Jacobus tenBroek Library
...The research library on blindness that is owned and controlled by the blind themselves
Disability Law Symposium | Walking Alone and Marching Together | Exhibits
Plans for the Future of the tenBroek Library
The Jacobus tenBroek Library welcomes researchers interested in non-medical aspects of blindness. Our collections cover areas including (but not limited to):
- education of blind children
- disability law and policy
- the history of attitudes toward the blind
- rehabilitation methods and practices
- technologies developed by and for the blind
- blind achievers in science and the arts
- fiction with blind characters
- depictions of the blind in children's books
- literary works by blind authors
We provide facilities for using our collections, regardless of format, by both sighted and blind readers.
Access to our resources
THE CANE TIP is the database for finding aids that describe manuscript and archival collections held by the Jacobus tenBroek Library. These include the Personal and Professional papers of Jacobus tenBroek, the NFB Institutional Archives, and several smaller collections.
The most significant single resource of the tenBroek Library is the Professional and Personal Papers of Jacobus tenBroek. Dr. tenBroek (1911-1968) was a towering figure in many areas. The NFB as he built it in the 1940s and 1950s adumbrated many of the features of today’s disability rights movement, most importantly by asserting that blind must speak for themselves as consumers and as a demographic minority that experiences discrimination. A graduate of the University of California School of Law (Boalt Hall), tenBroek earned additional graduate degrees in both law and political science. His scholarly interests centered around constitutional notions of “rights” and he is credited with helping to refine the idea of rights in the post-World War II era. In addition to disability rights, his writings have proved central to civil rights law and welfare rights law. His 1958 book, Prejudice, War, and the Constitution is regarded as the definitive critique of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to allow the federal government to relocate Japanese Americans during the World War II.
TenBroek served on the faculty of the University of California from 1942 until his death. As a university professor, he stood strongly in favor of academic freedom, opposing the loyalty oath during the 1950s, and supporting the student Free Speech Movement in 1964. Simultaneously with his social activism and scholarly work tenBroek was a member and, for a period, chairman of the California Social Welfare Board.
The Jacobus tenBroek papers—consisting largely of typed and printed documents, but with a significant portion in grade 3 Braille—is a major primary resource for research on any of his personal and professional interests.
The Jernigan Institute looks after the history of blind people in many ways, including collecting NFB literature, maintaining the Federation's archives, and building the tenBroek Library. We also recognize that much of the history of the blind resides in the lived experience of the blind, and we are committed to recording that history.
Thanks to a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (a division of the United States National Archives), we have completed the basic processing of the tenBroek Papers and the NFB Archives (ink-print and Braille). In addition to access through THE CANE TIP, finding aids for these two collections are available in the following formats:
- tenBroek Papers Finding Aid (Word)
- tenBroek Papers Finding Aid (HTML)
- Guide to the National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records (Word)
- Guide to the National Federation of the Blind Institutional Records (HTML)
We are soliciting the personal and professional papers of other blind leaders, of blind and sighted inventors who have contributed to the blind, and of blind people in any walk of life. These are key sources on the history of blind people and the organized blind movement in the United States.
THE BLIND CAT is the online public catalog of our published materials (textual and musical). Established in 2004, the Jacobus tenBroek Library is currently engaged in a large scale acquisitions program (both retrospective and current). The scope of its published materials—largely in print, but also in talking book, Braille, and digital formats—extends to all facets (except the medical) of blindness and the lives of blind people. We encourage users of THE BLIND CAT to let us know of books or other publications that are within our scope, that we do not yet own.
The tenBroek Library also holds—and makes available to researchers—extensive collections of archival photographs, sound recordings, and audiovisual material. At this time there is no public catalog or finding aid of this material. We will, however, happily respond to inquiries by mail, phone, or e-mail.
What do we really know about the prevalence of blindness in the U.S. and the educational, health, and employment status of blind people? Find out the latest statistics on the prevalence and demographics of blindness in the US on our statistics page.
The tenBroek Library serves as a repository of the history of the organized blind by collecting NFB literature and maintaining the Federation's archives. The Jernigan Institute also recognizes that much of the history of the blind resides in the lived experience of the blind, and we are committed to recording that history.
From time to time Federationists have tapped the memories of their friends and colleagues by conducting interviews. The tenBroek Library is now formalizing this activity through the Jernigan Institute Oral History Program. We are organizing the existing recordings of oral history interviews, and we are encouraging Federationists to create more such recordings. To help get you started we have prepared a Guide to Oral History Interviewing, a release form, and a sample oral history transcript.
Please take a look at these documents, try your hand at oral history, and let us know of your results, including any problems and, of course, any gems you may unearth!
In 1829 the twenty-year-old Louis Braille first published his idea of using dots as the basis of a tactile alphabet. Braille, who had been blind from the age of three, had recently finished his schooling at the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris and was earning his living as a part-time teacher and church organist.
The Jernigan Institute was fortunate in being able to borrow a rare copy of Procédé pour Écrire les Paroles, la Musique et le Plain-Chant au Moyen de Points à l'Usage des Aveugles et Disposé pour Eux in time for the celebration of Braille's 200th birthday in 2009. Our staff took photos of the each page of this embossed book, transcribed the French original, and translated the text into English.
Now, for the first time on the Web, we are pleased to present the book that first made true literacy possible for the blind.
We are in the process of providing links from records in our catalog to full-text digital editions of all items that are either in the public domain, or for which we have permission. Since the Jernigan Institute is an "authorized entity" under the Chafee Amendment, we are able to provide eligible readers with accessible digital files of copyrighted material. Please contact us if you have questions about this program.
We are planning to provide online access to portions of our archive collections. Many NFB publications are already available in full-text.
To carry forward the work of Dr. tenBroek in assuring that all citizens may have the opportunity for full participation in the society in which we live, the National Federation of the Blind hosts the Jacobus tenBroek Disability Law Symposium. During the symposium participants examine the current status of both American and international disability law and discuss future change in the disability law of the United States.
To learn more about Jacobus tenBroek, consider the following articles:
- Jacobus tenBroek centennial issue of the Braille Monitor, July 2011
- The Right to Live in the World: The Disabled in the Law of Torts, by Jacobus tenBroek (California Law Review, May 1966)
The half-century history of the NFB is now available. Listen to the book Walking Alone and Marching Together in MP3 format. The entire book is available in thirty parts.
The Library offers exhibits highlighting technological and personal achievements by the blind. Currently on display:
- Everest Expedition - Explore the tactile exhibit dedicated to the NFB-sponsored Everest Expedition featuring Erik Weihenmayer's 2001 ascent of Mount Everest.
- Rocket Launch - Find out about the first ever NASA rocket launched by blind students.
- Youth Slam Tiles - Inspect the tiles inspired by the experiences of the participants of the 2007 Youth Slam.
- The crooked white cane Jacobus tenBroek used before he was introduced it the (straight) long white cane.
- Louis Braille Commemorative Silver Dollar.
- The two coins that were sent into space on a 2009 shuttle mission. These are proof coins and cannot be inspected tactilely, but we have a copy of the NASA certificate in Braille to which are affixed two Louis Braille coins that may be touched.
- Twenty-five-square-foot tactile mural honoring the Louis Braille bicentennial, the commemorative coin, and the coins’ trip into space.
- Scale models of the Jernigan Institute (available for visual or tactile inspection).
- Tactile floor plans of the Jernigan Institute building.
- Scale models of other notable buildings from around the world.
- Tactile/visual exhibit on radio astronomy, presented by NASA to the Jernigan Institute.
- A portion of Helen Keller’s personal Braille library.
- Examples of books in other tactile formats.
For More Information
Jacobus tenBroek Library
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND
200 East Wells Street
at Jernigan Place
Baltimore, MD 21230
Phone: (410) 659-9314
Fax: (410) 685-2340