National Reading Media Assessment: Complete Report

Edward C. Bell, Ph.D., Jessica V. Ewell, Natalia M. Mino

Preferred Citation

Bell, E. C., Ewell, J. V., & Mino, N. M. (2013). National reading media assessment: Complete report. Journal of Blindness Innovation and Research, 3(2). Retrieved from doi:


Obtaining the appropriate reading media to effectively compete in school and to be prepared for the future is among the most important decisions that must be made in the educational career of a youth who is blind or visually impaired. To do this, a clear and accurate assessment of the youth’s ability to effectively read in print must be performed to determine whether and when braille should be considered as an educational intervention. Many professionals in the field of work with the blind have reported that existing Learning Media Assessments have failed to achieve their stated purpose. This manuscript documents the need for, development, pilot testing and validation of the National Reading Media Assessment (NRMA). Finding support the efficacy of this tool in making the decision to recommend print, braille, or dual media for pre-reading youth and those in kindergarten through 12th grade.

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