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Guide to the National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records, 1940-2011 (bulk 1955-2002)


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Descriptive Summary
Administrative Information
Restrictions
Related Material
Historical Sketch
Scope and Content Note
Arrangement Statement
Selected Search Terms
Series Description
Record Group 1: National Federation of the Blind (NFB), 1940-2011
Record Group 2: NFB Affiliate Files, 1943-2011
Record Group 3: American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults (AAF), 1962-2005
Record Group 4: Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund (JtB), 1968-1994

Descriptive Summary

Repository:
National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute
The Jacobus tenBroek Library
200 East Wells Street
at Jernigan Place,
Baltimore, MD, 21230,
jtblibrary@nfb.org

Collection No.: C2011.1

Creator: National Federation of the Blind

Title: The National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records

Inclusive Dates: 1940-2011, undated

Bulk Dates: 1955-2002

Quantity: Approximately 1,758 linear feet (including 108 filing cabinets, 289 Paige boxes, 100 Hollinger boxes, 45 Bankers boxes and 21 oversized folders).

Language and Scripts: Materials primarily in English. A significant portion of the collection is in Grade 2 Braille.

Abstract: Correspondence, publications, drafts, administrative files, case files, news clippings, legislative files, core documents, reference materials, speeches, fundraising materials, convention files, audio/video recordings, Braille documents, and miscellany documenting the interests, advocacy, and daily business of the national headquarters of the National Federation of the Blind (NFB), the oldest and largest national membership organization of blind people in the United States. Collection also includes the records of the state affiliates of the NFB and its sister organizations: the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults and the Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund. The NFB is an active organization and new records will be added as they become available.

Location: Records Center 1

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Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Researchers wishing to cite this collection should use the following citation:

[Record Group Title, Series Title, Subseries Title]: The National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records. Jacobus tenBroek Library, National Federation of the Blind, Jernigan Institute, Baltimore, MD.

Acquisition Information

The National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records are the property of the National Federation of the Blind, the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults, and the Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund. Administrative management of the collection was granted to the Jacobus tenBroek Library in 2004

Processing Information

Collection processed by Anna Kresmer and Lou Ann Blake, May 2010-May 2011.

Finding aid encoded by Anna Kresmer, May 2011.

With support from The National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), as part of the project Bringing Blind History to Light.

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Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Access to these papers is governed by the rules and regulations of the Jacobus tenBroek Library and the policies of the National Federation of the Blind. Legal files protected by attorney-client privilege are restricted. Also, scholarship application materials containing student or health information are restricted. Use of audio cassettes may require production of listening copies. Please consult the Archives staff for further information.

User Restrictions

The Jacobus tenBroek Library holds copyright on some, but not all, of the material in our collections. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be directed to the Archives staff. Researchers who obtain permission to publish from the Jacobus tenBroek Library are also responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations who hold copyright.

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Related Material

For additional materials held by the Jacobus tenBroek Library concerning the National Federation of the Blind and its founder, Jacobus tenBroek, please consult the Guide to the Jacobus tenBroek Personal Papers 1924-1997 (bulk 1938-1978).

Related materials providing further information on the National Federation of the Blind and the California Council of the Blind can also be found in the following collections at the University of California at Berkeley, Bancroft Library: Aid to the blind in California, 1918-1955: an interview: oral history transcript / 1955 and The California Council for the Blind and other activities of the blind, 1881-1956: oral history transcript / and related material, 1955-1956. Both are additionally available as full text documents at the Internet Archive.

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Historical Sketch

The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) was founded on November 16, 1940 in Wilkes Barre, PA, at a meeting of the executive committee of the Pennsylvania Federation of the Blind (PFB) during its state convention. Led by Jacobus tenBroek (1911-1968), a young blind constitutional law scholar, members of the PFB executive committee and representatives of blind organizations from six other states—California, Missouri, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Illinois—adopted a constitution and elected their first officers. Their mission was to create a national organization governed by the blind with a majority blind membership that would work to improve the social, economic, and physical well-being of all blind people through mutual aid and common action. This organization would band together the various state associations of or for the blind, along with individual blind members, to deal directly with the federal government and work to advance a national legislative program.

The chief authority of the NFB is the Convention, made up of the membership assembled at the annual national convention. Officers include the president, first vice-president, second vice-president, secretary, and treasurer who are elected biennially by a majority vote of the affiliates present and voting at the national convention. The president serves as the principal administrative officer, implements policies adopted by the Convention, and conducts the everyday affairs of the organization. He also appoints committee members, coordinates the work of officers and committee members, and supervises NFB employees. The organization has had seven presidents, of whom the three longest-serving are regarded as having set the course for the NFB. Serving as president have been: Jacobus tenBroek (1940-1961, 1966-1968); John Taylor (1961-1962); Perry Sundquist (1962); Russell Kletzing (1962-1966); Kenneth Jernigan (1968-1977, 1978-1986), Ralph Sanders (1977-1978); and Marc Maurer (1986-present).

During the early period of the NFB, the officers were members of an executive committee that included four additional elected members and acted as the governing body when the Convention was not in session. By 1960 the executive committee had been expanded to include four additional members. This was supplemented with an advisory board of directors consisting of the executive committee and up to twelve others appointed by the executive committee and confirmed by the Convention. In 1986, the executive committee and advisory board of directors were replaced by a new Board of Directors made up of the five officers and twelve elected members. Each member serves for a two-year period, and half of the board is up for election each year. This governance structure is still used today.

Under the tenBroek administration, the NFB was headquartered in tenBroek’s home in Berkeley, California. In 1968, Jernigan, then the director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind, moved the headquarters to Des Moines, Iowa, where it occupied offices in the Randolph Hotel (approximately 1970-1979). In 1979, the NFB chose to close the Washington, D.C., office it had operated since the early days of the organization in favor of moving the headquarters to the nearby city of Baltimore, Maryland. Under Jernigan’s direction, the Federation bought and renovated two loft buildings dating to approximately 1910. This facility, located in South Baltimore, was dubbed the National Center for the Blind.

Today, the National Federation of the Blind stands as the largest membership organization of the blind in the United States. It is a nonprofit organization, governed by the blind with a voting membership that is primarily blind. The NFB seeks to improve the lives of blind people through networking, advocacy, education, research, technology, and programs that encourage independence and self-confidence. NFB membership is made up of approximately 50,000 blind people, parents of blind children, and other interested parties. Each year the membership assembles in national convention where they conduct the business of the NFB, elect officers, and vote on resolutions. Other membership activities include participation in divisions, committees, and groups, which are focused on occupations, special interest groups, fundraising projects, recreational interests, and legislative issues, as well as areas related to blindness. Divisions have their own constitutions and elect their leadership, while committee members are appointed by the president and groups are run by chairpersons with the president’s approval. At times, new divisions are formed or a group or committee will be upgraded to a division. All new divisions must be approved by the Board of Directors.

The NFB operates a monthly publication called the Braille Monitor, which has run from 1957 to 1960 and from 1964 to the present day. Publication from 1961-1964 was suspended due to financial problems related to their mass mail program. During this time it was replaced by The Blind American, which was published by the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults (AAF). The Braille Monitor has been available in Braille and inkprint since its establishment. In later years Talking Book editions were produced, first on disk (flexible or rigid), and then on cassette. It is now available in digital format.

The International Braille and Technology Center—a comprehensive evaluation, demonstration, and training center focused on access technology for the blind—opened in 1990. In 1995, the NFB-NewslineŽ service was launched, giving blind people on-demand access to hundreds of newspapers and magazines in accessible formats through their telephone, by email, through an online portal, or downloaded to a device as an MP3 audio file. In 2004, after an extensive expansion project, the NFB opened the Jernigan Institute, a research and training facility on blindness. In 2010, the name National Center for the Blind was retired and the entire headquarters became known as the National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute.

The NFB has affiliates in all fifty states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. Each affiliate has its own constitution, by-laws, and charter of affiliation with the national organization. Affiliates are mandated by the NFB Constitution to actively create programs and work toward the betterment of the blind in their territories. They must also hold an annual state convention and send representatives to the national convention. Officers are elected by majority vote of affiliate members and their governing hierarchies vary among affiliates. As is the case with the national organization, elected officers and the majority of voting members of each state affiliate and local chapter must be blind. They also operate state-level divisions, committees, and groups, which are considered subsidiaries of their national-level counterparts. Affiliates are also subject to all policy decisions made by the national organization. Within the affiliates are over 700 local chapters, each with their own officers and procedures. Members who do not live near a chapter are considered members-at-large, either at the affiliate or national level.

The American Brotherhood for the Blind (ABB) was founded by Florian A. Baker, a member of the Theosophical Society, in 1919. Originally called the American Brotherhood for Free Matter for the Blind in California, it was a nonprofit and nonsectarian organization with a mission to provide free reading material to the blind. More commonly known as the American Brotherhood for the Blind, the name refers to the organization’s belief in the universal brotherhood of all mankind and that services should be provided to all, regardless of race, gender, or national origin. Baker served as its first president until 1939, when the office was passed to Newel Perry—blind educator and mentor to Jacobus tenBroek, who would succeed him and go on to found the NFB.

In 1932 the ABB began publishing The All Story Braille Magazine, a collection of fiction available only in Braille and distributed free to blind people. In 1945, the magazine began adding a legislative supplement which provided information on legislative movements and programs affecting the blind. In 1957 the magazine name was changed to the Braille Monitor and it was proclaimed to be the voice of the National Federation of the Blind. The fiction stories were replaced by news articles concerning matters of interest to the blind. And on January 1, 1959, the ABB Board of Directors voted to transfer the publication and distribution duties to the NFB. From 1961-1964, during a period of fiscal uncertainty related to the NFB mass mail program, the ABB published The Blind American in place of the Braille Monitor and distributed it to members of both organizations. In 1964, the NFB resumed publication of the Braille Monitor and oversees the publication to present day.

The ABB began publishing Twin VisionŽ Books in 1962. These are children’s picture books with identical print and Braille text side by side that are given to blind children, blind parents with sighted children, regional Braille libraries, and schools for the blind. In 1962 or 1963 the ABB also began operating the American Brotherhood for the Blind Library—a free lending library featuring Braille books for children—out of its Tarzana, California, office. This was renamed the Kenneth Jernigan Library for Blind Children in 1991. In 1964 the ABB began printing and distributing Braille calendars and in 1965 also began publishing a weekly summary of national news in Braille known as the Hot-Line to the Deaf-Blind. In 1981, the ABB—in partnership with the National Organization of Parents of Blind Children (a division of the NFB)—began publishing Future Reflections. The Free Braille Books for Blind Children program and the Braille Readers Are Leaders contest to promote Braille literacy were both established in 1997.

In 1990 the ABB changed its name to the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults (AAF). It was believed that the usage and meaning of the word “brotherhood” had changed significantly since 1919 and the organization wished to reassert its commitment to providing assistance to all blind people. Today the AAF continues to provide reading matter for the blind and deaf-blind, to provide assistance to those losing their sight, to educate the public on blindness, and to act as a consultant for government and private agencies serving the blind. It also offers scholarships to blind students and runs the Volunteer Lawyers for the Blind program. Still a nonprofit, the AAF has offices at the National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, as well as in Tarzana, California. Officers include a president, two vice presidents, secretary, treasurer, and board of directors who are all blind and work without compensation. It also has a full-time executive director and relies on a nationwide network of volunteers to carry out its work. The AAF also funds some NFB programs.

The Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund (JtB), originally known as the NFB Endowment Fund, was established in 1956 and charged with the raising of capital to finance the work of the NFB. In 1968 the name was changed in honor of NFB founder and first president, Jacobus tenBroek. Overseeing the JtB is a committee comprised of appointees selected by the president of the NFB. Beyond fundraising duties, the JtB owns and maintains the headquarters of the NFB in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Scope and Content Note

The National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records span from 1940 to 2011, with the majority of records created between 1955 and 2002. The NFB is an active organization that is continually creating more records. New materials will be added to this collection as they become available. At this time the collection includes correspondence, publications, reports, project files, legal case files, legislative documents, lists, tactile maps and diagrams, photographs and photographic negatives, drafts and working files for published works, speeches, newspaper clippings, convention files, administrative records, meeting minutes, plaques, proclamations, protest posters, publicity files, financial documents, mass mail samples, fundraising materials, spreadsheets, estate files, and organizational core documents. While most of the collection is in ink print format, a significant portion of the correspondence, publication files, and other miscellaneous records is in Grade 2 Braille. Correspondence, publications, and recordings of public appearances and events on audio cassette tape, vinyl record, and VHS tape are also included in the collection. This finding aid only covers materials located in the NFB Records Center 1.

The NFB has maintained a central filing system since the early days of the organization. The original files were maintained in Berkeley, CA, in the home of NFB founder Jacobus tenBroek, which also served as the first headquarters of the NFB. After his death in 1968, the presidency moved to Kenneth Jernigan of Des Moines, IA, who remained in office until after the NFB headquarters moved to Baltimore, MD, in 1979. Some of the original files held at Berkeley (and many copies) were sent to Des Moines, but a significant portion of the files remained with tenBroek’s widow, Hazel tenBroek, until she donated them to the Jacobus tenBroek Library in 1998. As a result, many of the early records of the NFB are now part of the Jacobus tenBroek Papers, and the majority of materials held in Records Center 1 date back to the beginning of the Jernigan administration. Researchers are encouraged to consult the finding aid for the Jacobus tenBroek Personal Papers 1924-1997 (bulk 1938-1978) for additional records from 1940 to 1968, including early NFB constitutions, incorporation papers, meeting minutes, convention minutes, resolutions, staff correspondence files, financial documents, and fundraising materials. Also included are documents related to the right to organize movement (1953-1965) and the NFB "civil war" (1958-1962).

The majority of the files in Records Center 1 were collected through a central filing program based on a hierarchy of subject headings. NFB staff used a home-grown item-level database known as the File Information System (FIS), from 1980 to 2002 to record entries for each document. Records collected from 1940 to 1979 are informally organized into categories and are housed in separate filing cabinets. Overflow materials arranged by subject, including Braille documents, publications, and audio/visual materials, from throughout the date range of the collection are housed in boxes on shelf storage. In 2002 Records Center 1 was closed and the central filing program was retired, but not replaced. As a result, business records from 2002 to 2011—including financial files, personnel files, and the materials housed in Records Center 2—are subject to a new records management program and are not included in this finding aid.

The collection is divided into four main record groups, which represent the structure, activities, and functions of the NFB and its associated organizations: the NFB State Affiliates, the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults (AAF), and the Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund (JtB).

The materials in the NFB record group cover the period from the founding of the organization in 1940 to 2011, with most files ranging from 1955 to 2002. These files document the development of the NFB from a small coalition of state associations of the blind into a national advocacy organization with fifty-two state affiliates (including Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico) working to achieve security, equality, and opportunity for all blind Americans. Included in this record group are core documents, correspondence (1957-2002) with various state and federal agencies and private organizations of or for the blind, national convention planning files (1940-2002), publicity files (1966-2003), and development files (1974-2003) concerning the fundraising strategies used by the organization. Also included are records related to legal cases involving the NFB (1970-2000), publication drafts and working files (1970-2006), and records that document the NFB’s involvement in legislative issues (1958-1998) including the right of the blind to travel independently, oversight of sheltered workshops, entitlement programs, and rehabilitation. A significant portion of the record group details the advocacy work of the NFB (1960-2008) in the areas of discrimination, employment, education, rehabilitation, NFB awards and scholarships, activism, and technological advances for the blind. The advocacy of the NFB is also documented in the community relations correspondence (1996-2003), which shows the daily interactions of the organization with blind people and the public. The papers of the Office of the President (1957-2003) contain speeches, correspondence, event files, and publications from all three of the major presidents of the NFB, as well as the personal papers of Dr. Kenneth Jernigan (1958-1998). The activities of the membership (1958-2002) are documented in the files related to the divisions and committees that serve the needs and interests of NFB members. Some materials are in Braille, on audio cassette, or on vinyl record.

The NFB Affiliate record group (1943-2011) contains materials that document the development, activities, and interactions of the fifty-two affiliates and the local chapters under their jurisdiction. The files preserve the history of each affiliate as an organization in its own right as well as document its interactions with the national organization and with each other. Materials are divided by affiliate name, and the contents vary depending on what records were sent to the national office. Most affiliate files include correspondence (1943-2002), publications (1969-2006), advocacy files (1954-2002), publicity (1955-2003), state legislation files (1954-2002), and development records related to fundraising initiatives (1978-2011). This record group also contains files related to state conventions held by the affiliates (1955-2010), core documents, and state-level divisions and committees (1981-2004). The majority of affiliate records created or received before 1979 was considered general correspondence and is housed separately from post 1979 materials. Some materials, including publications, correspondence, and convention recordings are in Braille or audio cassette format.

Records chronicling the organization, activities, programs, and advocacy of the AAF cover the years 1962 to 2005. A large portion of the materials is correspondence (1968-2002)—divided between their offices in Baltimore, MD, and Tarzana, CA—that concerns blindness assistance, volunteer offers, and donations. Drafts and working files for AAF publications (1964-2003), news clippings, and publicity files (1977-1992) are also present. This record group also involves materials related to AAF’s programs to promote Braille literacy, including Free Braille Books for Blind Children (1997-2003), Braille reading contests (1991-2005), and Twin VisionŽ books (1962-1997). In addition, this record group also contains development files (1969-2003) that pertain to fundraising, mass mail solicitation, and estate asset distributions. Materials are mainly in print with some Braille documents and audio cassette tapes.

The JtB record group spans from 1968-1994 and includes materials mainly related to the maintenance and renovation of the NFB headquarters in Des Moines, IA (1968-1978), and Baltimore, MD (1979-2011). Files include correspondence, financial reports, insurance policies, and stationery templates. Also includes photographs and photographic negatives documenting renovation projects undertaken at the Baltimore headquarters from 1986 to 1994.

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Arrangement Statement

The collection is currently housed and arranged in 108 filing cabinets, 289 Paige boxes, 100 Hollinger boxes, 45 Bankers boxes, and 21 oversized folders. Most of the materials housed in filing cabinets are arranged alphabetically by subject. Documents related to NFB state affiliates are arranged alphabetically by state name and then by subject. Files stored in boxes include reference materials, Braille documents, publication drafts, and overflow records that were removed from the main filing system to free up space. Boxed records are divided by subject and may correspond to materials located in the filing cabinets. Within each folder, in box or file cabinet, materials are arranged chronologically with most recent date at the front. Oversized folders are stored with the boxes.The entire collection has been indexed electronically at the section or folder level and assigned to record group, series, and subseries. The intellectual arrangement is divided into four main record groups composed of thirty-four series and seventy-five subseries:
Record Group 1: National Federation of the Blind (NFB), 1940-2011
Series 1: Advocacy, circa 1960-2008
Subseries 1: Discrimination, circa 1960-2002
Subseries 2: Education, circa 1972-2004
Subseries 3: Entitlement Programs, circa 1970-2000
Subseries 4: Employment, circa 1968-2001
Subseries 5: Rehabilitation, circa 1974-2002
Subseries 6: Awards and Scholarships, 1986-2008
Subseries 7: Community Relations, 1996-2003
Subseries 8: Aids, Appliances and Technology, circa 1975-2002
Subseries 9: Activism, 2002, undated
Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1957-2002
Subseries 1: Organizations of/for the Blind, circa 1960-2002
Subseries 2: Organizations of/for the Disabled, circa 1974-2002
Subseries 3: Government Agencies, circa 1957-2002
Subseries 4: Foreign Countries, circa 1964-2002
Subseries 5: National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving People with Blindness or Visual Impairment (NAC), circa 1966-2000
Series 3: NFB Core Documents, circa 1971-1986, undated
Series 4: Development, circa 1974-2003
Subseries 1: Fundraising, 1981-1990
Subseries 2: Mass Mail, 1975-2000
Subseries 3: Estates, circa 1985-2002
Subseries 4: Donor/Sponsor Files, circa 1974-2003
Series 5: Events, 1940-2003
Subseries 1: National Convention, 1940-2002
Subseries 2: Seminars and Symposia, 1973-2003
Subseries 3: Fundraising Events, 1998-2002
Series 6: Governance, circa 1971-1977
Series 7: Office of the President, circa 1957-2003
Subseries 1: Speeches, 1983-1993, undated
Subseries 2: Presidential Releases, 1977-1995
Subseries 3: Correspondence, 1957-2002
Subseries 4: Leadership Seminars, 1975-2003
Subseries 5: World Blind Union, 1962-2002
Subseries 6: Jernigan Personal Papers, 1958-1998
Series 8: Legislation, circa 1958-1998
Subseries 1: Randolph-Sheppard Act, circa 1967-1995
Subseries 2: Social Security, circa 1958-1998
Subseries 3: Sheltered Workshops, circa 1968-1988
Subseries 4: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS), 1957-2002
Subseries 5: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), circa 1990-1998
Subseries 6: Transportation, circa 1969-1999
Subseries 7: Rehabilitation, circa 1959-1996
Subseries 8: Civil Rights Act, 1963-1990
Series 9: Legal Cases, circa 1970-2000
Series 10: Member Activities, circa 1958-2002
Subseries 1: NFB Divisions, circa 1958-2002
Subseries 2: NFB Committees, circa 1971-2002
Series 11: Projects, circa 1980-2011
Subseries 1: Grants, circa 1991-1998
Subseries 2: NFB-NewslineŽ, 1990-2003
Subseries 3: Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), circa 1980-2003
Series 12: Publication Drafts and Working Files, circa 1970-2006
Subseries 1: NFB Brochures, pamphlets, and other ephemeral publications, 1973-2003, undated
Subseries 2: Artwork, circa 1970-2000
Subseries 3: Braille Monitor, 1983-2008
Subseries 4: Books, circa 1982-2006
Subseries 5: Convention Literature, 1997-2001
Series 13: Publications, circa 1959-2010
Subseries 1: NFB Publications, 1959-2020, undated
Subseries 2: Outside publications, 1967-2001, undated
Series 14: Publicity, circa 1966-2003
Subseries 1: NFB Press Releases, circa 1978-2003
Subseries 2: Public Service Announcements, circa 1968-2001, undated
Subseries 3: Advertising, circa 1969-1998
Subseries 4: Appearances and Interviews, circa 1966-1995
Subseries 5: Outside Press Coverage, circa 1972-1998
Series 15: Writings, circa 1981-2002
Series 16: Miscellaneous, undated
Record Group 2: NFB Affiliate Files, 1943-2011
Series 1: Advocacy, 1954-2002
Subseries 1: Scholarships, 1994, 1998
Subseries 2: Education, circa 1954-1968
Subseries 3: Employment, 1954-2002
Series 2: Communications, 1955-2010
Subseries 1: Publications, 1969-2006
Subseries 2: Publicity, 1955-2003
Series 3: State Convention, 1955-2010
Series 4: Core Documents, circa 1961-2002
Series 5: Correspondence, circa 1943-2002
Subseries 1: State Agencies, circa 1947-2004
Subseries 2: Grants, 1974-1996
Series 6: Development, circa 1978-2011
Subseries 1: Fundraising, circa 1978-2002
Subseries 2: Donations, 1978-2011
Subseries 3: Estates, circa 1993-2002
Series 7: Divisions, Committees, and Groups, 1981-2004
Series 8: Legislation, 1954-2002
Record Group 3: American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults (AAF), 1962-2005
Series 1: Correspondence, 1968-2002
Subseries 1: Blindness Assistance, 1971-2002
Subseries 2: Employee Insurance, 1968-1984, 1989
Series 2: Development, 1969-2003
Subseries 1: Fundraising, 1969-2003
Subseries 2: Mass Mail, circa 1968-2001
Subseries 3: Estates, circa 1978-2002
Series 3: Outreach, 1976-2001
Series 4: Programs, 1962-2005, undated
Subseries 1: Free Braille Books for Blind Children, 1997-2003
Subseries 2: Twin VisionŽ, 1962-1997, undated
Subseries 3: Braille Reading Contest, 1991-2005
Series 5: Publication Drafts and Working Files, 1964-2003
Subseries 1: Hot-Line to Deaf-Blind, 1964-1997
Subseries 2: Brochures, pamphlets, and other ephemeral publications, circa 1980-2003
Subseries 3: Artwork, circa 1989-1992, undated
Series 6: Publications, 1967-2004
Series 7: Publicity, 1977-1992
Record Group 4: Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund (JtB), 1968-1994
Series 1: Artwork, undated
Series 2: Building, circa 1972-1973, 1986-1994
Subseries 1: Renovations, circa 1986-1994
Series 3: Correspondence, 1968-1988
Subseries 1: Property and Liability Insurance, 1968-1988

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Selected Search Terms

The following catalog entries represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Those seeking related materials should search under these terms.

Names:

Capps, Donald
Cheadle, Barbara
Cylke, Frank Kurt
Gashel, James
Jernigan, Kenneth
Jernigan, Mary Ellen
Kurzweil, Raymond
Matson, Floyd W.
Maurer, Marc
Maurer, Patricia
Nagle, John
Norris, Jean Dyon
Omvig, Jim H.
Perry, Newel
Pierce, Barbara
Randolph, Jennings
Schroeder, Frederick
Sundquist, Perry
TenBroek, Jacobus
Wilson, Joanne

Organizations:

American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults
American Association of Workers for the Blind
American Brotherhood for the Blind
American Council of the Blind
American Foundation for the Blind
American Printing House for the Blind (Louisville, Ky.)
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board
Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped
Association of Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired
Blinded Veterans Association
Braille Authority of North America
Canadian Council of the Blind
Canadian National Institute for the Blind
Diabetes Action Network for the Blind
Friends of Libraries for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals in North America
International Braille and Technology Center
International Federation of the Blind
Iowa Commission for the Blind
Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund
Jernigan Institute
National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving People with Blindness or Visual Impairment
National Association of Blind Lawyers
National Association of Blind Merchants
National Association of Blind Rehabilitation Professionals
National Association of Blind Students
National Association of Guide Dog Users
National Association to Promote the Use of Braille
National Center for the Blind
National Federation of the Blind
National Industries for the Blind
National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
National Organization of Blind Educators
National Organization of Parents of Blind Children
NFB Writers' Division
Rehabilitation Services Administration
World Blind Union
World Council for the Welfare of the Blind

Topics:

Blind – Education
Blind – Employment
Blind – Rehabilitation
Blind – Transportation
Blindness – Public opinions
Blindness – Social conditions
Braille – Standards
Braille – Study and teaching
Direct-mail fund raising
Discrimination against people with disabilities
Minimum wage – Law and legislation – United States
Older people with visual disabilities
Parents of Blind Children
People with disabilities – Civil rights – United States
People with disabilities – Legal status, laws, etc. – United States
Right to organize
Self-help devices for people with disabilities
Sheltered Workshops
Social Advocacy
Social reformers
Social security income program – Laws and legislation – United States
Vending stands – Law and legislation – United States

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Series Description

Record Group 1: National Federation of the Blind (NFB), 1940-2011

Series 1: Advocacy, 1960-2008

Some materials in Braille.
Correspondence, publications, reports, drafts, surveys, studies, reports, grants, legislation, court documents, tactile maps and diagrams, and posters related to work for the benefit of blind people. Includes information on programs, projects, access technology accommodations, and activism managed, monitored, or employed by the NFB. Some records are available only in alternate formats, including Braille and audio cassette recordings, and are filed separately from print materials.
Subseries 1: Discrimination, circa 1960-2002
Correspondence, news clippings, court documents, legislation, and publication drafts related to various forms of discrimination that were faced by blind people which the NFB has worked to counteract. Contains accounts and examples of discrimination in relation to transportation, access to public facilities, voting, jury duty, education, employment, and health insurance. Also includes materials related to government legislation. For more information on legislation, see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 8: Legislation.
Some materials may be related to court cases in which the NFB was a party to or consultant for. For more information, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 9: Legal Cases. Records related to discrimination in airline services can also be found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 14: Publicity.
Subseries 2: Education, circa 1972-2004
Correspondence, publications, publicity, studies, surveys, reports, grant materials, and conference files. Materials pertain to companies, organizations, and projects specifically related to the education of the blind from primary to post-secondary level, both in mainstream schools and schools for the blind. Also includes materials related to education projects and events managed by the NFB.
Subseries 3: Entitlement Programs, circa 1970-2000
Correspondence, studies, and publications related to federal entitlement programs. This includes programs specifically aimed at the blind, as well as general programs aimed at the whole disabled community or to the poor. Some materials are available only on audio cassette.
Subseries 4: Employment, circa 1968-2003
Publications, correspondence, reports, legislation, and court documents related to advocacy work on employment of the blind. Includes some correspondence from government agencies and programs, both general and specific to employment of the blind or disabled. Also contains examples of occupations held by blind people. Some materials recorded on audio cassette. For related records, including materials on blind vendors and sheltered workshops please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 1: Advocacy, Subseries 5: Rehabilitation.
Subseries 5: Rehabilitation, circa 1974-2002
Publicity, correspondence, publications, and meeting recordings concerning rehabilitation programs and strategies for the blind. Subjects covered include orientation centers for the blind, guide dogs, mobility, employment, blind vendors, and sheltered workshops. Some materials recorded on audio cassette. Also includes correspondence with government agencies specifically focused on employment of the blind. For more information, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 2: Correspondence, Subseries 3: Government Agencies. Rehabilitation records created before 1974 can generally be found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 8: Legislation, Subseries 7: Rehabilitation.
Subseries 6: Awards and Scholarships, 1986-2008
Correspondence, pamphlets, and lists that pertain to awards and scholarships offered by outside sources to the blind or to those who work for the benefit of the blind community. Also includes submission files for scholarships offered by the NFB from both successful and unsuccessful applicants, which include essays, school transcripts, and medical records. For materials related to the NFB Scholarship Committee (including correspondence, pamphlets, and lists of winners), please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 10: Member Activities, Subseries 2: NFB Committees.
Access to submission files is restricted.
Subseries 7: Community Relations, 1996-2003
Correspondence, which includes requests for information and assistance, as well as volunteering offers. Records the daily public relations work with Federation members, unaffiliated blind people, and the public at large. Materials are organized chronologically by year and month, using the receipt or resolution date.
Subseries 8: Aids, Appliances and Technology, circa 1975-2002
Correspondence, publications, publicity materials, studies, audio cassettes, and tactile maps and diagrams, connected to access technology for the blind. Covers both personal items and public accommodations (ex. talking elevators and detectable warnings). A large portion of the materials are arranged alphabetically by company or product type. Additional materials are organized by category (ex. Personal and Household), then by product type. Also includes records related to NFB departments concerned with access technology, including the International Braille and Technology Center (IBTC) and the Independence Markets (a.k.a. the Materials Center).
Artifacts like Talking Book machines and Perkins Braillers are considered part of JtB Library's museum collection. Please contact the Library for information on holdings.
Subseries 9: Activism, 2002, undated
Protest signs, buttons, and artifacts used during protest events related to organizations and policies opposed by the NFB, specifically the NAC. For related information, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 2: Correspondence, Subseries 5: National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving People with Blindness or Visual Impairment (NAC). For additional materials concerning other subjects opposed by the NFB (including movies, television shows, and books), please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 14: Publicity, Subseries 5: Outside Press Coverage.

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1957-2002

Some materials in Braille.
This series contain general correspondence and related materials exchanged between the NFB and various entities. Most materials are arranged alphabetically by organization or department name, unless otherwise indicated. Most records in alternate formats, including Braille and audio cassette recordings, are filed separately from the print materials.
Subseries 1: Organizations of/for the Blind, circa 1960-2002
Some materials are available only in Braille.
Correspondence, publications, reports, conference materials, and ephemera from private and nonprofit organizations both of and for the blind. Materials also include correspondence, presentations, and conference proceedings recorded on audio cassettes.
Subseries 2: Organizations of/for the Disabled, circa 1974-2002
Correspondence, publications, reports, and ephemera from various private and nonprofit organizations both of and for the disabled. Includes materials recorded on audio cassettes.
Subseries 3: Government Agencies, circa 1957-2002
Some materials in Braille.
Correspondence, legislation, publications, and conference materials from the U.S. federal government and state governments. This includes materials from any organization that receives government funding, including state agencies for the blind and disabled. Also includes files related to presidential committees and appointments which involved members of the NFB leadership. Some materials are in audio cassette format. In some cases, multiple types of records associated with specific government entities are intellectually grouped with related materials by subject. For information on the government involvement with employment of the blind, please see Series 1: Advocacy, Subseries 4: Employment.
Subseries 4: Foreign Countries, circa 1964-2002
Some materials may be in other languages, including Spanish.
Correspondence, publications, and ephemera from organizations (both government and private) and individuals based in foreign countries. Arranged alphabetically by geographic location (i.e. continent, country, or region), and chronologically within each folder.
Subseries 5: National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving People with Blindness or Visual Impairment (NAC), circa 1966-2000
Some materials in Braille.
Correspondence, publications, standards, and recordings of various meetings of the NAC. Also includes materials discussing NFB opinions of the NAC. For publications concerning the NAC, published by the NFB or by outside sources, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 13: Publications. For examples of protest materials used by the NFB against the NAC, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 1: Advocacy, Subseries 9: Activism.

Series 3: NFB Core Documents, circa 1971-1986, undated

This series consists of documents related to the mission and organization of the NFB, including current and previous versions of the NFB Constitution and model constitutions for state affiliates, chapters, and divisions.

Series 4: Development, circa 1974-2003

Correspondence, reports, invoices, mailing samples, statistics, and financial documents connected to fundraising strategies and programs used by the NFB.
Subseries 1: Fundraising, 1981-1990
Correspondence, publicity materials, and reports related to fundraising programs employed by the NFB. Also includes records concerning proposed fundraising programs that were not pursued. Some materials recorded on audio cassette. For information on fundraising events held by the NFB, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 5: Events, Subseries 3: Fundraising Events.
Subseries 2: Mass Mail, 1975-2000
This subseries contains materials related to the NFB’s mass mail charitable solicitation program, including correspondence, mailing schedules, acknowledgement summaries, status reports, cost estimates, invoices, and mailing samples. One of the main fundraising arms of the NFB, donation materials and gifts are sent to potential donors in bulk mailings at reduced rates. Some materials organized alphabetically by company or product name. Mass mail samples arranged chronologically by date sent, with most recent date first. Also includes responses from donors and donation records. For additional information on donor records, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 4: Development, Subseries 4: Donor/Sponsor Files.
Subseries 3: Estates, circa 1985-2002
Correspondence, agreements, and legal documents related to the assignment and disbursement of funds left to the NFB as part of an estate or will. Files are arranged alphabetically by name.
Subseries 4: Donor/Sponsor Files, circa 1974-2003
Correspondence, financial documents, photocopies, statistics, and reports associated with the various fundraising programs used by the NFB. Programs include Deferred Insurance Giving Plan (DIG), Shares Unlimited in NFB (SUN), Pre-authorized Check Plan (PAC), and the Associates Contest.

Series 5: Events, 1940-2003

Correspondence, reports, and administrative files concerning events managed solely or in part by the NFB, regardless of location or frequency.
Subseries 1: National Convention, 1940-2002
Correspondence, reports, administrative records, work plans, notes, and invitations pertaining to the annual national convention of the NFB. Includes documents relating to hotel accommodations, speakers and exhibits, ephemera, reports, speeches, publications drafts, staff work assignments, and audio recordings of convention general sessions. Arranged in chronological order (1940-1989) and reverse chronological order (1990-2002).
Subseries 2: Seminars and Symposia, 1973-2003
Correspondence and administrative records associated with events, conferences, seminars and symposia managed by the NFB (in partnership or solely) and/or hosted by the NFB. Some materials recorded on audio cassettes.
Subseries 3: Fundraising Events, 1998-2002
Correspondence and administrative files related to events held by the NFB for fundraising purposes. Includes some materials for Newsline Night events, which can also be found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 11: Projects, Subseries 2: NFB-NewslineŽ.

Series 6: Governance, circa 1971-1977

Correspondence and administrative files associated with NFB personnel, officers, and board members.

Series 7: Office of the President, circa 1957-2003

Correspondence, administrative files, publications, writings, and related records from the office of the president of the NFB. Files mainly concern the administrations of Jacobus tenBroek (1940-1968), Kenneth Jernigan (1968-1986), and Marc Maurer (1986- ). Also includes some files relevant to the AAF as a result of shared leadership. For additional presidential publication drafts and working copies, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 15: Writings.
Subseries 1: Speeches, 1983-1993, undated
Some materials in Braille.
Reference materials, drafts, and writings related to presidential speeches given by the president of the NFB. This includes banquet speeches given at the NFB National Convention, presidential speeches published in outside publications, and audio recordings of speech presentations.
Subseries 2: Presidential Releases, 1977-1995
Correspondence, mailing lists, and reference materials related to NFB presidential releases—audio recordings from the president released to all local chapters with the express purpose of reporting on the progress, projects, and work of the organization. Also includes copies of presidential releases on audio cassettes.
Subseries 3: Correspondence, circa 1957-2002
This subseries includes correspondence and administrative files related to the presidents of the NFB.
Subseries 4: Leadership Seminars, 1975-2003
Some materials in Braille.
Publications, correspondence, lists, and handouts associated with seminars given by the president of the NFB to educate and cultivate new leaders in the organization.
Subseries 5: World Blind Union (WBU), 1962-2002
Some materials in Braille.
Core documents, correspondence, conference proceedings, committee files, minutes, reports, administrative files, publications, and ephemera related to the World Blind Union. A significant portion of the files are focused on the North American-Caribbean region (NA-C), for which both Kenneth Jernigan (1987-1997) and Marc Maurer (1997-2000) served as president. Some materials available on audio cassette, or VHS tape.
Also includes records pertaining to the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind (WCWB), forerunner of the WBU. For information on the International Federation of the Blind, another precursor of the WBU, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 2: Correspondence, Subseries 1: Organizations of/for the Blind.
Subseries 6: Jernigan Personal Papers, 1958-1998
Some materials in Braille.
Correspondence, drafts, publications, publicity, reports, memoranda, and administrative files from Kenneth Jernigan's professional and personal life. Jernigan served as the second major president of the NFB from 1968-1986, but was active in the organization until his death in 1998. This subseries also includes files related to the Friends of Libraries for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in North America, as well as Services for the Blind, Inc., in Des Moines, IA.
Medical files may be subject to restrictions.

Series 8: Legislation, circa 1958-1998

Publications, correspondence, testimony, bills and legislation related to federal legislative movements and causes concerning the blind, which the NFB was interested or involved in. Also includes materials related to NFB interests as a charitable organization. Some materials available only on audio cassettes.
Subseries 1: Randolph-Sheppard Act, circa 1967-1995
This subseries includes publications, correspondence, reports, transcripts, bills, and legislation relating to the Randolph-Sheppard Act, which gives priority to blind persons operating vending facilities on federal property; commonly referred to as the Blind Vendor program. Materials also include records related to the development of regulations for enforcement of the act at the state level. Additional materials focused on particular states may be included in Record Group 4: Affiliate Files, Series 8: Legislation.
Subseries 2: Social Security, circa 1958-1998
Publications, correspondence, testimony, bills, and legislation concerning social security income and disability insurance for blind and disabled individuals. A significant portion of these files are organized by number of Congress in reverse chronological order.
Subseries 3: Sheltered Workshops, circa 1968-1988
Correspondence, publications, reports, studies, testimony, bills, and legislation associated with the regulation of sheltered workshops for the blind. Includes materials on the Wagner-O'Day Act, the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act (JWOD), the Committee for Purchase From the Blind and Other Severely Handicapped, and legislation to mandate the minimum wage for workshop employees.
Subseries 4: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS), 1957-2002
Correspondence, publications, regulations, bills, and legislation concerning the administration and regulation of library services for the blind. For additional materials relating to the NLS and the Library of Congress, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 1: Advocacy, Subseries 3: Entitlement Programs and Series 2: Correspondence, Subseries 3: Government Agencies. Materials related to the organization Friends of Libraries for the Blind in North America are found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 7: Office of the President, Subseries 6: Jernigan Personal Papers.
Subseries 5: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), circa 1990-1998
Correspondence, legislation, regulations, statistics, reports, transcripts, and court documents connected to the Americans with Disabilities Act. This series also includes materials related to the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (ATBCB), a federal agency.
Subseries 6: Transportation, circa 1969-1999
Correspondence, publications, reports, bills, and legislation related to federal regulations concerning blind passengers on airlines and mass transit systems. Additional records regarding the airlines and blind passengers are located in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 1: Advocacy, Series 1: Discrimination.
Subseries 7: Rehabilitation, circa 1959-1996
Publications, correspondence, reports, court documents, statistics, bills, and legislation concerning government mandates for rehabilitation of the blind through mobility training, education, and vocational assistance programs. For additional information on rehabilitation, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 1: Advocacy, Subseries 5: Rehabilitation.
Subseries 8: Civil Rights Act, 1963-1990
Correspondence, publications, testimony, and legislation associated with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the movement to extend its protection to the blind and disabled. For additional materials, please see Record Group 1: NFB, Series 2: Correspondence, Subseries 3: Government Agencies.

Series 9: Legal Cases, circa 1970-2000

Correspondence and court documents relating to court cases concerning the discrimination of the blind, as well as cases in which the NFB was a party. Materials deal with court cases pursued, financed by, or associated with the NFB. Also includes materials on potential cases, which were not taken to court. Arranged alphabetically by case name.

Series 10: Member Activities, circa 1958-2002

Correspondence, newsletters, and ephemera associated with divisions and committees made up of elected or appointed members of the NFB. Over time, many committees have been upgraded to divisions. As a result, records for a given grouping may show up in both subseries.
Subseries 1: NFB Divisions, circa 1958-2002
Correspondence, newsletters, and ephemera related to the membership and administration of NFB Divisions. Arranged alphabetically by division name or subject, divisions focus on professions, recreational activities, special interests, legislative issues, fundraising projects, and other areas related to blindness. Division membership is based on interest, participation, and annual dues and they are led by an elected president and board of directors.
Also includes drafts and working copies of division publications like Future Reflections and Voice of the Diabetic.
Subseries 2: NFB Committees, circa 1971-2002
Correspondence, newsletters, and ephemera associated with the appointment of members to and the administration of NFB Committees. Arranged alphabetically by committee name or subject, committees focus on special interests, legislative issues, fundraising projects, awards and scholarships, and other areas related to blindness and the activities of the organization. Membership is by appointment from the president only.

Series 11: Projects, circa 1980-2011, undated

Publications, correspondence, administrative files, reports, grant deliverables, reference materials, and ephemera associated with projects developed and managed by the NFB. Includes records of long-term programs, short-term programs, unsuccessful grant proposals, and possible grants that were not pursued.
Subseries 1: Grants, circa 1991-1998
Some materials in Braille.
Correspondence, reference materials, application materials, proposals and deliverables for grant projects involving the organization at the national level. Includes records for grants awarded, not awarded, and considered but not pursued.
Subseries 2: NFB-NewslineŽ, 1990-2003
Correspondence, publications, publicity, ephemera and subscription requests related to NFB-Newsline, a free service that grants access to local and national publications over the telephone or online to blind and print disabled people. Subscription requests are arranged alphabetically by state. Subscriber information may be restricted. Also includes planning and fundraising materials for Newsline Night events. NFB-Newsline is a trademarked name owned by the NFB.
Subseries 3: Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), circa 1980-2003, undated
Some materials in Braille.
Correspondence, publications, brochures, pamphlets, grant deliverables, fact sheets, reports, guide, seminar materials, administrative files and ephemera from JOB, a federally-funded program managed by the NFB for the Department of Labor. The program ran from approximately 1980-2000 and was designed to train and assist blind job seekers, as well as agencies/individuals assisting blind job seekers, and employers of blind workers. Also includes reference materials created by the NFB to assist blind workers in managing their social security and disability insurance benefits. Most materials are in print or audio cassette formats. Public service announcements produced for JOB, on vinyl record, can be found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 14: Publicity, Subseries 2: Public Service Announcements.

Series 12: Publication Drafts and Working Files, circa 1970-2006

Drafts, proof copies, artwork, support documents, reference materials, subscriptions, statistics, and administrative files connected to significant and transient publications written, edited, and published by the NFB.
Subseries 1: NFB Brochures, pamphlets, and other ephemeral publications, circa 1973-2003, undated
Some materials in Braille.
Drafts and proof copies of pamphlets, brochures, posters, guides, handbooks, and templates for miscellaneous and ephemeral publications produced by the NFB. Also includes related reference materials and correspondence. Materials in print and on floppy disk.
Subseries 2: Artwork, circa 1970-2000
Stationery, folders, logos, forms, proof copies, camera ready copies, templates, graphics, and artwork for various long- and short-term publications created by the NFB. Includes artwork for the Braille Monitor.
Subseries 3: Braille Monitor, 1983-2008
Correspondence, drafts, working files, reference materials, support documents, subscriptions, circulation statistics, back-up copies, and administrative files related to the Braille Monitor, the flagship publication of the NFB.
Subseries 4: Books, circa 1982-2006
Correspondence, drafts, working files, reference materials, proof copies, camera-ready copies, and administrative files associated with books published by the NFB. Includes materials related to the Kernel Book series and the Wit and Witticism joke book series.
Subseries 5: Convention Literature, 1997-2001
Drafts and working copies of materials created for the NFB National Convention.

Series 13: Publications, circa 1959-2010

Newsletters, magazines, books, articles, brochures, pamphlets and other ephemeral publications produced by the NFB and outside organizations.
Subseries 1: NFB Publications, 1959-2010, undated
Some materials in Braille.
Published copies of newsletters, magazines, article reprints, brochures, pamphlets, and other ephemeral publications created and distributed by the NFB. Materials are in print, vinyl record, and audio cassette formats. Print and Braille publications are being transferred to the Library’s holdings. Please contact JtB Library staff for additional resources in these formats.
Copyright of materials is owned by the NFB.
Subseries 2: Outside publications, 1967-2001, undated
Some materials in Braille.
Published copies of books, articles, and guidelines produced by organizations other than the NFB and used as reference copies.

Series 14: Publicity, circa 1966-2003

Correspondence and publications concerning publicity related to the NFB and blindness issues in a variety of media formats with or without participation from the NFB.
Subseries 1: NFB Press Releases, circa 1978-2003
This subseries contains correspondence, administrative files, publications, and research materials used to create press releases for the media. Also includes copies of boiler plate materials for constructing general information packets.
Subseries 2: Public Service Announcements, circa 1968-2001, undated
Correspondence and administrative files associated with the creation of public service announcements (PSA) produced and distributed by the NFB. Files arranged by medium or by company name. Also includes sub-masters and distribution copies of NFB PSAs recorded on audio cassette and vinyl record.
Subseries 3: Advertising, circa 1969-1998
Correspondence and reference materials dealing with the NFB’s advertising campaigns, including business directory listings and magazine advertisements.
Subseries 4: Appearances and Interviews, circa 1966-1995
Correspondence, publications, and sound recordings associated with speaking engagements, presentations, and media appearances in magazine, radio, and television by organization leaders and members. These records deal with publicity created in partnership with media by the NFB. Some materials recorded on audio cassette. Additional materials related to articles and interviews may also be found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 15: Writings.
Subseries 5: Outside Press Coverage, circa 1972-1998
Publications, news clippings, advertisements, and correspondence connected to publicity created without the participation of the NFB. Records include obituaries of NFB members, materials depicting blindness, and materials depicting the NFB that are found in books, cartoons, films, the Internet, magazines, radio programs, and newspapers. Some materials recorded on audio cassette.

Series 15: Writings, circa 1981-2002

This series contains correspondence, drafts, and working copies of articles, essays, speeches, and books that were written by members of the NFB. Also includes some writings from past presidents of the NFB, arranged alphabetically by author last name.

Series 16: Miscellaneous, undated

Photographs, publications, textiles, 3D artifacts, and tactile maps.

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Record Group 2: NFB Affiliate Files, 1943-2011

Series 1: Advocacy, circa 1954-2002

This series contains correspondence associated with advocacy programs conducted at the affiliate level. Also includes materials concerning affiliate members in connection with national NFB advocacy programs.
Subseries 1: Scholarships, 1994, 1998
Correspondence related to NFB scholarships granted to affiliate members. Also includes materials concerning scholarships offered at the affiliate level.
Subseries 2: Education, circa 1954-1968
Correspondence related to education for the blind and blind educational institutions. This series applies only to materials created or collected by the California Affiliate.
Subseries 3: Employment, 1954-2002
Correspondence and publications related to advocating for the employment of the blind, including records pertaining to blind vendors, blind civil service workers, and blind employees in private industry. Some materials recorded on audio cassette.

Series 2: Communications, 1955-2010

This series contains materials related to communications between NFB affiliates and the national organization or the public at large. Record types include publications, correspondence, and publicity materials.
Subseries 1: Publications, 1969-2006, undated
Some materials in Braille.
Copies of newsletters and various publications that were produced by NFB affiliates. Some materials are available on audio cassettes.
Subseries 2: Publicity, 1955-2003
Correspondence and publications concerning publicity related to the affiliate, its members, and blindness issues at the state level, with or without the permission of the affiliate. Also includes charters of affiliation with the NFB and copies of proclamations made by state and local government in relation to an affiliate. Some materials recorded on audio cassettes.

Series 3: State Convention, 1955-2010

Correspondence and audio recordings of convention events (presentations, speeches, seminars, etc.) associated with the annual state conventions held by all NFB affiliates. Some materials recorded on audio cassettes or VHS tape. For information on resolutions voted on at state conventions, please see Record Group 2: NFB Affiliate Files, Series 4: Core Documents.

Series 4: Core Documents, circa 1961-2002

Some materials in Braille.
This series contains affiliate and local chapter constitutions, charters of affiliation, and state convention resolutions. Also includes articles of incorporation, documents establishing tax-exempt status, and constitutions for affiliates and local chapters.

Series 5: Correspondence, circa 1943-2002

This series is mainly comprised of general correspondence between an affiliate and the national office of the NFB. Arrangement varies by affiliate, but is sometimes subdivided by person or subject. Also includes correspondence with state agencies and services for the blind, as well as correspondence concerning grants made by the national office. Most correspondence dated before 1978 is housed separately and is arranged by state and date received in reverse chronological order. The only exception to this arrangement in the pre-1978 materials is found in the records for the Iowa Affiliate, which is divided alphabetically by subject. Early materials for the Iowa Affiliate also include correspondence between Jacobus tenBroek and Kenneth Jernigan.
Subseries 1: State Agencies, 1947-1996
Correspondence between NFB affiliates and state government agencies serving the blind at the state level, as well as promotional materials, publications, meeting minutes, and publicity. Most of these materials are arranged by date received. In cases where there is extensive correspondence from a specific agency, files are organized alphabetically by agency name. Some materials recorded on audio cassettes. This subseries also includes some correspondence, records, and meeting minutes related to the Iowa Commission for the Blind under the directorship of Kenneth Jernigan. Additional materials pertaining to Jernigan’s time at the Iowa Commission for the blind can be found in Record Group 1: NFB, Series 7: Office of the President, Subseries 6: Jernigan Personal Papers.
Subseries 2: Grants, 1974-1996
Correspondence related to financial grants given to state affiliates or local chapters by the national office. Also includes materials related to national NFB grants made to individual affiliate members.

Series 6: Development, circa 1978-2011

This series contains correspondence, agreements, legal documents, and ephemera related to the fundraising strategies and programs employed by NFB affiliates.
Subseries 1: Fundraising, circa 1978-2002
This subseries contains correspondence and promotional ephemera related to fundraising programs created and managed at the affiliate level. Materials in this subseries apply only to the Maryland and New Jersey affiliates.
Subseries 2: Donations, 1978-2011
Correspondence related to financial donations offered to and collected by the state affiliate.
Subseries 3: Estates, circa 1993-2002
Correspondence, agreements, legal documents related to the assignment and disbursement of funds left to an affiliate as part of an estate or will.

Series 7: Divisions, Committees, and Groups, 1981-2004

Correspondence, newsletters, and ephemera associated with affiliate level divisions, committees, and groups made up of elected or appointed members. Overseen by the affiliate president, these groups generally mirror similar groups at the national level and focus on professions, recreational activities, special interests, legislative issues, fundraising projects, and other areas related to blindness.

Series 8: Legislation, 1954-2002

Publications, correspondence, testimony, bills, and legislation related to state legislative movements and causes concerning the blind, which an affiliate was interested or involved in.

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American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults Record Group 3: American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults (AAF), 1962-2005

Series 1: Correspondence, 1968-2002

This series consists of general business correspondence received by the AAF at one or more of its offices. A significant portion of the materials is a selection of sample letters received from blind people or sighted people connected to a blind person, which were used in publications and outreach.
Subseries 1: Blindness Assistance, 1971-2002
This subseries contains correspondence, general information enquiries, and assistance requests from blind people, sighted people connected to a blind person, and the general public.
Subseries 2: Employee Insurance, 1968-1984, 1989
Correspondence and insurance policies for various insurance plans, including business insurance, workers compensation, liability, etc.

Series 2: Development, 1969-2003

This series holds correspondence, administrative files, mass mail samples, and legal documents related to the financial development of the AAF and its fundraising strategies and programs.
Subseries 1: Fundraising, 1969-2001
Correspondence related to monetary donations received by the AAF offices in Baltimore, MD, and Tarzana, CA. Files are arranged by location received.
Subseries 2: Mass Mail, circa 1968-2001
Correspondence, administrative files, and mailing samples related to the mass mail charitable solicitation program, where donation materials and gifts are sent to potential donors in bulk mailings at reduced rates. Some materials organized alphabetically by company or product name. Mass mail samples arranged chronologically by date sent, with most recent date first. Also includes responses from donors and donation records.
Subseries 3: Estates, circa 1978-2002
Correspondence, agreements, legal documents related to the assignment and disbursement of funds left to the AAF as part of an estate or will. Files are arranged alphabetically by donor or estate name.

Series 3: Outreach, 1976-2001

This series includes correspondence with potential volunteers and drafts related to a volunteer workers handbook created by the AAF for managing its primarily volunteer workforce.

Series 4: Programs, 1962-2005, undated

This series contains files associated with programs managed by the AAF to promote the use of Braille and the education of blind children. Record types include correspondence, publicity, administrative files, reports, and artifacts. Also includes materials related to scholarships offered by the AAF.
Subseries 1: Free Braille Books for Blind Children, 1997-2003
Correspondence, publicity, and administrative files associated with a program managed in partnership with the NLS, which sent previously unavailable Braille books to young blind subscribers and to regional libraries for the blind.
Subseries 2: Twin VisionŽ, 1962-1997, undated
This subseries consists of correspondence, annual reports, policy statements, and examples of Twin Vision books. Twin Vision books feature print text and illustrations with clear Braille text overlays and are meant to be accessible to both blind and sighted parents and children. Some Twin Vision books also feature raised tactile illustrations. Twin Vision is a trademarked name owned by the AAF.
Subseries 3: Braille Reading Contest, 1991-2005
Correspondence, reports, administrative files, ribbons, and prizes connected to the Braille Readers Are Leaders (K-12) and Braille Pals (Pre-K) contests managed by the AAF to promote the use of Braille by children.

Series 5: Publication Drafts and Working Files, 1964-2003

This series contains correspondence, working files, and artwork associated with publications issued by the AAF.
Subseries 1: Hot-Line to Deaf-Blind, 1964-1997
Correspondence related to Hot-Line to the Deaf-Blind, a free current news publication written for the deaf-blind community using material taken directly from wire services and traditional print news sources.
Subseries 2: Brochures, pamphlets, and other ephemeral publications, circa 1980-2003
Correspondence and working files related to brochures, handbooks, and individual publications produced by the AAF.
Subseries 3: Artwork, circa 1989-1992, undated
Stationery, folders, logos, forms, proof copies, camera ready copies, templates, graphics, and artwork for long- and short-term publications created by the AAF.

Series 6: Publications, 1967-2004

Some materials in Braille.
Newsletters, magazines, books, articles, brochures, pamphlets, and other ephemeral publications produced by the AAF. Materials include Braille calendars, Hot-line to the Deaf-blind, and Action Line, a quarterly newsletter. Some materials are recorded on audio cassette.
Copyright of materials is owned by the AAF.

Series 7: Publicity, 1977-1992

Correspondence and news clippings related to the activities of the AAF.

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Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund Record Group 4: Jacobus tenBroek Memorial Fund (JtB), 1968-1994

Series 1: Artwork, undated

This series contains examples of stationery and logos used by the JtB.

Series 2: Building, circa 1972-1973, 1986-1994

This series holds records associated with the maintenance and renovation of the headquarters of the NFB. Also includes tactile blueprints for the Randolph Hotel in Des Moines, Iowa, which served as the headquarters of the NFB from 1970-1979. Blue prints and engineering drawings of the current NFB headquarters in Baltimore, MD, are held by Facilities Management and may not be available to researchers. Please consult with archives staff for further information.
Subseries 1: Renovations, circa 1986-1994, undated
Correspondence, meeting minutes, orders, photographs and negatives documenting renovations made to the NFB headquarters in Baltimore, MD.

Series 3: Correspondence, 1968-1988

Correspondence, insurance policies, and financial reports related to the management of the NFB headquarters.
Subseries 1: Property and Liability Insurance, 1968-1988
Correspondence and insurance policies for various insurance plans associated with the maintenance and coverage of the building, including property, business, workers compensation, and liability.

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