility, such as on-the-job training in competitive, non-sheltered employment, the use of vocational schools, apprenticeship training programs, tutorial and regular educational institutions.”
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by Sally Jones
Attitudes vs. the Law
Most other states have no specific laws sanctioning or restricting the hiring of blind teachers. Twenty-three of the states answering the Thomason- Barrett questionnaire say they have no physical qualifications stated in the law, and thirty-nine said they had no policy regarding the certification and employment of blind teachers. 50 Because there does not appear to be any opposition to the hiring of blind teachers on the state level does not mean that blind certificated personnel have no problems in acquiring teaching contracts. For the most part, as was stated over and over, the hiring is left to local boards and hiring officials.
The struggle of the blind teacher for the right to compete goes on.
While the legal restrictions that exclude the blind from the teaching profession are beginning to yield to the pressures from blind persons who marshal support for proposed changes in the statutes, a stumbling block that is much more difficult to remove is that of public attitudes about blindness and the capabilities of the blind as effective teachers, especially on the elementary and secondary levels.
Foremost among the skeptics are the educators themselves. In 1954 the Dean of the School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles, wrote a blind student, ”Regretfully I must inform you that you cannot hope to complete a teacher training program at this University. After a careful review of your case by the Subcommittee on Health, it was found that you will be unable to qualify for admission to supervised teaching on this campus.”51 In the same year the Dean justified his action by saying:
The Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Certificates of Completion of the School of Education consistently has refused to approve blind and partially sighted students as candidates for the University's Certificate of Completion leading to elementary or secondary credentials. . . . The committee considers it an injustice to students thus handicapped to try to prepare them for a career where there is no opportunity for placement. . . . There have been several blind people holding credentials who have been registered with the office of Teacher Placement. The Office has never been successful in placing one in a public school position. 52
The attitude of this University must persist to this day since in 1965 a professor in the School of Education reported that, ”At present, there are no blind students at UCLA in the teaching programs,” and that she "did not know why two blind students transferred to other universities to complete requirements for their teaching credentials.”53 It might be interesting to note that the blind student who was so discouraged in 1954 transferred to the University of California at Berkeley, subsequently completed requirements for her teaching credential, taught several years on the secondary level, 54 and in the fall of 1966, taught Spanish to Peace Corps Trainees on the University of California Los Angeles campus. 55 Even with this background of teaching experience, shortage of teachers, especially language teachers, she has been unable to obtain a contract to teach in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
Overcoming the Skeptics
It is fortunate that not all schools of higher learning in California share the same views as these hard-to-convince skeptics. Since 1954 many blind teachers have earned their California teaching credentials and more than fifty of them are employed in the California schools on the elementary and secondary level.56 Many have been teaching for more than ten years.57 The first totally blind teacher of sighted students in California public schools was a graduate of San Francisco State College, did his practice teaching in the Campbell School District, and began his first teaching assignment in the Temple City Intermediate School District in September of 1954.58 He has taught in the same district ever since except for the school year 1965-66 when he took a year's leave of absence to work on his Master's degree in mathematics. He is now teaching Algebra in the Temple City High School. 59
One of the first graduates of the then newly-established Department of Special Education at San Francisco State College is the only blind teacher (and has been for the past eighteen years) in the San Francisco Schools. She holds a position in a private school where she teaches the blind and mentally retarded.
The University of California at Berkeley has also trained many blind teachers, due probably to the attitudes of the school administrators as expressed by Dr. David Stewart, Director of Placement: "From the placement point of view, we find many administrators in California who are willing to interview, talk with, and employ blind students. We are anxious to work with blind students, blind student teachers, and fully trained personnel when they come to our department of education here in Berkeley.60
Dr. Claire Pederson, supervisor of Education, University of California, Berkeley, had this to say about the blind student teachers under her supervision: "A person that has gone through the difficulties of becoming a teacher in spite of impairment, their motivation must be extremely strong. In my experience, they're unusually intellectually gifted, I have observed that my blind student teachers have been very ingenious in developing techniques--helping youngsters relate to them, use of the blackboard, materials, and so on.”61 As far as discipline was concerned, she felt that blindness was not a liability, that the blind teacher "can have a morale effect on the group--a cohesive and rallying effect. The youngsters are more cooperative.”62
Breaking Down Bars
Stereotypes do change in time. Intercultural education in the schools leave children freer of prejudices than parent groups. ”Stereotypes are not identical with prejudice,” says Gordon Allport.”They are primarily rationalizers. They adapt to the prevailing temper of prejudice or the needs of the situation.”63
Blind persons by precept and example are slowly undermining the thick walls of prejudice and a hole through which light shines appears here and there. Back in the 1930's Eleanor Brown, the first blind teacher of sighted children in Ohio, decided to work for her Ph.D. ”Now,” she said, ”the 'no people' man out in throngs. There were those who didn't want me to waste my time; even professors angrily opposed me. ... I faced problems with money, with health, with the exhausting years of study, but at Columbia University in June of 1934, I became the first blind woman to gain a Ph.D.”64 Dr. Brown taught in the high schools at Dayton, Ohio for nearly forty years and retired in 1953. How many lives she touched, how much she modified the stereotype of blindness in the minds of her students, no one can tell.
In New York one of the problems of the blind student, in spite of legislation which permits the credentialing of blind teachers, is the gaining of admission to the state teachers' colleges in preparation for a teaching credential. In 1961 a Committee on Employment of Blind Teachers met with the ten presidents of the New York University Colleges of Education to try to persuade these schools to open their doors to blind applicants who come to them highly recommended by agency personnel who have known and worked with the blind students over a period of time. This committee, chaired by M. Anne McGuire, Director, New York State Department of Social Welfare, Commission for the Blind, was a subcommittee of the Joint Legislative Committee of the Greater New York Council of Agencies for the Blind and the New York State Federation of Workers for the Blind. Mr. Allen W. Sherman, Executive Director, the New York Association for the Blind, gave the opening address entitled, ”Using All of Our Resources.” He was supported by Mr. Irving Friedman, Director of the Governor's Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped; Mr. George Keane, Chairman of the Legislative Committee of the American Association of Workers for the Blind; Miss Dorothy Perry, legally blind school psychologist in Oneonta, New York; Mr. Stewart Bowden, totally blind teacher of some four years' standing in the Norfolk, Virginia schools. This joint effort by New York leaders in rehabilitation of the blind was an attempt to convince the educators in the New York teachers' colleges that there is a place for the blind in teaching, that it is feasible to open the doors to blind students, that it is only fair to give them the opportunity to succeed or fail according to the interests and abilities of the individual, that the screening should be done first at the agency level where the interests, aptitudes, abilities, and goals of the blind student have been carefully examined before recommendations are made to the college authorities and second, by the supervisors in the education departments who work closely with the students during their whole training program.
While agencies on the East Coast are trying to break the barriers to the education and certification of blind teachers, educators on the West Coast seem to be more receptive to change and new ideas. Southern Oregon College at Ashland, Oregon, admitted a blind student to its teacher training program. In the spring of 1960, he had completed the required courses and one student teaching assignment in the Ashland schools. As Dr. Ward, Dean of the Department of Education, Southern Oregon College, reported in an article he wrote for the state's educational publication:
Ron's progress during his first student teaching experience was phenomenal. His warmth, enthusiasm, and desire to be a good teacher, were instrumental in his exceptional progress. However, the techniques Ron was learning were those of a sighted teacher. Persons concerned in his program felt that his second student teaching assignment should be with a blind teacher who was responsible for a regular classroom of sighted boys and girls, who was considered successful by parents, administrators and colleagues. 65
Through the combined efforts of several professional people, arrangements were made with school authorities to send Ron to California (there were no blind teachers in Oregon teaching on the elementary level) to do his second practice teaching assignment (September 6 to December 16, 1960) under the supervision of a blind teacher. They chose as his master teacher a totally blind third grade teacher in the San Lorenzo school district. When a member of Southern Oregon College's staff visited Ron during the first week in December, he found that Ron was:
Not only effectively teaching the basic subjects--reading, writing, arithmetic, social science and science, but he was also handling his own music and physical education very efficiently. The reports from the building principal, the district supervisor, the college supervisor and the supervising teacher all indicate that placing Ron with Miss Ticer for student teaching had been a tremendous success, . . . The atmosphere for learning which Miss Ticer was able to create with [sic] something to behold! I have never seen a better learning situation! In addition to providing a climate for learning the basic subjects, Miss Ticer's class provided for students to learn about human relations, respect for others, responsibility, and the art of oral communication which exceeds that found in most classrooms taught by teachers with sight. 66
Since that time Miss Ticer has been the master teacher for three of California's blind student teachers (two of whom are now employed; the other is married) and one fully sighted student teacher in training.
A third roadblock of far greater importance to the blind teacher aspirant is the psychological barrier of the stereotype of blindness in the minds of school administrators, boards of education and personnel directors who interview, evaluate, and hire or reject the blind applicant. Laws can be amended, changed, thrown out and new laws written; colleges and universities can throw open the doors to blind students and let them rise or fall on their own merits; still the blind teacher often meets a brick wall of resistence when he begins to apply for a position. No matter what his grade level, no matter how good his record of practice teaching or the excellence of his references, no matter how well adjusted he is to his blindness, or his standing in the community, the blind teacher meets opposition and disbelief from school officials who interview him. How could he possibly maintain discipline? How would he be able to keep the many records required of the teacher? How would he take roll? How would he get to work? How could he be expected to carry his share of extra duty assignments required of all teachers? How could he write assignments on the blackboard? In too many cases there is little or no discussion of qualifications. The attitudes of hiring officers range all the way from extreme politeness to outright discourtesy, for example, terminating an interview as soon as it is discovered the applicant is blind. Educators are, in the main, conservative. They do not readily adopt new ideas, but they do communicate with each other. When a blind applicant finds an administrator with an open mind, who feels secure in his own position and is willing to try something new, offers the blind teacher a contract, observes the teacher's abilities in the classroom and because of those abilities rehires him and gives him tenure in the district--another brick is knocked from the wall of prejudice against the blind in the teaching profession.
The Problem of the Large Consolidated School Districts
From whence comes the bulk of the opposition to the hiring of blind teachers ? Not from the average size to small school districts which, in increasing numbers, are hiring the exceptionally well-qualified blind applicant, but from the large districts in the state. Of the twenty-seven blind instructors teaching sighted students on the elementary and secondary levels in California67 only one holds a regular contract in the public schools of the three or four largest cities in the state. Seldom, if ever, would these cities even permit the colleges or universities within the city to place a blind student in the city's schools for practice teaching assignments.
Dr. Ross Hancock, Training Consultant, Personnel Division, Los Angeles City Schools, summed up the attitude of that department when in 1965 he said to a news reporter, ”It is board policy to employ teachers in Los Angeles only as substitutes, only to teach handicapped children and only as part of a team-teaching setup where other teachers can keep an eye on them and help them whenever needed.”68 At the 1965 Conference of Blind Teachers69 where he made this statement. Dr. Hancock praised the outstanding work of one of their blind, long-term substitute teachers in the field of remedial reading and quoted her principal as saying, ”I'll take another half-dozen just like her.” Dr. Hancock continued, ”She's doing a beautiful job out there, and we're delighted to have her.70
In an unpublished report written shortly before this same conference was held. Dr. Claude Fawcett, Placement Director of the University of California at Los Angeles, found that there was no difference in results of success or failure of the thirty^ eight blind teachers studied by him than would appear in a similar study of sighted teachers. 71
Prior to the introduction of California Senate Bill 989 (1965) Senator Grunsky, Chairman of the Fact Finding Committee on Education, conducted a confidential survey of the principals of the schools in California employing blind teachers to determine the success or failure of blind teachers under their supervision. Ninety per cent of the principals responded and the results indicate "a level of satisfaction of blind teachers far above that which could be expected from a random sampling of sighted teachers.”72 The report goes on to say:
Thirty-two of the forty-five teachers have been employed for three years or more, and, therefore, have obtained tenure. All of the blind teachers were rated at average or better, and more than ninety per cent were rated at either good, excellent, or superior.
To the question "What kind of class control does he or she maintain?" only one of the teachers was rated as poor--the rest being rated as average or better. Eighty per cent were held to be above average in this factor.
Of all the principals polled, only three indicated that they would not employ a blind teacher if they had the decision to make again with their present knowledge.
The fact that the questionnaire represented frank expression was borne out by the fact that approximately half of the principals had encountered some special problems with their blind teachers. These included such items as difficulty with yard duty, transportation, etc. Apparently the overall performance was adequate to compensate for any special arrangements that had to be made as indicated by the overwhelmingly favorable answers to the questions.
It must be concluded from the answers to the questionnaire that virtually all of the blind teachers in the public schools of California have been successful in their chosen field. 73
In the large cities the closed-door policy affecting the blind teacher applicant may be due to several factors. First, there is the law of supply and demand. It seems that large numbers of teachers flock to the cities, hoping to be employed in a large metropolitan area where salaries, for the most part, are better. Many newly credentialed teachers apply within a limited circle of the area where they received their training. Second, hiring officials employ perhaps ten per cent of the applicants interviewed.
One screening process that eliminates a goodly number of aspirants is the school district's health report which is required of all applicants. Some forms are short; some are much longer. San Diego Unified School District's Health Form, dated February 5, 1965 74 consists of three pages of questions for the examining physician to answer. The examination covers the applicant from the top of his head to the soles of his feet. On page three (B) vision is listed. Applicants must have "at least 20/30 with or without glasses in the better eye.” Disqualifying defects include corneal scars, opacities, ulcers, nystagmus, glaucoma, tumor, exopthalmus, and inability to distinguish colors. In December, 1966, despite changes in the law on the state level, this form was still in use and unrevised. 75 Los Angeles and San Francisco have similar forms. One teacher amusingly remarked that if one wanted to teach in Los Angeles, he would have to be free of all defects, including fillings in the teeth. The closed-door policy of the Los Angeles School Administrators was modified slightly in August of 1967. A well-qualified, totally blind teacher was given a contract to teach American Literature and U.S. History in one of the Los Angeles City high schools. 76
The Blind Image
One other area, perhaps more important than any so far discussed, which presents roadblocks to the employment of the blind in the public schools is the "image" of the blind. It is more than just a category into which blind persons are crowded, be they mentally retarded or mental giants. It is here that man's irrational nature takes over. Fears of the imagination overshadow the objective examples of the achievements of those who are blind, which we see all around us. Not oriented to blindness, we cannot conceive of ourselves as able to perform without the aid of any useful vision. Therefore we make a value judgment and say the feat is impossible. The judgment may not be related to reason at all. It is in most cases an emotional response colored by our own apprehensions and based on mythical stereotypes.
"It is a curious paradox that so little is known about the blind, despite the fact that blindness is an age-old impairment,”77 said Hyman Goldstein. ”In its eternal search for knowledge, society needs the help of us all, the sightless as well as the sighted. Each can contribute in some measure so that all may see, so that hopefully blindness, as well as the darkness of ignorance, may be forever eliminated from man's lot.”78
At the University of Chicago in the summer of 1961 a six-week study was conducted to explore the ramifications of the elementary teacher in a sighted class. 79 Five blind student teachers and sixteen sighted students participated. ”Specially designed tests included one given to the sixteen children before they had seen the blind teachers, to measure their attitudes toward blind persons. Changes in many of these attitudes were apparent from results of the same tests given at the conclusion of the summer study.”80
Dr. Herbert M. Greenberg, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Long Island University said, ”Losing your sight is not as bad as the feeling you get later when people slam doors in your face, when all you ask is--not a favor--but merely a chance to prove your ability. That really hurts. The fumy thing about prejudice is this; once you get the job, the prejudice melts away. You are treated like an equal.”81
Dr. Jacob Freid, Editor of the Jewish Braille Review, in an editorial said, ”The blind are the victims of a quiet, subconscious prejudice . . . 'don't call us-'-we'll call you;' denials of employment, closed doors in graduate, professional and social work schools; smiling turn-downs by personnel directors.”82
Judge Beldock, in his decision to block the efforts of Mr. Chavich to obtain accreditation in the New York City Schools, summed up the attitudes of our present day society--that the blind are not competent even when they demonstrate competency--when he said, ”Whether a blind teacher may satisfactorily perform classroom duties in a particular school may not be left to the determination of the school principal or other supervisory official.”83
Alfred McCauley, in his study of blind college teachers, found that the personal qualities which made blind teachers perform effectively were the same as those of the sighted teacher--imagination, ingenuity of mind, integrity-but when it man to the ones who had failed, the "causes of failure,” the reasons given, were quite different. Here he found "wooden-Indian appearance; failed to adjust to the demands of the classroom; could not communicate adequately to students; inability to use sufficient variety of materials; inability to perform in research.”84
The editor of The Lantern, a publication of the Perkins School for the Blind, discussed two other areas in which blind applicants for teaching positions in that school were deficient:
Last winter the principal reported that a vacancy was occurring which could well be filled by a blind man or woman. Among the many letters that man to us from blind persons seeking positions were two from young men who seemed eminently suited for this particular job. They were invited, at school expense, to come for an interview. As their records showed, they were men of considerable knowledge and intelligence, with some classroom teaching experience and acceptable personalities.
However, their daily-living skills were so inadequate that they would have been the laughing-stock of our pupils. One of them was as clumsy in moving around as anyone can imagine; and the other was quite incapable of handling his own food at the dining table. 85
Dr. Bertold Lowenfeld, in "The Social Impact of Blindness Upon the Individual,” traces the trends of society's attitudes toward the blind from that of elimination of the blind (cast them to the river or to the wolves), to the right to live--to be protected (receivers of charity)--to the right to compete, to contribute, to live normal lives. He said, "It might be noted that it was the blind themselves that proved to society and to their contemporaries at large, that they were capable of outstanding achievements and by these demonstrations began to change the 'image' of the helpless blind.”86
The trend of the times is change--change on many fronts. Morris Zelditch, writing about "Social Change and Its Impact on the Services We Render,” says that change in inter-group relationships, the struggle for integration "is slowly changing the attitudes of minority groups so that they expect more and demand more of our society. I suggest that this spells a likely increase in demand for more and better services. . . . Another result of this change is the development of an interest in research in social work processes and results.”87 (Emphasis supplied)
Dr. Lowenfeld lists ten important advances which have been made in work for the blind during the past fifty years.88 Only two of them need be mentioned here; 1) mobility training, the ability of the blind to move about freely, and 2) vocational rehabilitation, about which he says:
[A]ttitudes of agency personnel in work for the blind have changed from the assumption that the blind could do only certain things--make brooms, weave baskets, cane chairs--to present day approach: "Asks and tests for the individual blind person's aptitudes and interests, provides training in the kind of work for which he is best suited (no matter whether any blind person has done it before), and assists him in being placed in the field for which he has been successfully trained. This complete change in approach has resulted in an increased influx of blind people into the professions after college training.”89
Federal legislation to rehabilitate the blind dates back to 1920, following World War I and the return of many blinded veterans.90 Other legislation was passed in 1943,91 1954,92 and 1965,93 each time expanding the rehabilitation services for training and research.
May or can the blind teacher compete in our society? Are the roadblocks--legal obstacles to overcome, administrative obstacles to fight at both the college and employment levels, a false "image" that must be changed--insurmountable?
The legal restrictions are being removed, one by one. Administrative obstacles present a more difficult problem and are tied in closely with the "blind image.” How can this image be changed? Maxine Wood, in "Blindness--Ability, Not Disability,” says that in order to change public attitudes we should accent "ability of the blind instead of disability.”94 Tom Joe, blind consultant on Health and Welfare to the Assembly of the California Legislature, also thinks we should focus on ability rather than disability, quit so much talk about the blind genius and how he conquered his handicap; begin discussing the average teacher who happens to be blind but is treated equally , measured by the same yardstick as sighted teachers. 95 Dr. Wallace, Director of Placement, San Francisco State College, says that it is the "responsibility of employing agencies and the employer who interviews prospective teachers not to emphasize the handicap. The emphasis must first be placed on the abilities of the teacher.”96 Placement bureaus can be very effective in this area at the time they recommend teachers to superintendents and personnel directors in the public schools. Robert Colton, Specialist and Director of Instruction, Modesto High School, suggested that "a blind applicant contact neighboring districts to the ones in which a blind teacher has been employed because they will usually be more aware of the initiative, ingenuity and resourcefulness of the handicapped person.”97 Principals and superintendents communicate freely with each other. They discuss abilities as well as disabilities, be the teacher blind or sighted.
Another method of modifying the "blind image" is through good publicity--newspapers, magazines, educational publications--depicting the success stories of blind teachers. Many articles of this type have appeared during the last ten years since blind teachers began to be employed in the public schools. To list only a few (all the teachers except one are totally blind):
"The Blind: Better Language Teachers?"98 The Director of the Institute of Modern Language, Washington, D.C. says, ”This effective, modern speak-listen method of foreign language instruction is ideally-suited to blind teachers, well able to detect and correct subtle differences of sound.”99
"The Ed Kuncel Story"100 A social studies teacher for thirty years in a Nebraska high school, Mr. Kuncel is now head of the department and president of the local educatioral association.
"The Blind in Teaching,”101 is an article about a California third grade teacher and the master teacher of a student teacher from Oregon.
"Pauline Gomez, Woman of Vision,”102 is a kindergarten teacher in Santa Fe, New Mexico, who opened a private school in the fall of 1946 with an enrollment of eight. She is now teaching thirty tots each year in her own newly-constructed scientifically-equipped building.
"Should Blind Persons Teach in Public Schools?"103 This is a discussion of the feasibility of blind teachers in the public schools and some of the problems the blind teachers encounter.
"The Teacher in Room 18"104 The parent of a child in this teacher's classroom summed up her attitude toward the blind teacher when she said, "The child working under a handicapped teacher may also benefit by being trained to become more independent and responsible. He is apt to gain lifelong sympathy and understanding of those with physical handicaps.”105
"Four More Blind Teachers Gain Employment in the Public Schools"106 One of these teachers is teaching on the elementary level, two are on the secondary level and the fourth is teaching on the college level.
"Profile of an Art Consultant"107 A supervisor of art teachers in the Menlo Park, California, elementary schools, after loss of vision, continued to teach art and supervise the art teachers in the district.
"Wilder Couple Prove the Blind Can Teach Successfully in Public Schools"108 is the account of a blind couple teaching in Idaho, one of whom is epileptic in addition to being blind.
"Blindness No Handicap". A Mendocino, California, high school mathematics and science teacher "inspires students in the laboratory". 109
"Our Teacher Sees With Her Hands" is a story, with many pictures in color of a California kindergarten teacher in the public schools.110
A third method of modifying the "image" is the education of blind children in the public schools. At the present time, due to the rapid increase of the incidence of blindness in the 1950's, 111 nearly sixty per cent of school age blind children are attending public schools, according to records maintained at the American Printing House for the Blind. The accent of these programs in public schools is on open competition of the blind student with the sighted--same assignments required, same tests, same treatment (hopefully). In California, the percentage of visually handicapped students attending public schools is much higher than sixty percent--nearly ten times the number attending the residential school for the blind.
The sharp increase in the number of blind students attending schools of higher learning will do much to upgrade the "image" of the blind. An OVR survey taken in 1958 showed 990 blind students in college; 112 in 1966 that number had jumped to two thousand in more than four hundred colleges across the country.
Blind persons performing in various professional and semi-professional fields also do much to upgrade the blind "image.” A short time ago Robert Kennedy, speaking to a group of blind people, told them, ”It might come as a surprise to many people in the United States that the man in charge of surveying and studying the records within the Civil Rights Division--records that have to be so carefully appraised--that all this was done under the direction and control of a man who is blind. So I know from personal experience what kind of a contribution those who are blind can make.”113
Roger Peterson, then a blind student and candidate for a doctorate in Psychology at Cornell University in 1966, compiled a "Directory of Blind Students in America."114 He listed names, addresses, and declared majors, if any. Of the 527 students identified, 95, or eighteen per cent, were majoring in education. The number of potential teachers in this group is much higher if the majority of those majoring in history, English, psychology, French, speech, etc., go into the teaching field. The next five years should find many more well-qualified blind teachers in our public schools.
Research across the nation--wall do much to enlighten our thinking about the true effects of visual impairment. In 1966 John Eckert, a blind student at California Western University in San Diego, wrote a Master's Thesis on the Personality Traits of the Blind in Professional Occupations.115 He concluded that there was "no significant difference between blind and sighted persons (control group) in professional occupations. . . . The blind, like the sighted, possess an optimum degree of the personality traits which the culture ascribes to good psychophysical and psychosocial adjustment, so that blindness, in and by itself, does not cause debilitation of the entire personality.”116
In 1965 George King, in his doctoral thesis,117 found that nearly eight per cent of the 431 handicapped teachers identified in public schools of New Jersey had a visual impairment, and that "Careers for the disabled in teaching are needlessly restricted.” US 118
Limitation of mobility is one of the most serious effects of blindness and has been one of the major causes of the helpless-blind image. Improved training techniques in orientation and mobility will free the blind person of this shackle. With freedom of movement comes independence, and with independence comes freedom to choose, freedom to develop interests and native talents, and freedom to choose one's life work.
It seems that the greatest concern of administrators, when discussing the objections to hiring blind teachers, is the question of discipline. This is a major problem of beginning teachers in any district and affects the quality of work produced by all teachers. One elementary blind teacher, when asked about her discipline problems, replied.
If you mean the police-like watchfulness--standing over a child to "see" that he is in line with accepted behavior, I cannot answer how to do that. . . . A blind teacher, like any other, must be able to establish a strong rapport with the children in her class. I spend much more time now, at the beginning of each year, in developing this rapport with the group, working out little techniques of student responsibility. The teacher must not only instill respect for herself but must also make the children feel that they are respected by her, and that she has confidence in their ability to handle their behavior in the classroom. They must be taught, also, to respect each other. . . . The first day in the classroom sets the tempo for the entire year. I have materials so well arranged that things go smoothly from the beginning. Every minute of the day is completely planned so that there is no opportunity for laxness, on my part or theirs. I can truthfully say that, since I became blind, I have had classes better able to control themselves than any I had as a sighted teacher. 119
Good discipline is synonymous with good teaching. If vision were the determining factor, no teacher with 20/20 vision would have a problem. Mary Bauman and Norman Yoder, in their interviews with blind teachers found that, ”The teachers felt unequivocally that the discipline problems were no different for a blind teacher than for one who is sighted. . . . If the feeling between teacher and student is good; if significant, meaningful teaching is going on, then discipline problems will be at a minimum.”120
Mildred McLendon, in 1966, did a study of blind teachers in the public schools of California.121 Fifty-six of the sixty-six blind teachers that she contacted completed her questionnaire. Thirty-six, sixty-four per cent, had taught in the California schools for five or more years, half of these had taught ten years or more; twenty-eight, forty-six per cent, were teaching on the secondary level; twenty, thirty-three per cent, were teaching elementary level; all except two were teaching sighted students. When compared to the 1960 list of blind teachers in Californial122 in which only ten blind teachers were listed teaching sighted students, this is progress by any yardstick. From her findings, Miss McLendon concluded:
In educational background, credentials and degrees held, years of service, grades taught, and teacher load, the group evidenced definite superiority. The wide variety of subjects taught would indicate that blindness is no deterrent to successful classroom teaching. An overwhelming majority participated in extra-curricular activities, took part in community life and the extent and variety of hobbies listed would do justice to the most physically able. 123
Many well-motivated, well-trained, well-adjusted blind teachers are still finding it difficult to obtain positions because school administrators and personnel directors do not understand "how" a person who is blind can teach. But each year blind teachers in increasing numbers are obtaining positions, and open-minded school administrators who are willing to give blind teachers the same consideration they give their sighted applicants and offer contracts to the best qualified, regardless of visual acuity, are obtaining excellent teachers who are an asset to the district as well as to the community.
50 Opportunities for Blind Teachers in Public Schools , p. 11.
51 Jernigan, The Blind in the Teaching Profession , p. 8.
52 Id. at p. 9.
53 Sixth Annual Conference of Blind Teachers, 1966, p. 4.
54 List of Blind Teachers, (Appendices) Third and Fourth Conference of Blind Teachers Reports, 1962, 1963.
55 List of Blind Teachers, Seventh Conference of Blind Teachers Report, Appendix A, Dec. 3, 1966.
56 List of Blind Teachers, Eighth Conference of Blind Teachers Report, Appendix A, Dec. 2, 1967.
57 Mildren McLendon, Potential Resources Among The Blind For Teaching In The Public Schools, p. 73.
58 Aleta Rea Owens, ”Our Student Teacher Was Blind,” The New Outlook, September, 1955, p. 264.
59 Eighth Amual Conference of Blind Teachers, Appendix A, December 2, 1966.
60 Report of the Third Annual Conference of Blind Teachers in California, December 1, 1962, p. 4.
61 Id. at p. 3.
62 ld. at p. 2.
63 Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, p. 199.
64 Eleanor Brown, ”Blind Girl's Formula Endures,” Oakland Tribune, Friday, March 12, 1963, p. 12.
65 William T. Ward, ”The Blind in Teaching,” Oregon Education, May 1961, p. 10.
67 Eighth Conference of Blind Teachers, Appendix A, December 2, 1967.
68 Bob Nagey, P-B Staff Writer, ”The Blind Can Lead--And Do A Good Job At It, Too,” Progress "Bulletin , Pomona, California, December 19, 1965.
69 Dr. Isabelle Grant, ”Progress and Prospects for the Blind Teacher,” Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of Blind Teachers , held at Pepperdine College, December 4, 1965, p. 5.
71 ld. at p. 4.
72 Senate Daily Journal , May 17, 1965, p, 2381.
74 "Administrative Regulations, Medical Examinations," Supplement No. 4620°1. Ref. R&R 3020, 3033, effective 2/5/65, Revised.
75 A blind teacher applicant in San Diego questioned the legality of the form and brought the topic up for discussion at the Seventh Annual Conference of Blind Teachers, December 3, 1966.
76 "The Case of Mr. X", Eighth Annual Conference of Blind Teachers, Los Angeles State College campus, December 2, 1967, Appendix A.
77 Hyman Goldstein, ”So That All May See,” The New Outlook, November, 1964, p. 280.
78 Ibid. p. 284.
79 Dr. Marguerite O. O'Connor, ”A Pilot Study for the Blind Students in Education Who Plan to Teach Sighted Children,” conducted at the University of Chicago, Summer, 1961; reported in Listen, February, 1962.
81 Hal Boyle, AP News Feature, November 25, 1960.
82 Jacob Freid, Editorial, Jewish Braille Review , November, 1962.
83 Alexander Chavich v. The Board of Education of the City of New York, See The Braille Monitor, Feb. 1965, p. 4. ; May, 1965, p. 38; Aug. 1965, p. 49.
84 McCauley, The Blind Person as a College Teacher , p. 65.
85 ”More Than Good Grades Are Needed,” Editorial, The Lantern, December, 1965.
86 Berthold Lowenfeld,”The Social Impact of Blindness Upon the Individual,” The New Outlook , November, 1964, p. 273.
87 Morris Zelditch,”Social Change and Its Impact on the Services We Render,” The New Outlook , December, 1962, p. 347.
88 Berthold Lowenfeld,”The Role and Status of the Blind Person,” A Historical Review, The New Outlook , February, 1964, p. 36,
90 public Law 41, 1920.
91 public Law 51, 1943.
92 public Law 68, 1954.
93 public Law 79, 1965.
94 Maxine Wood, ”Blindness--Ability, Not Disability,” Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 295, New York Association for the Blind, March, 1960.
95 "Professionalism and the Blind Teacher,” p. 1.
96 "Ipertinent Data for the Hiring Season,” Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of Blind Teachers held at City College in San Francisco, California, December 7, 1963.
98 Rocca, ”The Blind: Better Language Teachers?" Performance , Vol. XIV, No. 10, April, 1965. p. 5.
99 Id. at p. 6.
100 Sylvia Brotman,”The Ed Kuncel Story", Journal of the National Education Association , Vol. 47, No. 9, December, 1958, pp. 637-653.
101 William T. Ward, ”The Blind in Teaching", Oregon Education, May, 1961, pp. 9-11.
102 "Pauline Gomez, Woman of Vision", The Santa Fe Scene , December 10, 1960, pp. 4-7.
103 Helen and Ralph Bronson, ”Should Blind Persons Teach in the Public Schools?" The New Outlook , May 1964, pp. 153-156.
104 Franklin S. Barry, ”The Teacher in Room 18", New York State Education , May 1964, pp. 10-12.
106 "Four More Blind Teachers Gain Employment in the Public Schools", The Braille Monitor, September, 1958, pp. 27-30.
107 "Profile of an Art Consultant", Newsletter , Orientation Center for the the Blind Alumni Association Bulletin, April, 1963, p. 3,
108 ”Wilder Couple Prove the Blind Can Teach Successfully in Public Schools", Idaho Education, 1963.
109 "Blindness No Handicap", P.G.&E Progress , November, 1958, p. 4.
110 S. Gordon, ”Our Teacher Sees With Her Hands", Look Magazine , April 23, 1963.
111 Caused by occurrence of retrolental fibroplasia in premature babies.
112 "Survey of Blind Students", by HEW, The Braille Monitor . January, 1958.
113 The Braille Monitor, August, 1965.
114 Roger D. and Nancy A. Peterson, Directory of Blind College Students In America , March, 1966.
115 John Eckert, A Study of Personality Traits of the Rehabilitated Blind in Professional Occupations , 1966.
116 Id. at p. 48.
117 George King, The Incidence of Employed New Jersey Public School Teachers Having Certain Physical Handicaps and the Effect of the Handicap on Specific Teaching Tasks , Rutgers University, Sept. 1965.
118 Id. at p. 2.
119 "Onvia Ticer,”Classroom Discipline and the Blind Teacher,” The Braille Monitor, June, 1959, p. 13.
120 Mary K. Bauman and Norman Yoder, Placing The Blind And Visually Handicapped In Professional Occupations , Ch. 12, p. 134.
121 Mildred McLendon, Potential Resources Among The Blind For Teaching In The Public Schools.
122 Exchange of Ideas and Devices Used By Blind Teachers , Appendix A, 1960.
123 Mildred McLendon, Potential Resources Among the Blind for Teaching in the Public Schools, p. 103.
BLIND TEACHERS IN CALIFORNIA
Elementary, Secondary, College Level School Year 1967-68
(S-Sighted Students; B-Blind Students; M-Mentally Retarded; H-Handicapped; RS-Residential School for the Blind, Berkeley)
|*Acosta, Robert||S||American Literature; U.S. History Chatsworth High School, Los Angeles|
|*Allado, Dolores||S||English, Napa Union High School, Napa|
|*Baca, Arturo||S||Spanish, Terra Linda High School, San Rafael|
|*Bardis, Lynda||S||French TA, University of California, Berkeley|
|Benjamin, Gary||S||U.S. History; World History, Mt. Whitney High School, Visalia|
|*Bernay, Michael||S||7th & 8th Grades, Floyd Elementary Jr. High School, Kerman|
|Brande, George Max||S||Associate in English, University of California, Riverside|
|Brandemeyer, Gerard||S||Sociology, San Francisco State College, San Francisco|
|Brooks, Lym||B&S||Resource Class; Wrestling Coach, Napa Jr. & Sr. High Schools, Napa|
|Budds, Frank||M||Mohrland School, Hayward|
|Buell, Charles||S||Spanish, Claremont High School, Claremont|
|*Bull, Mari||B||Resource Class, Lee School, Long Beach|
|*Burns, H. G.||S||Psychology, Los Angeles City College, Los Angeles|
|Canty, Patricia||H||Park & Markham Elementary Schools, Hay ward|
|Casey, Bill||S||6th Grade, Fairmont School, San Lorenzo|
|Cochneuer, Walter||S||English, Lincoln High School, Stockton|
|*Cooper, Barton||S||Philosophy, College of San Mateo, San Mateo|
|*Cros3, Ralph||B&S||Arts and Crafts; P. E. Starr King Exceptional School, Carmichael|
|Dicks, Demis||B||Resource Class, K-6, Dry Creek Elementary School, Rio Linda|
|*Edmonds, John||S||Assistant Director, Public Relations, Armstrong College, Berkeley|
|Fisher, Jim||B||Resource Class, Mayfair Elementary School, Fresno|
|Freitas, Ron||B||Resource Class, Orville Wright School, Modesto|
|*Gold, Sharon||S||5th Grade, Branch Elementary School, Edwards|
|*Gonsalves, Manuel||S||History; Government, Modesto High School, Modesto|
|Gunther, James||S||6th Grade, Ben Ali Elementary School, North Sacramento|
|Harper, Alfred||S||U.S. Government, Magnolia High School, Anaheim|
|*Heath, Morris||S||12th Grade Civics, Palo Verde High School, Blythe|
|Helms, Warren||B||Resource Class, Hoover High School Glendale|
|*Hicks, Fletcher||S||English, Laney Jr. College, Oakland|
|*Houck, Albert||S||9th Grade English; Counselor, Lomia Linda Union Academy, Loma Linda|
|Kimbal, Ernest||B||Resource Class, Daniel Phelan School, Whittier|
|Kuder, Robert||S||5th Grade, Castro Valley Elementary School|
|*Kruger, John H. Jr.||S||Business Adnainistration, Fresno State College, Fresno|
|Lindley, Sandra||S||7th Grade Geography; 8th Grade History, Hamilton Jr. High School, Fresno|
|Mangold, Phil||B||Resource Class, Earl Warren Jr. High School, Castro Valley|
|Mangold, Sally||B||Resource Class, Proctor School, Castro Valley|
|*Marcos, Angela||B||Resource Class, Alvin Avenue School, Santa Maria|
|*Marti, Werner||S||History, California State Polytechnic College, Pomona|
|Martina, Elizabeth||B&M||Curriculum Coordinator; Advanced Class, Lucinda Weeks School, San Francisco|
|Medina, Nick||B||Resource Class, Parkmead Intermediate School, Walnut Creek|
|*Mills, Andrew||S||Psychology, San Diego Jr. College, Mesa Campus, San Diego (on leave)|
|Mogren, Kemeth||B||Resource Class, Grant Joint Union High School District, Sacramento|
|Mowbray, Carol||S||Kindergarten, Van Wig School, La Puente|
|*Neufeld, Gerald||S||French TA, University of California, Berkeley|
|*Rawls, James||B||Music, Sierra Vista Jr. High School, Covina|
|Reed, Rose||B||Remedial Reading, Fair Avenue Elementary School, North Hollywood|
|*Samaniego, Alice||S||English, Temple City High School, Temple City|
|*Sanematsu, Ben||B||Resource Class, Branham High School, San Jose|
|*Schmidt, William||S||Algebra, Temple City High School, Temple City|
|Serrano, Stella||S||Spanish, Sacramento State College, Sacramento|
|Sinclair, Fred||B||Consultant in the Education of the Visually Handicapped, State Dept. of Ed, Sacramento|
|*Smith, Robert||S||Music, Rio Hondo Jr. College, Whittier|
|*S wans on. Jack||S||8th Grade, Hawthorne Intermediate School, Hawthorne|
|*Swolgaard, Don||S||English; Speech; English Literature, Tulelake High School, Tulelake|
|Talamantes, Pascual||B||Resource Class, Hilltop Jr. High School, Chula Vista|
|tenBroek, Jacobus||S||Political Science, University of California, Berkeley|
|*Tillinghast, Onvia||S||3rd Grade, Grant Elementary School, San Lorenzo|
|*Valencia, Margaret||S||English Literature, Grammar & Composition, Tri-Community Adult School, Covina|
|Wallace, William||B||Resource Class, McClatchy High School, Sacramento|
|Warren, Sidney||S||History & Political Science, California Western University, San Diego|
|Wellington, Jean||S||6th Grade, McKinleyville Elementary School, McKinleyville|
|*Westbrook, Sibyl||B||Resource Class, Starr King Exceptional School, Carmichael|
|*Williams, Harold||M||Supervisor, MR Classes, Grant Union High School, District, Sacramento|
|Wilson, Mary||S||5th Grade, Maxwell Park School, Oakland|
|*Wotherspoon, James||S||History, American River Jr. College, Sacramento|
|Zerland, Patricia||S||7th Grade Music, Choral and Classroom, Garfield Jr. High Schook, Berkeley|
California State School for the Blind (Residential), Berkeley
|*Anderson, Berenice||B||9th Grade, Math and Languages|
|*Campbell, Robert||B||Director of Advanced Studies|
|Cyphers, Ron||B||Deaf-Blind, Ungraded|
|*di Francesco, John||B||Choral Music; Voice|
|Fields, Jerry||B||Special Classes, Jr. High School|
|Fogarty, George||B||8th & 9th Grades Business Practices, Occupations|
|*Frunz, Pauline||B||3rd Grade|
|*Huckins, Ross L.||B||5th Grade; Jr. High School Science; Boy Scouts|
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The Chicago American reported on March 18, 1968, that the Board of Election Commissioners sponsored a special orientation course for the blind in the use of voting machines. Twenty-five blind people memorized the numbered positions of candidates and proved they could vote without assistance.
The first titles in the new series of SCRIBNER LARGE TYPE EDITIONS are:
THE GREAT GATSBY, by F. Scott Fitzgerald $6.95
THE APPLE TREE AND OTHER TALES by
John Galsworthy $7.95
THE WIND IN THE WILLOWS by Kenneth Grahame. Illustrations by Ernest H. Shepard $6.95
A FAREWELL TO ARMS by Ernest Hemingway $7.95
THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA by Ernest Hemingway $6.95
HAIRCUT AND OTHER STORIES by Ring Lardner $6.95
Prices are tentative and subject to change.
KANSAS CITY (AP), April 15, 1968--A rare Serum was flown from St. Louis to Kansas City to help save the sight in a 3-year-old girl's right eye.
The child, Kris Kametz, suffered a smallpox vaccination reaction that affected her eye. Doctors said such a thing could happen only once in a million times.
The Red Cross started a nationwide search for the serum, vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), and 15 cubic centimeters were processed from 96 blood donations made by personnel at the Great Lakes Naval Air Station who had received specially controlled smallpox vaccinations.
The American Association of Instructors of the Blind will hold its 49th Biemial Conference, June 23-27 in Toronto, at the Royal York Hotel. ”Beyond the Three R's" the Conference theme, will be treated in three General Sessions, five Concurrent Sessions and six Workshop Meetings.
SOUTH AMANA, Iowa (AP)--A dream has come true for 14-year-old Dean Heitshusen, whose lifelong ambition has been to drive a tractor. Virtually blind since birth, he received a corneal transplant at the University of Iowa hospital, which has enabled him to see well enough to drive a tractor on the family's 300-acre farm.
A thoughtful, modest and helpful documentary on a blind child's adjustment to as normal existence as possible was presented on "Experiment on Television" on N. B. C. Allan Grant, photographer, spent a year following the progress of Lee Rubenstein as the boy's parents, Mr. & Mrs. Joel Rubenstein, substituted love and enlightened guidance for their son's eyesight. The development of the blind boy's senses of touch, smell and hearing were allowed to evolve on the screen with touching naturalness. The program, entitled "What Color is the Wind?,” was an object lesson in bridging the gap between the sighted and unsighted.
(from Jack Gould's column in the New York Times, April 15, 1968.
Vincent and Marion Burke of Syracuse will move to North Miami Beach, Florida, not Hollywood as previously printed. They are not going to buy the home of Mr. & Mrs Sam Sitt, but they will buy a house. Also due to circumstances beyond their control, Mr. & Mrs. Sitt have had to cancel their plans to move to California and will remain in their own home in North Miama Beach, Florida.
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